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Math 2451

Section 6.2 Selected Solutions

1. If 1 is the unit disk then

1

exp(r

2

+n

2

)drdn =

1

0

2t

0

exp(r

2

)rd0dr = 2¬

1

0

exp(r

2

)rdr

= ¬ exp(r

2

)[

1

0

= ¬ (c ÷1) .

2. If 1 is the region 0 _ n _ r and 0 _ r _ 1 then let T : 1

÷ 1 be

de…ned by

T(n. ·) = (n +·. n ÷·) = (r. n).

We see that

0(r. n)

0(n. ·)

=

1 1

1 ÷1

= [÷2[ = 2.

Since T is linear and det T = 2 = 0, T is invertible. Now we must …nd 1

. To

this end we observe T

1

: 1 ÷1

. Since

(n +·. n ÷·) = (r. n) =

r = n +·

n = n ÷·

we add the equations on the right to obtain n =

r+u

2

and subtract the second

equation from the …rst to obtain · =

ru

2

. So

T

1

(r. n) =

r +n

2

.

r ÷n

2

= (n. ·).

Since T

1

(01) = 01

we …nd T

1

(0. 0) = (0. 0), T

1

(1. 0) =

1

2

.

1

2

, and

T

1

(1. 1) = (1. 0). It follows that 1

is a triangle with vertices (0. 0) .

1

2

.

1

2

,

and (1. 0). We may write 1

**as a ·-simple region de…ned by
**

0 _ · _

1

2

and · _ n _ 1 ÷·.

If T is invertible and C

1

then call T a di¤eomorphism. Any linear transforma-

tion is continuously di¤erentiable so since T is invertible, T is a di¤eomorphism.

By the change of variables theorem

1

(r +n) drdn =

1

(n +· +n ÷·)

0(r. n)

0(n. ·)

dnd·.

1

We compute

0(r. n)

0(n. ·)

=

1 1

1 ÷1

= [÷2[ = 2.

1

(r +n) drdn = 2

1

2

0

1u

u

(2n) dnd· = 2

1

2

0

n

2

[

1u

u

d· = 2

1

2

0

(1 ÷·)

2

÷·

2

d·

= ÷

2

3

(1 ÷·)

3

+·

3

[

1

2

0

= ÷

2

3

1

8

+

1

8

÷1

=

1

2

.

We check our answer by evaluating

1

(r +n) drdn =

1

0

r

0

(r +n) dndr =

1

0

(r +n)

2

2

[

r

u=0

dr

=

3

2

1

0

r

2

dr =

3

6

r

3

[

1

0

=

1

2

.

3. Let T (n. ·) = (r(n. ·) . n (n. ·)) be the mapping de…ned by T (n. ·) =

(4n. 2n + 3·). Let 1

be the rectangle [0. 1] [1. 2]. Find 1 = T(1

). We

observe that T is linear and

[DT[ =

4 0

2 3

= 12

so T is invertible. Since 1

**is a parallelogram, 1 will be a parallelogram
**

where the vertices of 1

**with some orientation are mapped to the vertices of
**

1 with some orientation. We …x a counterclockwise orientation on the vertices

of 1

**and compute T (0. 1) = (0. 3), T(1. 1) = (4. 5), T(1. 2) = (4. 8), and
**

T(0. 2) = (0. 6). So 1 is a parallelogram with vertices (0. 3), (4. 5), (4. 8), and

(0. 6). Equivalently, we could have written

1 = ¦(r. n) ÷ R

2

: 0 _ r _ 4.

1

2

r + 3 _ n _

1

2

r + 6¦.

(a) Since 1 (r. n) = rn is continuous and T is an invertible linear transformation,

by the change of variables theorem, we have

1

rndrdn =

1

(4n) (2n + 3·) (12) dnd· = 48

1

0

2

1

2n

2

+ 3n·

d·dn

= 48

1

0

2n

2

· +

3

2

n·

2

[

2

u=1

dn = 48

1

0

2n

2

+

9

2

n

dn

= 48

2

3

n

3

+

9

4

n

2

[

1

0

= 140.

2

(b) Since 1(r. n) = (r ÷n) is continuous we again have by the change of

variables theorem

1

(r ÷n) drdn = 12

1

(2n ÷3·) dnd· = 12

2

1

1

0

(2n ÷3·) dnd·

= 12

2

1

n

2

÷3·n[

1

u=0

d· = 12

2

1

(1 ÷3·) d·

= 12

· ÷

3

2

·

2

[

2

1

= ÷42.

