A World Lit Only By Fire 1. Deaths in alehouse brawls, during bouts with staves.

60 nights hacked to death in a single tournament. 2. This is a paradox because the church teaches the exact opposite- to love thy neighbor as thyself. 3. Saint Jean Baptise de la Salle was the leading theologian of the day. 4. Henry was excommunicated costing him his reputation. 5. They could help their followers in times of desperation and could provide comfort. 6. A recommendation is made to the pope based on a person·s life style and merits and there is a formal legal process to actually make someone a saint. 7. In the course of the Christianization of Europe in the Early Middle Ages, the Christian churches adopted many elements of national cult and folk religion, resulting in national churches. 8. The peasants did not know much about the Great Schism as they were not part of society and resided at the bottom of the food chain and were not privy to such information. 9. Peasants or serfs during the middle ages were at the very bottom of the hierarchy- the were bound to the land and their boss. 10. The Renaissance challenged the church because the church had a vested interest in things like scientific discoveries (as some contradicted the Church·s teachings) so when new inventions and discoveries emerged from the Renaissance; it challenged the church and its teachings. 11. Manchester is right when using the dark ages because it can refer to an actual lack of light, which there was and it was also considered a dim time in European history but the term has been abandoned because of the ´unacceptable value judgment it implies.µ 12. The practice of buying and selling positions within the church. 13. An indulgence is the full or partial remission of temporal punishment due for sins, which have already been forgiven. The church grants it after the sinner has confessed and received absolution. 14. Nepotism in the church occurred when leaders like bishops would give their nephews positions in the church- also the pope would appoint his relatives to be cardinals. 15. Father Girolamo Savonarola was a priest who vehemently preached against the corruption in the clergy and was excommunicated by Pope Alexander VI as a result. He was ultimately executed.

16. The Holy Roman Empire was a group of medieval states in Central Europe, where the King was crowned and the coronation of the King was a ceremony given by the Pope and the Pope at that time was crowned the King. 17. Punishment was set by nobility and the criminal would have to rely on his/her family for food and necessities. 18. Jakob Fugger was a prominent banker. 19. Peasant life was hard. Very little food, laborious farm work, time intensive work around the property of the owner, and little communication with the outside world. 20. A superstition is what ´every child was taught that the air all around them was infested with invisible, soulless spirits, some benign buy most of them evil, dangerous, long-lived, and had to kill; that among them were the souls of un-baptized infants, etc.µ 21. Travel was slow and time consuming and hard! Highwaymen were a big threat to travelers as they were thieves, killers and kidnappers. In result, travelers carried weapons of their own. 22. Girls as young as 12 and boys as young as 17. 23. Loyalty in marriages and relationships was not a common theme. 24. He was annoyed by his theory of an earth-centered universe because it was not what he believed. 25. Gutenberg improved on the invention of moveable type. 26. Over half the male population was illiterate and it·s estimated that 89% of women were illiterate. 27. Grammar, rhetoric, and dialectics. 28. The leading humanist was Niccolo Machiavelli who believed the end justifies the means. He penned the book The Prince. 29. Galileo and Pico claimed that the Earth moved around the Sun and that there were other planets that did so as well. That was not the opinion of the Catholic Church at that time which considered the Earth to be the center of the Universe that God had created. 30. Erasmus attacked the traditions of the Catholic Church. 31. The 95 Thesis outlined issues Luther saw in the church including the selling of indulgences. 32. German- he wanted the bible and criticism of it to be in the vernacular

33. The church took power away from secular leaders- because the church·s entity held so much power, when Luther criticized it, it shifted people·s affirmation to the church·s leaders to secular ones. 34. The concern of predestination 36. Charles V wanted to take over the Roman Empire 37. Defender of the Faith 38. When Henry wanted to annul his marriage, the pope did not allow it so the King started the Anglican Church so he could annul his marriage. 39. Between 10 and 20% 40. More was a saint, lawyer, author and statesman. He opposed reformation and refused to attend the King·s wedding to Anne Boleyn and was executed as Henry took it as a snub against Boleyn.

I don·t think Magellan was the mightiest explorer in history as the author suggests. Not to at all discredit his accomplishments. At the time what he discovered and explored was revolutionary- the Strait of Magellan was a groundbreaking discovery. In retrospect, men have explored the moon without ever being there which to me is more amazing than Magellan discovered.

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