# Brian Streit

Math 2451
Section 6.2 Selected Solutions
1. If 1 is the unit disk then

1
exp(r
2
+n
2
)drdn =
1

0
2t

0
exp(r
2
)rd0dr = 2¬
1

0
exp(r
2
)rdr
= ¬ exp(r
2
)[
1
0
= ¬ (c ÷1) .
2. If 1 is the region 0 _ n _ r and 0 _ r _ 1 then let T : 1

÷ 1 be
de…ned by
T(n. ·) = (n +·. n ÷·) = (r. n).
We see that

0(r. n)
0(n. ·)

=

1 1
1 ÷1

= [÷2[ = 2.
Since T is linear and det T = 2 = 0, T is invertible. Now we must …nd 1

. To
this end we observe T
1
: 1 ÷1

. Since
(n +·. n ÷·) = (r. n) =

r = n +·
n = n ÷·
we add the equations on the right to obtain n =
r+u
2
and subtract the second
equation from the …rst to obtain · =
ru
2
. So
T
1
(r. n) =

r +n
2
.
r ÷n
2

= (n. ·).
Since T
1
(01) = 01

we …nd T
1
(0. 0) = (0. 0), T
1
(1. 0) =

1
2
.
1
2

, and
T
1
(1. 1) = (1. 0). It follows that 1

is a triangle with vertices (0. 0) .

1
2
.
1
2

,
and (1. 0). We may write 1

as a ·-simple region de…ned by
0 _ · _
1
2
and · _ n _ 1 ÷·.
If T is invertible and C
1
then call T a di¤eomorphism. Any linear transforma-
tion is continuously di¤erentiable so since T is invertible, T is a di¤eomorphism.
By the change of variables theorem

1
(r +n) drdn =

1

(n +· +n ÷·)

0(r. n)
0(n. ·)

dnd·.
1
We compute

0(r. n)
0(n. ·)

=

1 1
1 ÷1

= [÷2[ = 2.

1
(r +n) drdn = 2
1
2

0
1u

u
(2n) dnd· = 2
1
2

0

n
2
[
1u
u

d· = 2
1
2

0
(1 ÷·)
2
÷·
2

= ÷
2
3

(1 ÷·)
3

3
[
1
2
0

= ÷
2
3

1
8
+
1
8
÷1

=
1
2
.
We check our answer by evaluating

1
(r +n) drdn =
1

0
r

0
(r +n) dndr =
1

0

(r +n)
2
2
[
r
u=0

dr
=
3
2
1

0
r
2
dr =
3
6
r
3
[
1
0
=
1
2
.
3. Let T (n. ·) = (r(n. ·) . n (n. ·)) be the mapping de…ned by T (n. ·) =
(4n. 2n + 3·). Let 1

be the rectangle [0. 1] [1. 2]. Find 1 = T(1

). We
observe that T is linear and
[DT[ =

4 0
2 3

= 12
so T is invertible. Since 1

is a parallelogram, 1 will be a parallelogram
where the vertices of 1

with some orientation are mapped to the vertices of
1 with some orientation. We …x a counterclockwise orientation on the vertices
of 1

and compute T (0. 1) = (0. 3), T(1. 1) = (4. 5), T(1. 2) = (4. 8), and
T(0. 2) = (0. 6). So 1 is a parallelogram with vertices (0. 3), (4. 5), (4. 8), and
(0. 6). Equivalently, we could have written
1 = ¦(r. n) ÷ R
2
: 0 _ r _ 4.
1
2
r + 3 _ n _
1
2
r + 6¦.
(a) Since 1 (r. n) = rn is continuous and T is an invertible linear transformation,
by the change of variables theorem, we have

1
rndrdn =

1

(4n) (2n + 3·) (12) dnd· = 48
1

0
2

1

2n
2
+ 3n·

d·dn
= 48
1

0

2n
2
· +
3
2

2
[
2
u=1

dn = 48
1

0

2n
2
+
9
2
n

dn
= 48

2
3
n
3
+
9
4
n
2
[
1
0

= 140.
2
(b) Since 1(r. n) = (r ÷n) is continuous we again have by the change of
variables theorem

1
(r ÷n) drdn = 12

1

(2n ÷3·) dnd· = 12
2

1
1

0
(2n ÷3·) dnd·
= 12
2

1

n
2
÷3·n[
1
u=0

d· = 12
2

1
(1 ÷3·) d·
= 12

· ÷
3
2
·
2
[
2
1

= ÷42.
4. Consider exercise 3 with T(n. ·) = (n. · (1 +n)). Now T is not linear.
Since 1