4. Consider exercise 3 with T(n. ·) = (n. · (1 +n)). Now T is not linear.

Since 1

**= [0. 1] [1. 2], we …x n = a and observe that T (a. ·) is the segment
**

from (a. (1 +a)) to (a. 2 (1 +a)). When a = 0 we get (0. 1) to (0. 2) and when

a = 1 we get (1. 2) to (1. 4). We see that 1 is the region bound by the lines

r = 0. r = 1. n = r + 1. n = 2r + 2.

To prove that 1 = T (1

) we choose (n. ·) ÷ 1

**and observe that (r. n) =
**

T (n. ·) is such that n = r ÷ [0. 1] and n = · (1 +n) where

1 +r _ n _ 2 (1 +r) .

So (r. n) ÷ 1 and we see that T (1

**) _ 1. Now for (r. n) ÷ 1 we can choose
**

(n. ·) ÷ 1

such that

n = r and · =

n

(1 +r)

.

Clearly n ÷ [0. 1] and we observe for each r ÷ [0. 1] when n ranges from 1 to 2

that · ranges from 1 to 2 so that · ÷ [1. 2]. Furthermore,

T (n. ·) =

r.

n

1 +r

(1 +r)

= (r. n)

so 1 _ T (1

). Therefore 1 = T (1

**). To show T is invertible, it remains to
**

be shown that T is one-to-one. To this end we observe that if T (n. ·) = T (n

0

. ·

0

)

then n = n

0

and n ÷ [0. 1] and · (1 +n) = ·

0

(1 +n

0

) yields · = ·

0

. So T is

one-to-one. The change of variables theorem applies since

0(r. n)

0(n. ·)

=

1 0

· 1 +n

= 1 +n 0.

(a) We compute

1

rndrdn =

2

1

1

0

n· (1 +n)

2

dnd· =

¸

2

1

·d·

¸

¸

1

0

n(1 +n)

2

dn

¸

.

3

But

2

1

·d· =

·

2

2

[

2

1

=

3

2

and

1

0

n(1 +n)

2

dn =

1

0

n

3

+ 2n

2

+n

dn =

n

4

4

+

2n

3

3

+

n

2

2

[

1

0

=

17

12

so

1

rndrdn =

17

8

.

(b) We …nd

1

r ÷ndrdn =

2

1

1

0

(n ÷· (1 +n)) (1 +n) dnd· =

1

0

2

1

n(1 +n) ÷· (1 +n)

2

d·dn =

1

0

n·(1 +n) ÷

·

2

2

(1 +n)

2

[

2

u=1

dn =

1

0

n(1 +n) ÷

3

2

(1 +n)

2

dn =

1

0

n(1 +n) ÷

3

2

(1 +n)

2

dn =

÷

1

0

1

2

n

2

+ 2n +

3

2

dn = ÷

1

6

n

3

+n

2

+

3

2

n[

1

0

= ÷

8

3

.

We see that if we let n range from 0 to 1, the image ranges from (0. ·) to

(1. 2·) where 1 _ · _ 2. So for · = 1, we have the segment from (0. 0) to (1. 0)

and for · = 2, we have the segment from (0. 2) to (1. 4).

5. Let 1 = [0. 1] [0. 1], T(n. ·) = (n.

u

2

), and T(1

) = 1. We observe

that 1

**is de…ned by 0 _ n _ 1 and 0 _ · _ 2. Since T is linear and has
**

nonzero determinant, T is a di¤eomorphism and the change of variables theorem

applies. We compute

0(r. n)

0(n. ·)

=

1 0

0

1

2

=

1

2

.

4

Therefore,

1

drdn

1 +r + 2n

=

1

2

1

0

2

0

d·dn

1 +n +·

=

1

0

1 +n +·[

2

u=0

dn

=

1

0

3 +n ÷

1 +n

dn =

2

3

(3 +n)

3

2

÷(1 +n)

3

2

[

1

0

=

2

3

9 ÷2

2 ÷3

3

.

7. Let T (n. ·) be as in Exercise 6. We see that 1(r. n) =

r

2

+n

2

1

2

is

unbounded when r = n = 0 so we consider 1`¦(0. 0)¦ and the polar change of

variables. We consider 1

o

· 1

de…ned by 0 < c _ r _ 1. Observe 1

o

÷1

as c ÷0. Since 1 is continuous on 1

o

so we evaluate

1nf(0,0)g

drdn

r

2

+n

2

=

1

drdd0 =

1

o

t

0

drd0 = ¬ (1 ÷c) .

