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Brian Streit Math 2451 Section 3.3 Selected Solutions 2. If f (x; y) = x2 + y 2 xy then ( @f @x = 2x @f @y = 2y
y=0 : x=0
Twice the second row plus the …rst yields y = 0 which implies x = 0 so (0; 0) is the only critical point. We compute @2f @2f @2f = 2; 2 = 2; = @x2 @y @x@y so that D= Since D > 0 and
@2f @x2
1
2
@2f @x2
@2f @y 2
@2f @x@y
= 3:
> 0 at (0; 0) we conclude that (0; 0) is a local minimum.
4. If f (x; y) = x2 + y 2 + 3xy then ( @f @x = 2x + 3y = 0 : @f @y = 2y + 3x = 0 Since

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Math 2451

2. If f (x; y) = x2 + y 2 xy then

(

@f

@x = 2x y=0

:

@f

@y = 2y x=0

Twice the second row plus the …rst yields y = 0 which implies x = 0 so (0; 0) is

the only critical point. We compute

= 2; = 2; = 1

@x2 @y 2 @x@y

so that

2

@2f @2f @2f

D= = 3:

@x2 @y 2 @x@y

@2f

Since D > 0 and @x2 > 0 at (0; 0) we conclude that (0; 0) is a local minimum.

(

@f

@x = 2x + 3y = 0 :

@f

@y = 2y + 3x = 0

compute

@2f @2f @2f

= 2; = 2; =3

@x2 @y 2 @x@y

so that

2

@2f @2f @2f

D= = 5:

@x2 @y 2 @x@y

Since D < 0 at (0; 0) we conclude that (0; 0) is a saddle point.

(

@f

@x = 2x 3y + 5 = 0

or

2 3 x

=

5

:

@f

@y = 12y 3x 2 = 0 3 12 y 2

We compute

1 4 1

2 3 5 5

= 1 2

3 12 5 15

1

so that

4 1 18

x 5 5 5 5

= 1 2 = 11

y 5 15 2 15

= 2; = 12; = 3

@x2 @y 2 @x@y

so that

2

@2f @2f @2f

D= = 15:

@x2 @y 2 @x@y

@2f 18 18 18 18

Since D > 0 and @x2 > 0 at 5 ; 5 we conclude that 5 ; 5 is a local

minimum.

(

@f 2 2

@x = 2x cos x + y =0

@f 2 2

@y = 2y cos x + y = 0

when (x; y) = (0; 0). We were asked to only consider this critical point. We

compute

@2f

= 2 cos x2 + y 2 4x2 sin x2 + y 2 ;

@x2

@2f

= 2 cos x2 + y 2 4y 2 sin x2 + y 2 ;

@y 2

@2f

= 4xy sin x2 + y 2

@x@y

so that

@2f @2f @2f

2

(0; 0) = 2

(0; 0) = 2 and (0; 0) = 0:

@x @y @x@y

@2f

Since D = 4 > 0 and @x2 > 0 at (0; 0) we conclude that (0; 0) is a local minimum.

(

@f

@x = sin y = 0 .

@f

@y = 1 + x cos y = 0

1 k k+1

x= = ( 1) = ( 1) :

cos k

We compute

2

@2f @2f @2f

2

= 0; 2 = x sin y; = cos y:

@x @y @x@y

k+1

So at (( 1) ; k ) we have

2 2

@2f @2f @2f @2f

D= = < 0:

@x2 @y 2 @x@y @x@y

Therefore all the critical points are saddle points.

(

@f

@x = ex cos y = 0

@f .

@y = ex sin y = 0

But ex > 0 for all x 2 R and cos y = 0 implies sin y 6= 0 so there are no critical

points.

1

13. Suppose f (x; y) = xy + x + y1 . We …nd

(

@f 1

@x =y x2 =0

@f 1 .

@y =x y2 =0

Since x 6= 0 and y 6= 0 we have x = y. Then x3 = 1 so x = 1 and our only

critical point is (1; 1). We compute

@2f 2 @2f 2 @2f

= ; = ; = 1:

@x2 x3 @y 2 y 3 @x@y

@2f

Then at (1; 1) we have D = 3 > 1. Since @x2 = 2 > 0 at (1; 1) we conclude that

(1; 1) is a local minimum.

(

@f y cos xy

@x = 2+sin xy = 0

@f x cos xy .