= [0. 1] [1. 2], we …x n = a and observe that T (a. ·) is the segment
from (a. (1 +a)) to (a. 2 (1 +a)). When a = 0 we get (0. 1) to (0. 2) and when
a = 1 we get (1. 2) to (1. 4). We see that 1 is the region bound by the lines
r = 0. r = 1. n = r + 1. n = 2r + 2.
To prove that 1 = T (1

) we choose (n. ·) ÷ 1

and observe that (r. n) =
T (n. ·) is such that n = r ÷ [0. 1] and n = · (1 +n) where
1 +r _ n _ 2 (1 +r) .
So (r. n) ÷ 1 and we see that T (1

) _ 1. Now for (r. n) ÷ 1 we can choose
(n. ·) ÷ 1

such that
n = r and · =
n
(1 +r)
.
Clearly n ÷ [0. 1] and we observe for each r ÷ [0. 1] when n ranges from 1 to 2
that · ranges from 1 to 2 so that · ÷ [1. 2]. Furthermore,
T (n. ·) =

r.

n
1 +r

(1 +r)

= (r. n)
so 1 _ T (1

). Therefore 1 = T (1

). To show T is invertible, it remains to
be shown that T is one-to-one. To this end we observe that if T (n. ·) = T (n
0
. ·
0
)
then n = n
0
and n ÷ [0. 1] and · (1 +n) = ·
0
(1 +n
0
) yields · = ·
0
. So T is
one-to-one. The change of variables theorem applies since

0(r. n)
0(n. ·)

=

1 0
· 1 +n

= 1 +n 0.
(a) We compute

1
rndrdn =
2

1
1

0
n· (1 +n)
2
dnd· =

¸
2

1
·d·
¸

¸
1

0
n(1 +n)
2
dn
¸

.
3
But
2

1
·d· =
·
2
2
[
2
1
=
3
2
and
1

0
n(1 +n)
2
dn =
1

0

n
3
+ 2n
2
+n

dn =
n
4
4
+
2n
3
3
+
n
2
2
[
1
0
=
17
12
so

1
rndrdn =
17
8
.
(b) We …nd

1
r ÷ndrdn =
2

1
1

0
(n ÷· (1 +n)) (1 +n) dnd· =
1

0
2

1
n(1 +n) ÷· (1 +n)
2
d·dn =
1

0

n·(1 +n) ÷
·
2
2
(1 +n)
2
[
2
u=1

dn =
1

0
n(1 +n) ÷
3
2
(1 +n)
2
dn =
1

0
n(1 +n) ÷
3
2
(1 +n)
2
dn =
÷
1

0
1
2
n
2
+ 2n +
3
2
dn = ÷

1
6
n
3
+n
2
+
3
2
n[
1
0

= ÷
8
3
.
We see that if we let n range from 0 to 1, the image ranges from (0. ·) to
(1. 2·) where 1 _ · _ 2. So for · = 1, we have the segment from (0. 0) to (1. 0)
and for · = 2, we have the segment from (0. 2) to (1. 4).
5. Let 1 = [0. 1] [0. 1], T(n. ·) = (n.
u
2
), and T(1

) = 1. We observe
that 1

is de…ned by 0 _ n _ 1 and 0 _ · _ 2. Since T is linear and has
nonzero determinant, T is a di¤eomorphism and the change of variables theorem
applies. We compute

0(r. n)
0(n. ·)

=

1 0
0
1
2

=
1
2
.
4
Therefore,

1
drdn

1 +r + 2n
=
1
2
1

0
2

0
d·dn

1 +n +·
=
1

0

1 +n +·[
2
u=0

dn
=
1

0

3 +n ÷

1 +n

dn =
2
3

(3 +n)
3
2
÷(1 +n)
3
2

[
1
0
=
2
3

9 ÷2

2 ÷3

3

.
7. Let T (n. ·) be as in Exercise 6. We see that 1(r. n) =

r
2
+n
2

1
2
is
unbounded when r = n = 0 so we consider 1`¦(0. 0)¦ and the polar change of
variables. We consider 1