We claim that

1

drdn

r

2

+n

2

= lim

o!0

1

drdd0 = ¬.

This claim will be justi…ed in Section 6.4.

8. Suppose 1 is bounded by r = 0, n = 0, r + n = 1, and r + n = 4.

Consider

T(n. ·) = (n ÷n·. n·) = (r. n).

We want to …nd 1

such that T(1

) = 1. We see that

r +n = n

and

n = n· =· =

n

n

=

n

r +n

for n = 0. Observe T maps the set n = 0 to the point (0. 0) and T is one-to-one

when n = 0. We …nd 1

**by examining the pre-image of 01. To this end,
**

the pre-image of the segment n = 0 and 1 _ r _ 4 is the segment · = 0 and

1 _ n _ 4. The pre-image of the segment r = 0 and 1 _ n _ 4 is the segment

1 _ n _ 4 and · = 1. The pre-image of the segment n = 1 ÷r and 0 _ r _ 1

is the segment n = 1 and 0 _ · _ 1. Finally, the pre-image of the segment

n = 4 ÷ r and 0 _ r _ 4 is the segment n = 4 and 0 _ · _ 1. Therefore

5

1

**= [1. 4] [0. 1]. Since T is invertible and C
**

1

we may apply a change of

variables. We compute

0(r. n)

0(n. ·)

=

1 ÷· ÷n

· n

= n(1 ÷·) +n· = n.

So

1

1

r +n

drdn =

1

n

n ÷n· +n·

dnd· =

1

0

4

1

dnd· = ¹(1

) = 3.

9. Suppose 1 is the disk r

2

+n

2

_ 4 then using a polar change of variables,

we have

1

r

2

+n

2

3

2

drdn =

2

0

2t

0

r

4

drd0 = 2¬

r

5

5

[

2

0

=

64¬

5

10. Let 1

**be a ·-simple region in the n· plane bounded by · = o(n) and
**

· = /(n) _ o(n) for a _ n _ /. Let T : R

2

÷ R

2

be the transformation given

by r = n and n = c(n. ·) where c ÷ C

1

and

Jr

Ju

is never zero. Assume that

T(1

**) = 1 is a n-simple region. We …rst observe that T ÷ C
**

1

since n. c ÷ C

1

and locally invertible since

[DT(n. ·)[ =

0(r. n)

0(n. ·)

=

1 0

Jr

Ju

Jr

Ju

=

0c

0·

= 0.

Next, since 1

**is a ·-simple region we let
**

¹ = ¦(n. ·) ÷ R

2

: · = o(n) when a < n < /¦.

1 = ¦(n. ·) ÷ R

2

: · = /(n) when a < n < /¦. and

C = ¦(n. ·) ÷ R

2

: o(n) < · < /(n) when n = a. /¦

so that

01

= ¹' 1 ' C.

We observe that

T(C) = ¦(r. n) ÷ R

2

: c(r. o(r)) < n < c(r. o(r)) when r = a. /¦.

T(1) = ¦(r. n) ÷ R

2

: n = c(r. /(r)) when a < r < /¦. and

T(¹) = ¦(r. n) ÷ R

2

: n = c(r. o(r)) when a < r < /¦

so T maps 01

one-to-one and onto 1. Since both 1

**and 1 are elementary
**

regions, we conclude that 1

is a di¤eomorphism of 1. Since 1 : 1 ÷ R is

continuous we may apply a change of variables to obtain

1

1(r. n)drdn =

1

1(n. c(n. ·))

0c

0·

dnd·.

6

11. We want to …nd the area inside r = 1 +sin0. We see that our curve is

traced out when 0 _ 0 _ 2¬. We compute

2t

0

1+sin 0

0

rdrd0 =

1

2

2t

0

(1 + sin0)

2

d0 =

1

2

2t

0

1 + 2 sin0 + sin

2

0d0

=

1

2

2t

0

1 + 2 sin0 +

1 ÷cos 20

2

d0

= =

1

2

2t

0

3

2

+ 2 sin0 ÷cos 20d0

=

1

2

3

2

0 + 2 cos 0 ÷

sin20

4

[

2t

0

=

3¬

2

.

