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Math-2451-501 Multivariable Calculus Summer 2010

Homework 2
Due on: June 9, 2010.

Name:

Instructions: Please solve all the following problems. Show all your work in a clear and organized fashion.
You may use your textbook and notes. Work on your own and do not discuss the problems with your
classmates or anyone else. Please let me know if you have any questions concerning the problems or if you
need some hints.

1. Use a system of inequalities to describe the region in the plane that is bounded by the parallelogram
with vertices (1; 5); ( 5; 1); (7; 4); and (1; 8):

2. Use spherical coordinates and a system of inequalities to describe the region in space that is the part
of the solid unit ball, centered at the origin, in the …rst octant. The …rst octant is where all three coordinates
are positive.

3. Let f : R2 ! R be de…ned by setting

0 if (x; y) = (0; 0)
f (x; y) = xy :
x2 +y 2 if (x; y) 6= (0; 0)

@f @f
(a) Find @x (x; y) and @y (x; y) when (x; y) 6= (0; 0).
@f @f
(b) Use the de…nition of the partial derivative to …nd @x (0; 0); @y (0; 0); and the Jacobian matrix

@f @f
M= (0; 0) (0; 0)
@x @y

of f at (0; 0):
(c) Find
h
f ((0; 0) + (h; h)) f (0; 0) M
h
lim ;
(h;h)!(0;0) k(h; h)k
where M is the Jacobian matrix found in (b). Is f di¤erentiable at (0; 0)?
(d) Is f continuous at (0; 0)?

4. De…ne f : R2 ! R by f (x; y) = jxyj


(a) Show that f is di¤erentiable at (0; 0)
(b) Suppose A R2 is an open set containing the origin. Show that @f @x is not continuous on A. (Hint:
It su¢ ces to show that there is (a1 ; a2 ) 2 A such that @f
@x (a1 ; a 2 ) is unde…ned.)

5. Show that if M is an m n matrix then kM (h)k khk for some 2 R by estimating kM (h)k in
terms of the entries of M. (Hint:
M (h) = y = (y1 ; ; ym )
n
where yi = mi h for some mi 2 R . Now use the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality.)

6. Let A Rn be open. Suppose f is di¤erentiable on A. Use problem 5 to show that if f is di¤erentiable


at a 2 A then f is continuous at a.

7. Let f : R2 ! R be a function given as follows


x2 y 2
f (x; y) = x2 + 3y 2 e1

1
(a) Find Df (x; y) and equation of the tangent plane to the graph of f at the point (0; 1; 3).
(b) Find all solutions to the following system of equations.
(
@f
@x = 0
@f
@y = 0

8. Let f : R3 ! R be a function given by

f (x; y; z) = 3(x 1)2 + 2(y + 1)2 (z 2)2

and let S = f(x; y; z) 2 R3 j f (x; y; z) = 1g be the level surface of the function f at value c = 1:
(a) Find the points (x0 ; y0 ; z0 ) on S with the property that the gradient rf (x0 ; y0 ; z0 ) is parallel to the
vector v = 3i 2j + k:
(b) Write an equation of the tangent plane to S at each point (x0 ; y0 ; z0 ) found in part a):

9. Let f and g be functions from R3 to R. Suppose f is di¤erentiable and rf (x) = g (x) x. Show that
spheres centered at the origin are contained in the level sets for f ; that is, f is constant on such spheres.
(Hint: Let c(t) = (x(t); y(t); z(t)) be a smooth path in

S 2 (a) = fx 2 R3 : kxk = ag:


2
Observe kc(t)k = a2 then di¤erentiate both sides of this equality.)

10. Let f : R3 ! R and x0 = (x0 ; y0 ; z0 ). Regard Df (x0 ) as a linear map from R3 to R. Suppose

Df (x0 ) 6= 0 0 0 :

Let ker (Df (x0 )) denote the kernel of Df (x0 ); that is, the set of vectors mapped to zero.
(a) Show that ker (Df (x0 )) is the plane in R3 orthogonal to rf (x0 ).
(b) Let f and S be de…ned as in problem 8. Call ker (Df (x0 )) the tangent space of the surface S at
x0 2 S. Find ker (Df (x0 )) for one of the x0 found in problem 8 (a). Conclude that the tangent space does
not necessarily equal the tangent plane.