o
· 1

de…ned by 0 < c _ r _ 1. Observe 1

o
÷1

as c ÷0. Since 1 is continuous on 1

o
so we evaluate

1nf(0,0)g
drdn

r
2
+n
2
=

1

drdd0 =
1

o
t

0
drd0 = ¬ (1 ÷c) .
We claim that

1
drdn

r
2
+n
2
= lim
o!0

1

drdd0 = ¬.
This claim will be justi…ed in Section 6.4.
8. Suppose 1 is bounded by r = 0, n = 0, r + n = 1, and r + n = 4.
Consider
T(n. ·) = (n ÷n·. n·) = (r. n).
We want to …nd 1

such that T(1

) = 1. We see that
r +n = n
and
n = n· =· =
n
n
=
n
r +n
for n = 0. Observe T maps the set n = 0 to the point (0. 0) and T is one-to-one
when n = 0. We …nd 1

by examining the pre-image of 01. To this end,
the pre-image of the segment n = 0 and 1 _ r _ 4 is the segment · = 0 and
1 _ n _ 4. The pre-image of the segment r = 0 and 1 _ n _ 4 is the segment
1 _ n _ 4 and · = 1. The pre-image of the segment n = 1 ÷r and 0 _ r _ 1
is the segment n = 1 and 0 _ · _ 1. Finally, the pre-image of the segment
n = 4 ÷ r and 0 _ r _ 4 is the segment n = 4 and 0 _ · _ 1. Therefore
5
1

= [1. 4] [0. 1]. Since T is invertible and C
1
we may apply a change of
variables. We compute

0(r. n)
0(n. ·)

=

1 ÷· ÷n
· n

= n(1 ÷·) +n· = n.
So

1
1
r +n
drdn =

1

n
n ÷n· +n·
dnd· =
1

0
4

1
dnd· = ¹(1

) = 3.
9. Suppose 1 is the disk r
2
+n
2
_ 4 then using a polar change of variables,
we have

1

r
2
+n
2
3
2
drdn =
2

0
2t

0
r
4
drd0 = 2¬

r
5
5
[
2
0

=
64¬
5
10. Let 1

be a ·-simple region in the n· plane bounded by · = o(n) and
· = /(n) _ o(n) for a _ n _ /. Let T : R
2
÷ R
2
be the transformation given
by r = n and n = c(n. ·) where c ÷ C
1
and
Jr
Ju
is never zero. Assume that
T(1

) = 1 is a n-simple region. We …rst observe that T ÷ C
1
since n. c ÷ C
1
and locally invertible since
[DT(n. ·)[ =

0(r. n)
0(n. ·)

=

1 0
Jr
Ju
Jr
Ju

=

0c

= 0.
Next, since 1

is a ·-simple region we let
¹ = ¦(n. ·) ÷ R
2
: · = o(n) when a < n < /¦.
1 = ¦(n. ·) ÷ R
2
: · = /(n) when a < n < /¦. and
C = ¦(n. ·) ÷ R
2
: o(n) < · < /(n) when n = a. /¦
so that
01

= ¹' 1 ' C.
We observe that
T(C) = ¦(r. n) ÷ R
2
: c(r. o(r)) < n < c(r. o(r)) when r = a. /¦.
T(1) = ¦(r. n) ÷ R
2
: n = c(r. /(r)) when a < r < /¦. and
T(¹) = ¦(r. n) ÷ R
2
: n = c(r. o(r)) when a < r < /¦
so T maps 01

one-to-one and onto 1. Since both 1

and 1 are elementary
regions, we conclude that 1

is a di¤eomorphism of 1. Since 1 : 1 ÷ R is
continuous we may apply a change of variables to obtain

1
1(r. n)drdn =

1

1(n. c(n. ·))

0c

dnd·.
6
11. We want to …nd the area inside r = 1 +sin0. We see that our curve is
traced out when 0 _ 0 _ 2¬. We compute
2t

0
1+sin 0

0
rdrd0 =
1
2
2t

0
(1 + sin0)
2
d0 =
1
2
2t

0
1 + 2 sin0 + sin
2
0d0
=
1
2
2t

0
1 + 2 sin0 +
1 ÷cos 20
2
d0
= =
1
2
2t

0
3
2
+ 2 sin0 ÷cos 20d0
=
1
2

3
2
0 + 2 cos 0 ÷
sin20
4
[
2t
0

=

2
.
-1 1
1
2
x
y
12. (a) We want to express
1

0
r
2

0
rndndr
as an integral over the triangle 1

, which is the set of (n. ·) where 0 _ n _ 1,
0 _ · _ n. Let 1 denote the given region of integration. We know that we
want to map the curve n = · where 0 _ n _ 1 to the curve n = r
2
where
0 _ r _ 1 so consider T : 1