-1 1

1

2

x

y

12. (a) We want to express

1

0

r

2

0

rndndr

as an integral over the triangle 1

**, which is the set of (n. ·) where 0 _ n _ 1,
**

0 _ · _ n. Let 1 denote the given region of integration. We know that we

want to map the curve n = · where 0 _ n _ 1 to the curve n = r

2

where

0 _ r _ 1 so consider T : 1

÷1 de…ned by

T(n. ·) = (

n. ·) = (r. n).

We observe T is one-to-one and onto and that

0(r. n)

0(n. ·)

=

1

2

p

u

0

0 1

=

1

2

n

7

is de…ned except for at n = 0, but, since this is a corner point on 01

, we may

omit it from consideration. So the change of variables theorem applies and

1

rndrdn =

1

·d·dn.

(b) We evaluate

1

rndrdn =

1

0

r

2

0

rndndr =

1

2

1

0

r

5

dr =

1

12

.

and

1

·d·dn =

1

2

1

0

u

0

·d·dn =

1

4

1

0

n

2

dn =

1

12

.

13. We use a cylindrical change of variables to write

r

2

+u

2

4

2:3

.c

r

2

+u

2

d\ =

2

0

3

0

2t

0

.c

:

2

rd0d.dr

= 2¬

¸

3

2

.d.

¸

¸

2

0

rc

:

2

dr

¸

=

5¬

2

(c

4

÷1).

14. Let 1 be the unit disk. Using a polar change of variables, we have

1

1 +r

2

+n

2

3

2

drdn =

1

0

2t

0

r

1 +r

2

3

2

drd0 =

2¬

5

1 +r

2

5

2

[

1

0

= ¬

2

7

2

÷2

5

.

15. We want to …nd the area bounded by the lemniscate

r

2

+n

2

2

=

2a

2

r

2

÷n

2

**. If r = r cos 0 and n = r sin0 then we have
**

r

4

= 2a

2

r

2

cos

2

0 ÷r

2

sin

2

0

= 2a

2

r

2

cos 20

so r = 2 [a[

**cos 20. We …nd that our curve is traced out when ÷
**

t

4

_ 0 _

t

4

.

Therefore, our desired area is given by

4

4

2joj

p

cos 20

0

rdrd0 = 2a

2

4

4

cos 20d0 = a

2

sin20[

4

4

= 2a

2

.

Here a = 2

8

-4 -2 2 4

-1

1

x

y

16. We …nd the volume of the region \ inside the surface . = r

2

+n

2

and

between . = 0 and . = 10 using a cylindrical change of variables. We see that

\ (\) =

V

d\ =

10

0

p

:

0

2t

0

rd0drd. = 2¬

10

0

p

:

0

rdrd.

= ¬

10

0

r

2

[

p

:

0

d. = ¬

10

0

.d. =

¬

2

.

2

[

10

0

= 50¬.

It is much easier to work this problem using a change of variables.

17. I will o¤er two solutions. The second is slicker than the …rst.

(i) Suppose 1 is the region bounded by r + n = 1. r + n = 4. r ÷ n = ÷1.

and r ÷ n = 1. In order to compute our desired integral, we must …rst apply

to change of variables. We want to map our parallelogram 1 to the rectangle

1

**= [0. 1] [0. 1] so that we will have nice limits of integration after our change
**

of variables. We must …rst …nd the vertices of 1. To this end, we add the

equations r +n = 1 and r ÷n = ÷1 to obtain r = 0 and so n = 1. We add the

equations r +n = 1 and r ÷n = 1 to obtain r = 1 so n = 0. We add r +n = 4

and r ÷ n = ÷1 to obtain r =

3

2

so n =

5

2

. Finally, we add r + n = 4 and

r ÷n = 1 to get r =

5

2

and n =

3

2

. Let us …x a counterclockwise orientation on

vertices and consider a linear map T : 1

÷1 such that

T(0. 0) = (1. 0) . T (1. 0) =

5

2

.

3

2

. T (1. 1) =

3

2

.

5

2

. and T (0. 1) = (0. 1) .

Since

T (n. ·) = (an +/· +c. dn +c· +1)

for some a. /. c. d. c. 1 ÷ R is a transformation that maps parallelograms to

parallelograms, see Exercise 10 of Section 6.1, we use this form and the above

9

points above to …nd our desired transformation explicitly. We have

T (0. 0) = (1. 0) = (c. 1)

so c = 1. 1 = 0 and

T (0. 1) = (0. 1) = (/ + 1. c)

so / = ÷1 and c = 1. Also, we have T (1. 0) =

5

2

.

