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STATICS LABORATORY

Kod M/Pelajaran/

ENGINEERING LABORATORY I BDA 17001

Subject Code

Kod & Tajuk Ujikaji/ TOPIC 4: PRINCIPLE OF

Code & Title of Experiment MOMENTS

Kod Kursus/ Seksyen /Section

Course Code BNJ17001 6

No. K.P / I.C No.

Kumpulan/Group

7

LUQMAN HAKIM B MOHD No. Matrik

Nama Pelajar/Name of Student

MASROR

1.EN. MOHD NAZRUL BIN ROSLAN

Lecturer/Instructor/Tutor’s Name

2.

Nama Ahli Kumpulan/

No. Matrik Penilaian / Assesment

Group Members

MASROR

2. AN120113 Keputusan / Results 15 %

FUAD RIDZUAN B MOKHTAR

Pemerhatian

3. ARIF AIMRAN B AHMAD AN120129 20 %

/Observation

Pengiraan /

4. NORASIKIN BT AB RANI AN120032 10 %

Calculation

Perbincangan /

25 %

Discussions

Tarikh Ujikaji / Kesimpulan /

4 OCT 2012 15 %

Date of Experiment Conclusion

Tarikh Hantar / Rujukan /

11 OCT 2012 5%

Date of Submission References

COP DITERIMA/APPROVED

STAMP

UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA

Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

COURSE INFORMATION

COURSE TITLE: ENGINEERING LABORATORY I (BDA17001)

TOPIC 4: PRINCIPLE OF MOMENTS

1. INTRODUCTION

The principle of moments is frequently used in engineering and building work

where forces have to be balanced to prevent any turning movement. It can

be applied both to parallel forces and to oblique forces. If a body has several

forces applied to it which have turning effects in opposite directions, the body

will not turn if the total turning moment in each direction are equal. This is

called Principle of moments.

2. OBJECTIVES

The objective of this experiment is to verify the principle of moments for

parallel and non-parallel forces.

3. LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the end of this topic, the students will be able to display basic skills and

knowledge of principle of moments using laboratory equipments, analyze

observable data obtained from principle of moments experiment properly,

work effectively in a group through laboratory experiment and presentation

and demonstrate comprehension of the general ideas of the topic through

written report that comply with specified standards.

4. THEORY

A concept often used in mechanics is the principle of moments, which is

sometimes referred to as a Varignon’s theorem since it was originally

developed by the French mathematician Varignon. The moment of a force

indicates the tendency of a body to turn about an axis passing through a

specific point.

UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA

Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

d, is the perpendicular distance between F and centre of

moment. (Figure 1a/1b)

The principle of moments states that the moment of a force about a point is

equal to the sum of the moments of the forces components about the point.

For a body in equilibrium or not rotate:

So,

F1d1 - F2d2 = 0

F1 d 2

……………………………….. (2)

F2 d1

F d1 d2

F

d

d

F1 F2

BDA17001-2012 5

UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA

Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

product that is obey distributive law. For two-dimensional problems , we

can use the principle of moments by resolving the force into its

rectangular components and then determine the moment using a scalar

analysis. The moment is a scalar quantity,

BDA17001-2012 6

UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA

Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

5. EQUIPMENTS

No. Apparatus Qty.

1 Panel board 1

2 Pivot bar and stop ( EX5) 2

3 Pulleys ( P12) 4

4 Nuts 6

5 Screw 5

6 Weight hook ( P10) 1

7 Cord approx (40cm long) 1

8 Set of weights 1

6. PROCEDURES

1. Set up the panel board as shown in Figure 2. Ensure pivot bar is in

balance and attached pulley using bolt and nut.

2.

Pivot bar

Figure 2

Weight

Hook

Pulley

BDA17001-2012 7

UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA

Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

3. Hang weight hooks from the end holes of the bar entering the hook

from the back of the bar.(Refer Figure 3a). The weight of hooks each

weight 0.1N.

4. Add a 1.9N load to each hook to make the total of 2N.

5. Record the value of F1 and F2. Then measure and record the distance

d1 and d2.

6. Move the right hand weight hook to a hole nearer the pivot bar (Refer

Figure 3b) and load it with just sufficient weighs to balance the bar in

the level position.

7. Record the weight value F2 and the distance d2

8. Then, hang right hand weight hook (without weight) through pulley

(refer Figure 3c).

9. Load the weight hook to balance the bar.

10. Record the weight value F2 and the perpendicular distance d2.

11. Set up the panel as shown in Figure 3d, repeat the procedure from 7

to 9 with the cord passing over the left hand pulley and attach to the

lowest hole of the centre arm of the bar.