@y = 2+sin xy = 0

So x = y = 0 or xy = 2k+1

2 . We see our critical points are (0; 0) and (x; 2k+1

2x )

for x 6= 0. Now we compute

@2f y 2 sin xy(2 + sin xy) y 2 cos2 xy

= 4 ;

@x2 (2 + sin xy)

@2f x sin xy(2 + sin xy) x2 cos2 xy

2

= 4 ;

@y 2 (2 + sin xy)

@2f (cos xy xy sin xy) (2 + sin xy) xy cos2 xy

= 4 :

@y@x (2 + sin xy)

3

1

At (0; 0) we have D = 64 < 0 so (0; 0) is a saddle point. We see that

k

sin 2k+1

2 = ( 1) so

!

2 2

1 2k + 1 2k + 1

D= 6 =0

k 2 2

2 + ( 1)

and our test is inconclusive. However, log x is strictly increasing when x > 0.

d

Indeed, dx log x = x1 > 0 for x > 0. Since 2 + sin xy > 0, f is strictly increasing.

Since 1 sin xy 1, we see that f attains a minimum of log (1) = 0 when k

is odd and a maximum of log (3) when k is even.

(

@f

@x = sin y = 0 .

@f

@y = x cos y = 0

points are (0; k ). We compute

@2f @2f @2f

2

= 0; 2 = x sin y; = cos y:

@x @y @x@y

At (0; k ) we see D < 0 and therefore our critical points are all saddle points.

(

@f

@x = 2x + ky = 0 :

@f

@y = 2y + ky = 0

2

From here we see that x = ky 2 and 2y + kx = 0 give us 2y +

k y

2 = 0 or

y(4 k 2 ) = 0. Therefore, we only have critical points when y = 0 or jkj = 2.

If y = 0 then x = 0 so we have a critical point at (0; 0). We compute

2

@2f @2f @2f

D= =4 k2 :

@x2 @y 2 @x@y

If jkj = 2 then D = 0 so our test is inconclusive. If jkj > 2 then D < 0 so (0; 0)

2

is a saddle point. If 2 < k < 2 then D > 0 and since @@xf2 = 2 > 0 we see that

(0; 0) is a minimum. Now, if k = 2 then we have critical points along the line

y = x. These critical points are minimums since when k = 2 we have

2

f (x; y) = x2 + y 2 + 2xy = (x + y) 0

and equality holds only when y = x. Similarly, if k = 2 then we have critical

points along the line y = x and these are minimums since when k = 2 we have

2

f (x; y) = x2 + y 2 + 2xy = (x y) 0

and equality holds only when y = x.

4

4

-4 -2z 00 0 -2 -4

2 2 4

4

-2

y x

-4

Here k = 0 so f (x; y) = x2 + y 2

2

4 -4

z2 0

0 0

-2

2 -2

4 -2 -4

x y

-4

Here k = 1 so f (x; y) = x2 + y 2 + xy

5

4

4 2

-4

2 -2

z 0

0 0

2 -2 -2

4 x -4 y

-4

4 z2 0

0 0-2 -2 -4

4 2

-4

-2

x y

-4

6

4

4

2 2

x 0 0 z -4

-2

4 2 -2 0

-2

-4y

-4

(

@f

@x = 2Ax = 0 .

@f

@y = 0

Since 2Ax = 0 if and only ifA = 0 or x = 0, we have critical points of the form

(0; y) for any y 2 R if A 6= 0 and all of R2 are critical points if A = 0. Now, we

compute

2

@2f @2f @2f

D= = 2A(0) 0 = 0

@x2 @y 2 @x@y

so this test is inconclusive. However, we observe that if A = 0 then our function

f (x; y) = E is just a constant function. If A 6= 0 then the critical points are the

line x = 0. The points are local minimums if A > 0 since f does not depend

on y and

Ax2 + E = f (x) > f (0) = E

for x 6= 0. Similarly, we see that the critical points are local maximums if

A < 0.

maximize

7

We …nd the critical values of f by solving the system

(

@f

@x = 3x + 120 = 0

.