3

2

= (a + 1. d) so a =

3

2

. d =

3

2

and

T(n. ·) =

3

2

n ÷· + 1.

3

2

n +·

= (r. n) .

We …nd

0 (r. n)

0 (n. ·)

=

3

2

÷1

3

2

1

= 3.

We observe that T is the composition of an invertible linear transformation with

a shift and is therefore invertible and di¤erentiable. Since T is a di¤eomorphism,

the change of variables theorem applies and we obtain

1

(r +n)

2

c

ru

d¹ = 3

1

(3n + 1)

2

c

2u+1

d¹

= 3

¸

1

0

c

2u+1

d·

¸

¸

1

0

(3n + 1)

2

dn

¸

.

We compute

=

1

0

(3n + 1)

2

dn =

(3n + 1)

3

9

[

1

0

= 7

and

1

0

c

2u+1

d· = ÷

c

2u+1

2

[

1

0

=

c

2

÷

1

2c

so

1

(r +n)

2

c

ru

d¹ =

21

2

c ÷

1

c

.

(ii) Let n = r + n and · = r ÷n. By adding, subtracting and solving the

previous equalities we see that

r =

n +·

2

and n =

n ÷·

2

.

Since 1 _ r + n _ 4 on 1 we have 1 _ n _ 4. Similarly, ÷1 _ · _ 1. Let

1

= [1. 4] [÷1. 1] and consider T : 1

÷1 de…ned by

T (n. ·) =

n +·

2

.

n ÷·

2

= (r. n) .

10

We compute

[det T[ =

0 (r. n)

0 (n. ·)

=

1

2

1

2

1

2

÷

1

2

=

÷

1

4

÷

1

4

=

1

2

Observe that this transformation shrinks parallelograms since [det T[ =

1

2

< 1

and reverses the orientation of vertices since det T = ÷

1

2

< 0. Now we apply

the change of variables theorem to compute

1

(r +n)

2

c

ru

drdn =

1

2

1

1

4

1

n

2

c

u

dnd· =

1

2

¸

1

1

c

u

d·

¸

¸

4

1

n

2

dn

¸

.

We compute

1

1

c

u

d· = c ÷c

1

and

4

1

n

2

dn =

n

3

3

[

4

1

= 21.

Therefore

1

(r +n)

2

c

ru

drdn =

21

2

c ÷c

1

.

18. Let T : R

3

÷R

3

be de…ned by

T (n. ·. n) = (ncos · cos n. nsin· cos n. nsinn) = (r. n. .) .

a) To show T is onto the unit sphere o

2

, we must show that for any (r. n. .) ÷

o

2

there is (n. ·. n) ÷ R

3

such that T (n. ·. n) = (r. n. .). If r

2

+ n

2

+ .

2

= 1

then n = ±1. Let n = 1 so n will be like the radius in the usual spherical

change of coordinates. Now since . ÷ [÷1. 1] we let n(.) = sin

1

. and observe

n ÷ [÷

t

2

.

t

2

]. Geometrically, n is the acute angle the position vector (r. n. .)

makes with the rn plane where n < 0 when . < 0. Moreover, we see that · is

just the usual polar angle measured from the positive r-axis. Suppose . = ±1

so that n ÷ (÷

t

2

.

t

2

). Then cos n ÷ (0. 1] so

r

cos n

= cos ·.

n

cos n

= sin·. and

n

r

= tan·.

We observe that

· (r. n) =

tan

1

u

r

for r 0 and n _ 0

t

2

for r = 0 and n 0

tan

1

u

r

+¬ for r < 0

3t

2

for r = 0 and n < 0

tan

1

u

r

+ 2¬ for r 0 and n < 0

11

is well-de…ned and · ÷ [0. 2¬). Therefore, if . = ±1 then (r. n. .) ÷ T(¦1¦

[0. 2¬) (÷

t

2

.

t

2

)) and if . = ±1 then r = n = 0 and T(1. 0. ±

t

2

) = (0. 0. ±1).

We conclude that T maps ¦1¦ [0. 2¬) [÷

t

2

.

t

2

] onto the unit sphere.

b) Clearly T is not one-to-one as T (÷1. 0. 0) = (÷1. 0. 0) = T (1. ¬. 0) .

