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Brian Streit

Math 2451

Section 3.3 Selected Solutions

2. If f (x; y) = x2 + y 2 xy then
(
@f
@x = 2x y=0
:
@f
@y = 2y x=0

Twice the second row plus the …rst yields y = 0 which implies x = 0 so (0; 0) is
the only critical point. We compute

@2f @2f @2f


= 2; = 2; = 1
@x2 @y 2 @x@y
so that
2
@2f @2f @2f
D= = 3:
@x2 @y 2 @x@y
@2f
Since D > 0 and @x2 > 0 at (0; 0) we conclude that (0; 0) is a local minimum.

4. If f (x; y) = x2 + y 2 + 3xy then


(
@f
@x = 2x + 3y = 0 :
@f
@y = 2y + 3x = 0

Since 23 row 2 + row 1 yields y = 0 so (0; 0) is the only critical point. We


compute
@2f @2f @2f
= 2; = 2; =3
@x2 @y 2 @x@y
so that
2
@2f @2f @2f
D= = 5:
@x2 @y 2 @x@y
Since D < 0 at (0; 0) we conclude that (0; 0) is a saddle point.

6. If f (x; y) = x2 3xy + 5x 2y + 6y 2 + 8 then


(
@f
@x = 2x 3y + 5 = 0
or
2 3 x
=
5
:
@f
@y = 12y 3x 2 = 0 3 12 y 2

We compute
1 4 1
2 3 5 5
= 1 2
3 12 5 15

1
so that
4 1 18
x 5 5 5 5
= 1 2 = 11
y 5 15 2 15

is the only critical point. We compute

@2f @2f @2f


= 2; = 12; = 3
@x2 @y 2 @x@y
so that
2
@2f @2f @2f
D= = 15:
@x2 @y 2 @x@y
@2f 18 18 18 18
Since D > 0 and @x2 > 0 at 5 ; 5 we conclude that 5 ; 5 is a local
minimum.

8. If f (x; y) = sin x2 + y 2 then


(
@f 2 2
@x = 2x cos x + y =0
@f 2 2
@y = 2y cos x + y = 0

when (x; y) = (0; 0). We were asked to only consider this critical point. We
compute

@2f
= 2 cos x2 + y 2 4x2 sin x2 + y 2 ;
@x2
@2f
= 2 cos x2 + y 2 4y 2 sin x2 + y 2 ;
@y 2
@2f
= 4xy sin x2 + y 2
@x@y
so that
@2f @2f @2f
2
(0; 0) = 2
(0; 0) = 2 and (0; 0) = 0:
@x @y @x@y
@2f
Since D = 4 > 0 and @x2 > 0 at (0; 0) we conclude that (0; 0) is a local minimum.

10. Let f (x; y) = y + x sin y. We …nd


(
@f
@x = sin y = 0 .
@f
@y = 1 + x cos y = 0

Since sin y = 0 when y = k , k 2 Z, we have


1 k k+1
x= = ( 1) = ( 1) :
cos k
We compute

2
@2f @2f @2f
2
= 0; 2 = x sin y; = cos y:
@x @y @x@y
k+1
So at (( 1) ; k ) we have
2 2
@2f @2f @2f @2f
D= = < 0:
@x2 @y 2 @x@y @x@y
Therefore all the critical points are saddle points.

11. If f (x; y) = ex cos y then


(
@f
@x = ex cos y = 0
@f .
@y = ex sin y = 0

But ex > 0 for all x 2 R and cos y = 0 implies sin y 6= 0 so there are no critical
points.
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13. Suppose f (x; y) = xy + x + y1 . We …nd
(
@f 1
@x =y x2 =0
@f 1 .
@y =x y2 =0

So x2 y = 1 and y 2 x = 1. Subtracting these equations yields xy (x y) = 0.


Since x 6= 0 and y 6= 0 we have x = y. Then x3 = 1 so x = 1 and our only
critical point is (1; 1). We compute
@2f 2 @2f 2 @2f
= ; = ; = 1:
@x2 x3 @y 2 y 3 @x@y
@2f
Then at (1; 1) we have D = 3 > 1. Since @x2 = 2 > 0 at (1; 1) we conclude that
(1; 1) is a local minimum.

14. Let f (x; y) = log (2 + sin xy). We …nd


(
@f y cos xy
@x = 2+sin xy = 0
@f x cos xy .
@y = 2+sin xy = 0

So x = y = 0 or xy = 2k+1
2 . We see our critical points are (0; 0) and (x; 2k+1
2x )
for x 6= 0. Now we compute
@2f y 2 sin xy(2 + sin xy) y 2 cos2 xy
= 4 ;
@x2 (2 + sin xy)
@2f x sin xy(2 + sin xy) x2 cos2 xy
2
= 4 ;
@y 2 (2 + sin xy)
@2f (cos xy xy sin xy) (2 + sin xy) xy cos2 xy
= 4 :
@y@x (2 + sin xy)

3
1
At (0; 0) we have D = 64 < 0 so (0; 0) is a saddle point. We see that
k
sin 2k+1
2 = ( 1) so
!
2 2
1 2k + 1 2k + 1
D= 6 =0
k 2 2
2 + ( 1)

and our test is inconclusive. However, log x is strictly increasing when x > 0.
d
Indeed, dx log x = x1 > 0 for x > 0. Since 2 + sin xy > 0, f is strictly increasing.
Since 1 sin xy 1, we see that f attains a minimum of log (1) = 0 when k
is odd and a maximum of log (3) when k is even.