@f

@y = 3y + 120 = 0

must be our desired maximum.

and

@2f @2f @2f

Since @x2 = 2a, @y@x = 2b and @y 2 = 2c, we see that

1 2a 2b h1

Hf (x; y)(h1 ; h2 ) = h1 h2

2 2b 2c h2

= ah21 + 2bh1 h2 + ch22 = f (h1 ; h2 ):

+R2 ((x; y)(h1 ; h2 ))

but

2 2

f ((x; y) + (h1 ; h2 )) = a (x + h1 ) + 2b (x + h1 ) (y + h2 ) + c (y + h2 )

= ax2 + 2bxy + 2axh1 + 2bxh2 + cy 2 + 2byh1 + 2cyh2

+ah21 + 2bh1 h2 + ch22

1

= f (x; y) + Df (x; y) (h1 ; h2 ) + Hf (x; y)(h1 ; h2 )

2

so R2 ((x; y)(h1 ; h2 )) = 0. This is true for any quadratic function. Now, if

(x; y) is a critical point of f then we have

and

ax + by = 0

) b2 ca y = 0

cy + bx = 0

8

Since

2a 2b

D= = 4ac 4b2 < 0 ) ac b2 < 0;

2b 2c

our critical point must be such that y = 0. But then x = 0; so our only critical

point is (0; 0). Since f (0; 0) = 0, it remains to be shown that there is some

(x; y) such that f (x; y) > 0 and some (x; y) such that f (x; y) < 0. First suppose

a = 0. If a = 0 then c 6= 0 since ac b2 < 0 and

2

b b2 2

f (x; y) = 2bxy + cy 2 = c y + x x

c c

b b2 2

f (x; x) = x

c c

b

so that the sign of f (x; c x) is the opposite of the sign of c. Suppose c > 0.

Then f (x; cb x) < 0 but

b b2

f (x; x) = 3 x2 > 0;

c c

as desired. We argue analagously for a = 0 and c < 0. So suppose a 6= 0. We

complete the square on f to obtain

by 2 b2 2

f (x; y) = a(x + ) + (c )y :

a a

Let y 6= 0. We compute

b b2 2

f( y; y) = (c )y :

a a

But

b2 ac b2

c = :

a a

Since D < 0 implies ac b2 < 0, we see that the sign of f ( ab y; y) is the

opposite of the sign of a. If a > 0 then f ( ab y; y) < 0 but f (y; 0) > 0, as

desired. Similarly, if a < 0 then f ( ab y; y) > 0 but f (y; 0) < 0, thereby

exhausting all cases and completing our proof.

28. Let n be an integer greater than 2 and set f (x; y) = axn + cy n , where

ac 6= 0. We …nd the critical points of f by solving the system

(

@f n 1

@x = anx =0 xn 1 = 0

@f , , x = y = 0.

@y = cny

n 1

=0 yn 1 = 0

9

Now,

an(n 1)xn 2

0

D= = acn2 (n 1)2 xn 2 n 2

y

0 cn(n 1)y n 2

the values of f near (0; 0) with f (0; 0) = 0. Suppose n is even. We observe

that

f (x; y) > 0 if a > 0; c > 0 and (x; y) 6= (0; 0):

In this case, (0; 0) is a minimum. Similarly,

but

f (0; y) = cy n < 0 for y 6= 0

so (0; 0) is a saddle point. We similarly see that (0; 0) is a saddle point if a < 0

and c > 0. Next, suppose n is odd. If a > 0 then

but

f (x; 0) = axn < 0 for x < 0

so (0; 0) is a saddle point. Similarly, if a < 0 then

but

f (x; 0) = axn > 0 for x < 0

so (0; 0) is a saddle point. This completes our analysis.

1 f (x; y) = xy 1

and 1, respectively.

@2u @2u

r2 u = + 2 > 0:

@x2 @y

10

Suppose towards a contradiction that u(x0 ; y0 ) is a maximum on Dn@D. Then

u(x0 ; y0 ) u(x; y) for every (x; y) in Dn@D. In particular, u(x0 ; y0 ) u(x0 ; y)

for every y such that x20 + y 2 < 1. If

q q

1 x20 y 1 x20

or, equivalently, if q

jyj < 1 x20

2 2

maximum at y0 . That is, @@yf2 (y0 ) 0 where @@yf2 = 0 if f is constant and

@2f

@y 2 < 0 otherwise. But, by assumption,

@2f @2u

(y) = (x0 ; y) > 0;

@y 2 @y 2

a contradiction.

11

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