20. To evaluate

1

0

c

4u

2

dn

we consider the Gaussian Integral

1

1

c

r

2

dr =

¬.

Since R = (÷·. ·) is a symmetric region, that is, r ÷ R =÷r ÷ R. and c

r

2

is even, we have

¬

2

=

1

2

1

1

c

r

2

dr =

1

0

c

r

2

dr.

Our desired integral is given on the right above with

r

p

2

= n so

1

0

c

4u

2

dn =

1

2

1

0

c

r

2

dr =

¬

2

2

.

22. Suppose ¹ is determined by r

2

+n

2

_ 1 and r +n _ 1. Then consider

the polar change of variables where

r

2

+n

2

= r +n _ 1 =r = 0 or n = 0

so 0 _ 0 _

t

2

. Then

r +n = r (cos 0 + sin0) _ 1 and r = r

2

+n

2

_ 1

so

1

cos 0+sin 0

_ r _ 1. We apply the change of variables and compute

.

drdn

(r

2

+n

2

)

2

=

2

0

1

cos +sin

0

drd0

r

3

= ÷

2

0

1

r

2

[

1

1

cos +sin

= ÷

2

0

1 ÷(cos 0 + sin0)

2

d0 = 2

2

0

cos 0 sin0d0 = n

2

[

1

0

= 1.

12

where n = sin0.

23. Since \ is bound by the two spheres r

2

+n

2

+.

2

= a

2

and r

2

+n

2

+.

2

=

/

2

, where 0 < / < a, we use a spherical change of variables to obtain

V

drdnd.

(r

2

+n

2

+.

2

)

3

2

=

t

0

2t

0

o

b

sin.

j

djd0d. = 2¬

¸

t

0

sin.d.

¸

¸

o

b

1

j

d.

¸

= ÷2¬ (cos 0[

t

0

) (log j[

o

b

) = 4¬ log (a ÷/) .

24. Suppose ¹ is determined by r

2

+n

2

_ 1 and 0 _ r _ n. Then consider

the polar change of variables where

0 _ r _ n =0 _ r cos 0 _ r sin0 =

¬

4

_ 0 _

¬

2

and 0 _ r _ 1. Thus

.

r

2

drdn =

2

4

1

0

r

3

cos

2

0drd0 =

¸

¸

2

4

cos

2

0d0

¸

¸

1

0

r

3

dr

¸

=

1

4

2

4

cos

2

0d0.

But

2

4

cos

2

0d0 =

2

4

1 + cos 20

2

d0 =

¬

8

+

1

4

sin20[

2

4

=

¬ ÷2

8

so

.

r

2

drdn =

¬ ÷2

32

.

28. We choose 1

**= [0. 1] [0. 1] because it is a simple rectangle. Let 1
**

be the parallelogram with vertices (0. 0) . (1. 2) . (3. 1) . and (2. ÷1). We want a

linear map such that T (1

**) = 1 so that we may apply a change of variables.
**

Since the most general form a linear map is T (n. ·) = (an +/·. cn +d·) we

want to …nd a. /. c. d ÷ R where

T (0. 1) = (1. 2) and T (1. 0) = (2. ÷1) .

The …rst equality implies / = 1 and d = 2. This, combined with the second

equality gives us a = 2 and c = ÷1. So T (n. ·) = (2n +·. ÷n + 2·). We check

our answer by verifying that T (1. 1) = (3. 1). Now we compute

[det T[ =

2 ÷1

1 2

= 5

13

and apply a change of variables to compute

1

(r +n) drdn = 5

1

(2n +· ÷n + 2·) dnd· = 5

1

0

1

0

(n + 3·) dnd·

= 5

1

0

1

2

n

2

+ 3·n[

1

0

d· = 5

1

0

(

1

2

+ 3·)d·

= 5(

·

2

+

3

2

·

2

[

1

0

) = 10.

29. (a) If 1 is the ellipsoid

r

o

2

+

u

b

2

+

:

c

2

_ 1 where a. /. c 0 then

observe that T : 1 ÷ 1

. where 1

**is the unit sphere is given by T(n. ·. n) =
**

(an. ./·. cn) = (r. n. .). Clearly T is a change of variables with [DT(n. ·. n)[ =

a/c so

\ (1) =

J

drdnd. = a/c

J

dnd·dn = a/c\ (1

) =

4¬

3

a/c.