15. If f (x; y) = x sin y then


(
@f
@x = sin y = 0 .
@f
@y = x cos y = 0

Since sin y = 0 when y = k , k 2 Z and cos y 6= 0 when y = k , our critical


points are (0; k ). We compute
@2f @2f @2f
2
= 0; 2 = x sin y; = cos y:
@x @y @x@y
At (0; k ) we see D < 0 and therefore our critical points are all saddle points.

18. If f (x; y) = x2 + y 2 + kxy then


(
@f
@x = 2x + ky = 0 :
@f
@y = 2y + ky = 0
2
From here we see that x = ky 2 and 2y + kx = 0 give us 2y +
k y
2 = 0 or
y(4 k 2 ) = 0. Therefore, we only have critical points when y = 0 or jkj = 2.
If y = 0 then x = 0 so we have a critical point at (0; 0). We compute
2
@2f @2f @2f
D= =4 k2 :
@x2 @y 2 @x@y
If jkj = 2 then D = 0 so our test is inconclusive. If jkj > 2 then D < 0 so (0; 0)
2
is a saddle point. If 2 < k < 2 then D > 0 and since @@xf2 = 2 > 0 we see that
(0; 0) is a minimum. Now, if k = 2 then we have critical points along the line
y = x. These critical points are minimums since when k = 2 we have
2
f (x; y) = x2 + y 2 + 2xy = (x + y) 0
and equality holds only when y = x. Similarly, if k = 2 then we have critical
points along the line y = x and these are minimums since when k = 2 we have
2
f (x; y) = x2 + y 2 + 2xy = (x y) 0
and equality holds only when y = x.

Here k = 2 so f (x; y) = x2 + y 2 2xy

4
4

-4 -2z 00 0 -2 -4
2 2 4
4
-2
y x
-4

Here k = 0 so f (x; y) = x2 + y 2

2
4 -4
z2 0
0 0
-2
2 -2
4 -2 -4
x y
-4

Here k = 1 so f (x; y) = x2 + y 2 + xy

5
4
4 2
-4
2 -2
z 0
0 0
2 -2 -2
4 x -4 y
-4

Here, k = 2 so f (x; y) = x2 + y 2 + 2xy

4 z2 0
0 0-2 -2 -4
4 2
-4
-2
x y
-4

Here, k = 4 so f (x; y) = x2 + y 2 + 4xy

6
4
4
2 2
x 0 0 z -4
-2
4 2 -2 0
-2
-4y
-4

20. Let f (x; y) = Ax2 + E with A; E 2 R. We consider the system


(
@f
@x = 2Ax = 0 .
@f
@y = 0

Since 2Ax = 0 if and only ifA = 0 or x = 0, we have critical points of the form
(0; y) for any y 2 R if A 6= 0 and all of R2 are critical points if A = 0. Now, we
compute
2
@2f @2f @2f
D= = 2A(0) 0 = 0
@x2 @y 2 @x@y
so this test is inconclusive. However, we observe that if A = 0 then our function
f (x; y) = E is just a constant function. If A 6= 0 then the critical points are the
line x = 0. The points are local minimums if A > 0 since f does not depend
on y and
Ax2 + E = f (x) > f (0) = E
for x 6= 0. Similarly, we see that the critical points are local maximums if
A < 0.

25. Using 120 = x + y + z we see that z = 120 x y. So, we must


maximize

g(x; y; z) = xy + xz + yz = f (x; y) = xy + x (120 x y) + y (120 x y) :

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We …nd the critical values of f by solving the system
(
@f
@x = 3x + 120 = 0
.
@f
@y = 3y + 120 = 0

So x = y = 40 and therefore z = 40. Since this is the only critical point, it


must be our desired maximum.

26. Since f is a quadratic function, we know that

f (x; y) = ax2 + 2bxy + cy 2

for some a; b; c 2 R. We compute

Df (x; y) = (2ax + 2by; 2cy + 2bx)

and

Df (x; y) (h1 ; h2 ) = (2ax+2by; 2cy+2bx) (h1 ; h2 ) = 2axh1 +2bxh2 +2byh1 +2cyh2 :


@2f @2f @2f
Since @x2 = 2a, @y@x = 2b and @y 2 = 2c, we see that

1 2a 2b h1
Hf (x; y)(h1 ; h2 ) = h1 h2
2 2b 2c h2
= ah21 + 2bh1 h2 + ch22 = f (h1 ; h2 ):

We …nd that the second order Taylor expansion of f about (x; y) is

f ((x; y) + (h1 ; h2 )) = f ((x; y) + Df (x; y) (h1 ; h2 ) + Hf (x; y)(h1 ; h2 )