÷1 de…ned by
T(n. ·) = (

n. ·) = (r. n).
We observe T is one-to-one and onto and that

0(r. n)
0(n. ·)

=

1
2
p
u
0
0 1

=
1
2

n
7
is de…ned except for at n = 0, but, since this is a corner point on 01

, we may
omit it from consideration. So the change of variables theorem applies and

1
rndrdn =

1

·d·dn.
(b) We evaluate

1
rndrdn =
1

0
r
2

0
rndndr =
1
2
1

0
r
5
dr =
1
12
.
and

1

·d·dn =
1
2
1

0
u

0
·d·dn =
1
4
1

0
n
2
dn =
1
12
.
13. We use a cylindrical change of variables to write

r
2
+u
2
4
2:3
.c
r
2
+u
2
d\ =
2

0
3

0
2t

0
.c
:
2
rd0d.dr
= 2¬

¸
3

2
.d.
¸

¸
2

0
rc
:
2
dr
¸

=

2
(c
4
÷1).
14. Let 1 be the unit disk. Using a polar change of variables, we have

1

1 +r
2
+n
2
3
2
drdn =
1

0
2t

0
r

1 +r
2
3
2
drd0 =

5

1 +r
2
5
2
[
1
0
= ¬

2
7
2
÷2
5

.
15. We want to …nd the area bounded by the lemniscate

r
2
+n
2

2
=
2a
2

r
2
÷n
2

. If r = r cos 0 and n = r sin0 then we have
r
4
= 2a
2

r
2
cos
2
0 ÷r
2
sin
2
0

= 2a
2
r
2
cos 20
so r = 2 [a[

cos 20. We …nd that our curve is traced out when ÷
t
4
_ 0 _
t
4
.
Therefore, our desired area is given by

4

4
2joj
p
cos 20

0
rdrd0 = 2a
2

4

4
cos 20d0 = a
2
sin20[

4

4
= 2a
2
.
Here a = 2
8
-4 -2 2 4
-1
1
x
y
16. We …nd the volume of the region \ inside the surface . = r
2
+n
2
and
between . = 0 and . = 10 using a cylindrical change of variables. We see that
\ (\) =

V
d\ =
10

0
p
:

0
2t

0
rd0drd. = 2¬
10

0
p
:

0
rdrd.
= ¬
10

0

r
2
[
p
:
0

d. = ¬
10

0
.d. =
¬
2
.
2
[
10
0
= 50¬.
It is much easier to work this problem using a change of variables.
17. I will o¤er two solutions. The second is slicker than the …rst.
(i) Suppose 1 is the region bounded by r + n = 1. r + n = 4. r ÷ n = ÷1.
and r ÷ n = 1. In order to compute our desired integral, we must …rst apply
to change of variables. We want to map our parallelogram 1 to the rectangle
1

= [0. 1] [0. 1] so that we will have nice limits of integration after our change
of variables. We must …rst …nd the vertices of 1. To this end, we add the
equations r +n = 1 and r ÷n = ÷1 to obtain r = 0 and so n = 1. We add the
equations r +n = 1 and r ÷n = 1 to obtain r = 1 so n = 0. We add r +n = 4
and r ÷ n = ÷1 to obtain r =
3
2
so n =
5
2
. Finally, we add r + n = 4 and
r ÷n = 1 to get r =
5
2
and n =
3
2
. Let us …x a counterclockwise orientation on
vertices and consider a linear map T : 1

÷1 such that
T(0. 0) = (1. 0) . T (1. 0) =

5
2
.
3
2

. T (1. 1) =

3
2
.
5
2

. and T (0. 1) = (0. 1) .
Since
T (n. ·) = (an +/· +c. dn +c· +1)
for some a. /. c. d. c. 1 ÷ R is a transformation that maps parallelograms to
parallelograms, see Exercise 10 of Section 6.1, we use this form and the above
9
points above to …nd our desired transformation explicitly. We have
T (0. 0) = (1. 0) = (c. 1)
so c = 1. 1 = 0 and
T (0. 1) = (0. 1) = (/ + 1. c)
so / = ÷1 and c = 1. Also, we have T (1. 0) =