(b) We compute using a spherical change of variables

J

[

r

a

2

+

n

/

2

+

.

c

2

]drdnd. = a/c

J

n

2

+·

2

+n

2

dnd·dn

= a/c

t

0

2t

0

1

0

j

4

sin.djd0d.

= 2¬a/c

¸

t

0

sin.d.

¸

¸

1

0

j

4

sin.dj

¸

=

4

5

¬a/c.

32. a) Since

r

2

+n

2

= 2n =r

2

+ (n ÷1)

2

= 1

is a circle or radius one centered at (0. 1) we have the following picture:

14

-2 -1 1 2

-2

-1

1

2

x

y

Our desired region 1 is outside the red circle, inside the black circle, and in the

…rst quadrant. We see that the intersection of the two circles is given by 2n = 1

or n =

1

2

so that r =

p

3

2

.

b) Let us see where T (r. n) = (r

2

+ n

2

. r

2

+ n

2

÷ 2n) = (n. ·) maps the

vertices of our above region. We see that T (0. 0) = (0. 0), T (1. 0) = (1. 1) and

T(

p

3

2

.

1

2

) = (1. 0). Therefore, we guess that T (1) = 1 is the triangle with

vertices (0. 0), (1. 1) and (1. 0). We parameterize 01 and verify that T (01) =

01. We see that the straight line segment connecting (0. 0) to (1. 0) in the rn

plane may be parameterized as n = 0, r ÷ [0. 1] so that n = r

2

= ·. The

image is the straight line segment connecting (0. 0) to (1. 1) in the n· plane.

Next, we parameterize the arc connecting (1. 0) to (

p

3

2

.

1

2

). Here r

2

+ n

2

= 1

and n ÷ [0.

1

2

] so that n = 1 and · = 1 ÷ 2n. The image is the straight line

segment connecting (1. 1) to (1. 0). Finally, the arc connecting (

p

3

2

.

1

2

) to (0. 0)

can be parameterized as r

2

+ n

2

= 2n and n ÷ [0.

1

2

] so that n = 2n and · = 0.

The image is the straight line segment connecting (0. 0) to (1. 0). We conclude

T (01) = 01 so T (1) = 1.

c) In order to compute

1

rc

u

drdn, we need to …nd a smooth o : 1 ÷ 1.

We let o = T

1

. Indeed, n ÷· = 2n so

uu

2

= n and r

2

+n

2

= n so

r =

n ÷

n ÷·

2

2

.

We compute

0r

0n

=

2 ÷n +·

4

n ÷

uu

2

2

.

0r

0·

=

n ÷·

4

n ÷

uu

2

2

.

0n

0n

=

1

2

. and

0n

0·

= ÷

1

2

15

so that

0 (r. n)

0 (n. ·)

=

2u+u

4

q

u(

uv

2

)

2

uu

4

q

u(

uv

2

)

2

1

2

÷

1

2

=

÷2 +n ÷·

8

n ÷

uu

2

2

+

÷n +·

8

n ÷

uu

2

2

=

1

4

n ÷

uu

2

2

.

Therefore, by the change of variables theorem, we have

1

rc

u

drdn =

1

¸

n ÷

n ÷·

2

2

¸

c

uv

2

1

4

n ÷

uu

2

2

dnd·

=

1

4

1

0

u

0

c

uv

2

d·dn = ÷

1

2

1

0

c

uv

2

[

u

u=0

dn =

1

2

1

0

(c

u

2

÷1)dn

= c

u

2

÷

n

2

[

1

0

=

c ÷

3

2

.

34. Let o : [0. 1] [0. 2¬] [0. ¬] ÷o

2

(1) be the usual spherical change of

variables. Geometrically, we observe that

o ([0. 1] ¦0¦ [0. ¬]) = o ([0. 1] ¦2¬¦ [0. ¬])

and that o is one-to-one on (0. 1] (0. 2¬) [0. ¬]. It remains to be shown that

o ([0. 1] ¦0¦ [0. ¬]) is the graph of a continuous function. We observe that

o ([0. 1] ¦0¦ [0. ¬]) = ¦(r. n. .) ÷ R

3

: 0 _ r _

1

2

÷.

2

. n = 0. ÷1 _ . _ 1¦

is the graph of n = 1 (r. .) = 0 where 1 is de…ned on

¦(r. .) ÷ R

2

: 0 _ r _

1

2

÷.

2

. ÷1 _ . _ 1¦.

Clearly 1 = 0 is a continuous function.

16

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