+R2 ((x; y)(h1 ; h2 ))

but
2 2
f ((x; y) + (h1 ; h2 )) = a (x + h1 ) + 2b (x + h1 ) (y + h2 ) + c (y + h2 )
= ax2 + 2bxy + 2axh1 + 2bxh2 + cy 2 + 2byh1 + 2cyh2
+ah21 + 2bh1 h2 + ch22
1
= f (x; y) + Df (x; y) (h1 ; h2 ) + Hf (x; y)(h1 ; h2 )
2
so R2 ((x; y)(h1 ; h2 )) = 0. This is true for any quadratic function. Now, if
(x; y) is a critical point of f then we have

Df (x; y) = (2ax + 2by; 2cy + 2bx) = (0; 0)

and
ax + by = 0
) b2 ca y = 0
cy + bx = 0

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Since
2a 2b
D= = 4ac 4b2 < 0 ) ac b2 < 0;
2b 2c
our critical point must be such that y = 0. But then x = 0; so our only critical
point is (0; 0). Since f (0; 0) = 0, it remains to be shown that there is some
(x; y) such that f (x; y) > 0 and some (x; y) such that f (x; y) < 0. First suppose
a = 0. If a = 0 then c 6= 0 since ac b2 < 0 and
2
b b2 2
f (x; y) = 2bxy + cy 2 = c y + x x
c c

by completing the square. For x 6= 0

b b2 2
f (x; x) = x
c c
b
so that the sign of f (x; c x) is the opposite of the sign of c. Suppose c > 0.
Then f (x; cb x) < 0 but

b b2
f (x; x) = 3 x2 > 0;
c c
as desired. We argue analagously for a = 0 and c < 0. So suppose a 6= 0. We
complete the square on f to obtain

by 2 b2 2
f (x; y) = a(x + ) + (c )y :
a a
Let y 6= 0. We compute

b b2 2
f( y; y) = (c )y :
a a
But
b2 ac b2
c = :
a a
Since D < 0 implies ac b2 < 0, we see that the sign of f ( ab y; y) is the
opposite of the sign of a. If a > 0 then f ( ab y; y) < 0 but f (y; 0) > 0, as
desired. Similarly, if a < 0 then f ( ab y; y) > 0 but f (y; 0) < 0, thereby
exhausting all cases and completing our proof.

28. Let n be an integer greater than 2 and set f (x; y) = axn + cy n , where
ac 6= 0. We …nd the critical points of f by solving the system
(
@f n 1
@x = anx =0 xn 1 = 0
@f , , x = y = 0.
@y = cny
n 1
=0 yn 1 = 0

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Now,

an(n 1)xn 2
0
D= = acn2 (n 1)2 xn 2 n 2
y
0 cn(n 1)y n 2

so D = 0 at (x; y) = (0; 0) and our test is inconclusive. Therefore, we compare


the values of f near (0; 0) with f (0; 0) = 0. Suppose n is even. We observe
that
f (x; y) > 0 if a > 0; c > 0 and (x; y) 6= (0; 0):
In this case, (0; 0) is a minimum. Similarly,

f (x; y) < 0 if a < 0; c < 0 and (x; y) 6= 0

so (0; 0) is a maximum. Now, if a > 0 and c < 0 then

f (x; 0) = axn > 0 for x 6= 0

but
f (0; y) = cy n < 0 for y 6= 0
so (0; 0) is a saddle point. We similarly see that (0; 0) is a saddle point if a < 0
and c > 0. Next, suppose n is odd. If a > 0 then

f (x; 0) = axn > 0 for x > 0

but
f (x; 0) = axn < 0 for x < 0
so (0; 0) is a saddle point. Similarly, if a < 0 then

f (x; 0) = axn < 0 for x > 0

but
f (x; 0) = axn > 0 for x < 0
so (0; 0) is a saddle point. This completes our analysis.

34. De…ne the rectangle R by 1 x 1 and 1 y 1. Clearly

1 f (x; y) = xy 1

for (x; y) 2 R so that the absolute minimum and maximum of f on R are 1


and 1, respectively.

36. Suppose u 2 C 2 (D) and

@2u @2u
r2 u = + 2 > 0:
@x2 @y

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Suppose towards a contradiction that u(x0 ; y0 ) is a maximum on Dn@D. Then
u(x0 ; y0 ) u(x; y) for every (x; y) in Dn@D. In particular, u(x0 ; y0 ) u(x0 ; y)
for every y such that x20 + y 2 < 1. If
q q
1 x20 y 1 x20

or, equivalently, if q
jyj < 1 x20

and f (y) = u(x0 ; y) then f is a C 2 curve in Dn@D. Therefore attains a


2 2
maximum at y0 . That is, @@yf2 (y0 ) 0 where @@yf2 = 0 if f is constant and
@2f
@y 2 < 0 otherwise. But, by assumption,

@2f @2u
(y) = (x0 ; y) > 0;
@y 2 @y 2
a contradiction.

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