5
2
.
3
2

= (a + 1. d) so a =
3
2
. d =
3
2
and
T(n. ·) =

3
2
n ÷· + 1.
3
2
n +·

= (r. n) .
We …nd

0 (r. n)
0 (n. ·)

=

3
2
÷1
3
2
1

= 3.
We observe that T is the composition of an invertible linear transformation with
a shift and is therefore invertible and di¤erentiable. Since T is a di¤eomorphism,
the change of variables theorem applies and we obtain

1
(r +n)
2
c
ru
d¹ = 3

1

(3n + 1)
2
c
2u+1

= 3

¸
1

0
c
2u+1

¸

¸
1

0
(3n + 1)
2
dn
¸

.
We compute
=
1

0
(3n + 1)
2
dn =
(3n + 1)
3
9
[
1
0
= 7
and
1

0
c
2u+1
d· = ÷
c
2u+1
2
[
1
0
=
c
2
÷
1
2c
so

1
(r +n)
2
c
ru
d¹ =
21
2

c ÷
1
c

.
(ii) Let n = r + n and · = r ÷n. By adding, subtracting and solving the
previous equalities we see that
r =
n +·
2
and n =
n ÷·
2
.
Since 1 _ r + n _ 4 on 1 we have 1 _ n _ 4. Similarly, ÷1 _ · _ 1. Let
1

= [1. 4] [÷1. 1] and consider T : 1

÷1 de…ned by
T (n. ·) =

n +·
2
.
n ÷·
2

= (r. n) .
10
We compute
[det T[ =

0 (r. n)
0 (n. ·)

=

1
2
1
2
1
2
÷
1
2

=

÷
1
4
÷
1
4

=
1
2
Observe that this transformation shrinks parallelograms since [det T[ =
1
2
< 1
and reverses the orientation of vertices since det T = ÷
1
2
< 0. Now we apply
the change of variables theorem to compute

1
(r +n)
2
c
ru
drdn =
1
2
1

1
4

1
n
2
c
u
dnd· =
1
2

¸
1

1
c
u

¸

¸
4

1
n
2
dn
¸

.
We compute
1

1
c
u
d· = c ÷c
1
and
4

1
n
2
dn =
n
3
3
[
4
1
= 21.
Therefore

1
(r +n)
2
c
ru
drdn =
21
2

c ÷c
1

.
18. Let T : R
3
÷R
3
be de…ned by
T (n. ·. n) = (ncos · cos n. nsin· cos n. nsinn) = (r. n. .) .
a) To show T is onto the unit sphere o
2
, we must show that for any (r. n. .) ÷
o
2
there is (n. ·. n) ÷ R
3
such that T (n. ·. n) = (r. n. .). If r
2
+ n
2
+ .
2
= 1
then n = ±1. Let n = 1 so n will be like the radius in the usual spherical
change of coordinates. Now since . ÷ [÷1. 1] we let n(.) = sin
1
. and observe
n ÷ [÷
t
2
.
t
2
]. Geometrically, n is the acute angle the position vector (r. n. .)
makes with the rn plane where n < 0 when . < 0. Moreover, we see that · is
just the usual polar angle measured from the positive r-axis. Suppose . = ±1
so that n ÷ (÷
t
2
.
t
2
). Then cos n ÷ (0. 1] so
r
cos n
= cos ·.
n
cos n
= sin·. and
n
r
= tan·.
We observe that
· (r. n) =

tan
1

u
r

for r 0 and n _ 0
t
2
for r = 0 and n 0
tan
1

u
r

+¬ for r < 0
3t
2
for r = 0 and n < 0
tan
1

u
r

+ 2¬ for r 0 and n < 0
11
is well-de…ned and · ÷ [0. 2¬). Therefore, if . = ±1 then (r. n. .) ÷ T(¦1¦
[0. 2¬) (÷
t
2
.
t
2
)) and if . = ±1 then r = n = 0 and T(1. 0. ±
t
2
) = (0. 0. ±1).
We conclude that T maps ¦1¦ [0. 2¬) [÷
t
2
.
t
2
] onto the unit sphere.
b) Clearly T is not one-to-one as T (÷1. 0. 0) = (÷1. 0. 0) = T (1. ¬. 0) .
20. To evaluate
1