12. Fill in the Table 2

d1 d2

2N 2N

BDA17001-2012 8

UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA

Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

d1 d2

2N F2

d1

2N

d2

F2

BDA17001-2012 9

UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA

Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

d1

d2

2N

F2

7. RESULT

F1 d 2

2. Plot a graph for vs .

F2 d1

BDA17001-2012 10

UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA

Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

Table 2: Results

Test

F1 d1 M1 F2 d2 M2 M1 - M2 F1 d2

(N) (m) (Nm) (N) (m) (Nm) (Nm) F2 d1

Figure

2.00 0.16 0.32 2.00 0.16 0.32 0.00 1.00 1.00

4.3a

Figure

2.00 0.16 0.32 3.20 0.10 0.32 0.00 0.62 0.62

4.3b

Figure

2.00 0.16 0.32 3.50 0.09 0.32 0.00 0.57 0.56

4.3c

Figure

2.00 0.16 0.32 4.00 0.08 0.32 0.00 0.50 0.50

4.3d

BDA17001-2012 11

UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA

Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

8. CALCULATON

1. Calculate the Moment for Left Pivot Bar and Right Pivot Bar.

Figure 4.3 (a)

2N (0.16m) = 0.32 Nm

2N (0.16m) = 0.32 Nm

2N (0.16m) = 0.32 Nm

2N (0.16m) = 0.32 Nm

Figure 4.3 (a)

2N (0.16m) = 0.32 Nm

3.20N (0.10m) = 0.32 Nm

3.5N (0.09m) = 0.32 Nm

4N (0.08m) = 0.32 Nm

BDA17001-2012 12

UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA

Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

Ratio of distance

Figure 4.3 (a)

2 N ÷ 2 N = 1.00

2 N ÷ 3.20 N = 0.62

2 N ÷ 3.5 N = 0.57

2 N ÷ 4 N = 0.50

Ratio of distance

Figure 4.3 (a)

0.16m ÷ 0.16m = 1

0.16m ÷ 0.1m = 0.62

0.16m ÷ 0.09m = 0.56

0.16m ÷ 0.08m = 0.50

BDA17001-2012 13

UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA

Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

9. OBSERVATIONS

For the test1, the distance of force for left pivot bar was equal to the

distance for left pivot bar from the centre pivot bar. The force of F1 and F2

are equal, sop the total value of moment is equal to zero. Thus, it is in

equilibrium.

For test2, the F1 is maintain and small than F2 because the load require

for right pivot is more than left pivot to balance the pivot bar. Thus, the

ratios of force and distance small. The distance of right pivot was shorter

than then distance of left pivot.

All the experiment was success because the total moment equal to zero

according to the theory. From my observation, the ratio of force equal to

the ratio of distance. This experiment obey the principle of moment state

that the moment of clockwise equal to the moment of anticlockwise.

BDA17001-2012 14

UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA

Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

10. DISCUSSIONS

The graph obtain is decreasing graph. When the ratio of force

smaller, then the ratio of distance will decrease. Thus, the force

become larger as the distance decrease.

experiment results.

Value of moment increase as the force becomes larger and as the

distance from force’s line of action increase. If the line of action of F2

is perpendicular to the distance that we let, d as shortest distance

between these two lines , then the moment produced by F1 has size

F1d (Nm). The total moment will be zero or equilibrium when the value

moment of left pivot bar are equal to the value moment of right pivot

bar.

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

BDA17001-2012 15

UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA

Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

3. If the moment is nonzero, what are the factors may influence the

experiment.

The factors may influence the experiment when the moment is nonzero obtain

after experiment is the force of load that we set up not balance. Second, the

pivot bar that we were set up not balance before we added the load. Then, the

distance between the load and the centre of pivot bar not accurate because

when we measure the distance, maybe there was an error. The angle of

perpendicular distance not equal to 90 also can influence the moment obtain.

10.1 QUESTIONS

The principle of moment also known as Vargnon’s thorem. It state that

the moment of a force about a point is equal to the sum of the moment of the

force’s components about the point. Principle of moments is if an object is

balanced then the sum of the clockwise moments about a pivot is equal

to the sum of the anticlockwise moments about the same pivot.

The moment can achieve when the distance from the line of action of the force

to the pivot was obtained and its perpendicular to the force. The moment depends on

the size of the force, the direction of the force and the distance from the force to the

hinge.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

2. What does the principles of Moment state about the turning moments

of forces acting on a body?

BDA17001-2012 16

UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA

Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

It will produce a tendency for the body to rotate about a point that is

not on the line of action of the force. It is called simply the moment.

The larger the force or the longer the moment arm, the greater the

moment or turning effect. If the force applied at an angle, θ ≠ 90, then

it will be more difficult for turning occur. It moment arm will be zero

since the line of action of force will intersects to the z-axis. As the

result, the moment of force about z-axis is also zero and the turning

moment of forces cannot occur.

formula of clockwise moments equal to anticlockwise moment. You need to

consider the force of three dimension bodies. You also need consider the

distance of the bodies.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

11. CONCLUSION

BDA17001-2012 17

UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA

Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

experimental work in terms of achievement, problems faced throughout the

experiment and suggest recommendation for improvements.

Moment of a force depends on both the forces and the location of the point about

which the moment evaluated. Moment of force is equal to the sum of the moment of

the components of the force after we carried out the experiment. So, the principle of

moment was achieved.

The principle of moment for parallel and non-parallel forces was verified.

During the experiment, the pivot bar is unbalance, so we should ensure the pivot bar

is in balance before we added the load. The ratio of force and the ratio of distance

must be equal after calculating them because the moment of clockwise equal to the

F1 d 2

moment of anti-clockwise. So, the graph of vs could be plot. Lastly, when

F2 d1

carrying the experiment, we should avoid the parallax error while measure the

distance using a ruler.

12. REFERENCES

-Http://En.Wikipedia.Org/Wiki/Moment_(Physics)

-Http://Www.S-Cool.Co.Uk/A-Level/Physics/Moments-Couples-And-

Equilibrium/Revise-It/The-Principle-Of-Moments

BDA17001-2012 18

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