0
c
4u
2
dn
we consider the Gaussian Integral
1

1
c
r
2
dr =

¬.
Since R = (÷·. ·) is a symmetric region, that is, r ÷ R =÷r ÷ R. and c
r
2
is even, we have

¬
2
=
1
2
1

1
c
r
2
dr =
1

0
c
r
2
dr.
Our desired integral is given on the right above with
r
p
2
= n so
1

0
c
4u
2
dn =
1

2
1

0
c
r
2
dr =

¬
2

2
.
22. Suppose ¹ is determined by r
2
+n
2
_ 1 and r +n _ 1. Then consider
the polar change of variables where
r
2
+n
2
= r +n _ 1 =r = 0 or n = 0
so 0 _ 0 _
t
2
. Then
r +n = r (cos 0 + sin0) _ 1 and r = r
2
+n
2
_ 1
so
1
cos 0+sin 0
_ r _ 1. We apply the change of variables and compute

.
drdn
(r
2
+n
2
)
2
=

2

0
1
cos +sin

0
drd0
r
3
= ÷

2

0
1
r
2
[
1
1
cos +sin
= ÷

2

0

1 ÷(cos 0 + sin0)
2

d0 = 2

2

0
cos 0 sin0d0 = n
2
[
1
0
= 1.
12
where n = sin0.
23. Since \ is bound by the two spheres r
2
+n
2
+.
2
= a
2
and r
2
+n
2
+.
2
=
/
2
, where 0 < / < a, we use a spherical change of variables to obtain

V
drdnd.
(r
2
+n
2
+.
2
)
3
2
=
t

0
2t

0
o

b
sin.
j
djd0d. = 2¬

¸
t

0
sin.d.
¸

¸
o

b
1
j
d.
¸

= ÷2¬ (cos 0[
t
0
) (log j[
o
b
) = 4¬ log (a ÷/) .
24. Suppose ¹ is determined by r
2
+n
2
_ 1 and 0 _ r _ n. Then consider
the polar change of variables where
0 _ r _ n =0 _ r cos 0 _ r sin0 =
¬
4
_ 0 _
¬
2
and 0 _ r _ 1. Thus

.
r
2
drdn =

2

4
1

0
r
3
cos
2
0drd0 =

¸
¸

2

4
cos
2
0d0
¸

¸
1

0
r
3
dr
¸

=
1
4

2

4
cos
2
0d0.
But

2

4
cos
2
0d0 =

2

4
1 + cos 20
2
d0 =
¬
8
+
1
4
sin20[

2

4
=
¬ ÷2
8
so

.
r
2
drdn =
¬ ÷2
32
.
28. We choose 1

= [0. 1] [0. 1] because it is a simple rectangle. Let 1
be the parallelogram with vertices (0. 0) . (1. 2) . (3. 1) . and (2. ÷1). We want a
linear map such that T (1

) = 1 so that we may apply a change of variables.
Since the most general form a linear map is T (n. ·) = (an +/·. cn +d·) we
want to …nd a. /. c. d ÷ R where
T (0. 1) = (1. 2) and T (1. 0) = (2. ÷1) .
The …rst equality implies / = 1 and d = 2. This, combined with the second
equality gives us a = 2 and c = ÷1. So T (n. ·) = (2n +·. ÷n + 2·). We check
our answer by verifying that T (1. 1) = (3. 1). Now we compute
[det T[ =

2 ÷1
1 2

= 5
13
and apply a change of variables to compute

1
(r +n) drdn = 5

1

(2n +· ÷n + 2·) dnd· = 5
1

0
1

0
(n + 3·) dnd·
= 5
1

0

1
2
n
2
+ 3·n[
1
0

d· = 5
1

0
(
1
2
+ 3·)d·
= 5(
·
2
+
3
2
·
2
[
1
0
) = 10.
29. (a) If 1 is the ellipsoid

r
o

2
+

u
b

2
+

:
c

2
_ 1 where a. /. c 0 then
observe that T : 1 ÷ 1

. where 1

is the unit sphere is given by T(n. ·. n) =
(an. ./·. cn) = (r. n. .). Clearly T is a change of variables with [DT(n. ·. n)[ =
a/c so
\ (1) =

J
drdnd. = a/c

J

dnd·dn = a/c\ (1

) =

3
a/c.
(b) We compute using a spherical change of variables

J
[

r
a

2
+

n
/

2
+

.
c

2
]drdnd. = a/c

J

n
2

2
+n
2
dnd·dn
= a/c
t

0
2t

0
1

0
j
4
sin.djd0d.
= 2¬a/c

¸
t

0
sin.d.
¸

¸
1

0
j
4
sin.dj
¸

=
4
5
¬a/c.
32. a) Since
r
2
+n
2
= 2n =r
2
+ (n ÷1)
2
= 1
is a circle or radius one centered at (0. 1) we have the following picture:
14
-2 -1 1 2
-2
-1
1
2
x
y
Our desired region 1 is outside the red circle, inside the black circle, and in the
…rst quadrant. We see that the intersection of the two circles is given by 2n = 1
or n =
1
2
so that r =
p
3
2
.
b) Let us see where T (r. n) = (r
2
+ n
2
. r
2
+ n
2
÷ 2n) = (n. ·) maps the
vertices of our above region. We see that T (0. 0) = (0. 0), T (1. 0) = (1. 1) and
T(
p
3
2
.
1
2
) = (1. 0). Therefore, we guess that T (1) = 1 is the triangle with
vertices (0. 0), (1. 1) and (1. 0). We parameterize 01 and verify that T (01) =
01. We see that the straight line segment connecting (0. 0) to (1. 0) in the rn
plane may be parameterized as n = 0, r ÷ [0. 1] so that n = r
2
= ·. The
image is the straight line segment connecting (0. 0) to (1. 1) in the n· plane.
Next, we parameterize the arc connecting (1. 0) to (
p
3
2
.
1
2
). Here r
2
+ n
2
= 1
and n ÷ [0.
1
2
] so that n = 1 and · = 1 ÷ 2n. The image is the straight line
segment connecting (1. 1) to (1. 0). Finally, the arc connecting (
p
3
2
.
1
2
) to (0. 0)
can be parameterized as r
2
+ n
2
= 2n and n ÷ [0.
1
2
] so that n = 2n and · = 0.
The image is the straight line segment connecting (0. 0) to (1. 0). We conclude
T (01) = 01 so T (1) = 1.
c) In order to compute

1
rc
u
drdn, we need to …nd a smooth o : 1 ÷ 1.
We let o = T
1
. Indeed, n ÷· = 2n so
uu
2
= n and r
2
+n
2
= n so
r =

n ÷

n ÷·
2

2
.
We compute
0r
0n
=
2 ÷n +·
4

n ÷

uu
2

2
.
0r

=
n ÷·
4

n ÷

uu
2

2
.
0n
0n
=
1
2
. and
0n

= ÷
1
2
15
so that

0 (r. n)
0 (n. ·)

=

2u+u
4
q
u(
uv
2
)
2
uu
4
q
u(
uv
2
)
2
1
2
÷
1
2

=

÷2 +n ÷·
8

n ÷

uu
2

2
+
÷n +·
8

n ÷

uu
2

2

=
1
4

n ÷

uu
2

2
.
Therefore, by the change of variables theorem, we have

1
rc
u
drdn =

1

¸

n ÷

n ÷·
2

2
¸

c
uv
2
1
4

n ÷

uu
2

2
dnd·
=
1
4
1

0
u

0
c
uv
2
d·dn = ÷
1
2
1

0

c
uv
2
[
u
u=0

dn =
1
2
1

0
(c
u
2
÷1)dn
= c
u
2
÷
n
2
[
1
0
=

c ÷
3
2
.
34. Let o : [0. 1] [0. 2¬] [0. ¬] ÷o
2
(1) be the usual spherical change of
variables. Geometrically, we observe that
o ([0. 1] ¦0¦ [0. ¬]) = o ([0. 1] ¦2¬¦ [0. ¬])
and that o is one-to-one on (0. 1] (0. 2¬) [0. ¬]. It remains to be shown that
o ([0. 1] ¦0¦ [0. ¬]) is the graph of a continuous function. We observe that
o ([0. 1] ¦0¦ [0. ¬]) = ¦(r. n. .) ÷ R
3
: 0 _ r _

1
2
÷.
2
. n = 0. ÷1 _ . _ 1¦
is the graph of n = 1 (r. .) = 0 where 1 is de…ned on
¦(r. .) ÷ R
2
: 0 _ r _

1
2
÷.
2
. ÷1 _ . _ 1¦.
Clearly 1 = 0 is a continuous function.
16