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BIOSTRATIGRAPHY AND PALEOECOLOGY: HISTORY OF SAMBIPITU

FORMATION EARLY–LATE MIOCENE IMPLICATED BY FORAMINIFERA


FOSSIL

*Harman Dwi R.(1), Moch Rahmat R. (2), Adnan W. (2), Ryan A. (2), Abraham I. P. (2)
(1) Departemen Teknik Geologi, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Gadjah Mada Jln. Grafika 2
Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(2) Fakultas Teknologi Mineral, Jurusan Teknik Geologi, Universitas Pembanguan Nasional
“VETERAN”, Yogyakarta, Jl.SWK 104 (Lingkar Utara) Condongcatur, Yogyakarta 55283 Fax.
4864000

ABSTRACT
benthic sensitive to ecological changes and
Understanding of ecology in the past, present and
lithostratigraphy which show changes in deposition
future temperatures can be possible to do by analysis
environment. Foraminifera is a very unique organism
abundance of fossil foraminifera. This research was
with the development of the marine region, with the
conducted in Sambipitu Formation, Ngalang River,
distribution of rocks recorded in the sequence of
Nglipar, Gunung Kidul Regency. The research method is
stratigraphy Sambipitu Formation used in this study as
spatial, observation and sampling every 5 meters, a tool to identify deposition environment and
Descriptive, analyzing samples consisting of a 10gram paleoecology.
sample, biostratigraphy analysis and paleoecology
analysis using abundance of fossil, diversity analysis, 2. SETTING GEOLOGY
and comparing current temperature data. The southern mountainous zone, is a structural
Biostratigraphy used as a parameter in assisting the mountain range that extends from west to east in the
determination of paleoecology, which can be evidence direction of Java Island geometry, and is divided into
of changes of ecology at a certain age seen datum and the southern mountains of East Java and the western
biozones. Based on paleontological analysis found mountains of western Java. So what is meant by the
appearance and abundance of foraminifera bentonic southern mountains is the mountains located in the
which characterize the salinity environment in the southern part of Central Java, starting from the
Sambipitu Formation with early-to-late miocene. as southeastern part of the province of Yogyakarta Special
well as the results obtained by fauna association Region, extending eastward along the southern coast
(foraminifera), that the study area showed salinity of East Java. From the conclusion of the results of
normal marine water. From the analysis we found 1 previous researchers, which lies to the south and
phase of pelotemperatur based on appearance of southeast of Wonogiri-Baturetno depression
Globorotalia menardii, Globigerinoides trilobus, stratigraphy order compiled by Sartono (1958). The
Globigerinoides ruber, Orbulina universa, and constituent rocks at the bottom consist of coarse
appearance of Pulleniatina obliqueculata showing sandstones, then up gradually into fine sandstone
paleotemperature phase Warm Water Area and Warm alternating with flakes, rocks and clay.At the bottom of
Water Area (average surface water approximate 25oC). this rock group does not contain carbonate material or
the sandstone still shows volcanic properties. But the
Keywords: Abundance, Biostratigraphy, Paleoecology,
more these volcanic properties change, especially
Sambipitu Formation.
sandstones, containing carbonate material. In this
sandstone is often found fragments of coral and large
1. INTRODUCTION
foraminifera derived from the shallow marine
Paleoecology is ecology in the past. At the Early –
environment, which dragged into the deeper
Late miocene the study area showed an environmental
environment due to the influence of turbid currents.
change, which has fluctuations due to changes in space
Formation Sambipitu have a position of fingers and
and time. The paper is integrated in paleontological
aligned above Nglanggran Formation.
analysis that analyzes fossil foraminifera plankton and

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They can be used to reconstruct past climate by
examining the stable isotope ratios and trace element
content of the shells (tests). Global temperature and
ice volume can be revealed by the isotopes of oxygen,
and the history of the carbon cycle and oceanic
productivity by examining the stable isotope ratios of
carbon δ18O and δ13C. Geographic patterns seen in the
fossil records of planktonic forams are also used to
reconstruct ancient ocean currents. Because certain
types of Foraminifera are found only in certain
environments, they can be used to figure out the kind
of environment under which ancient marine sediments
were deposited.
Fig. 2. Stratigraphy by previous researchers (Bothe
(1929), Van Bemmelen (1949), Surono, et al. (1992)) 4. BIOSTRATIGRAPHY
Biostratigraphy is the branch of stratigraphy which
3. MATERIALS AND METHODS focuses on correlating and assigning relative ages of
In this study the researchers conducted a measured rock strata by using the fossil assemblages contained
section on the outcrop with 62 meters thick in the within them. In previous researchers stated that the
formation sambipitu. Precisely this research is in age of Sambipitu was early – middle miocene (Surono,
Ngalang which is the geoheritage area of Gunungkidul 1992) and there is a middle miocene (Van Bemmelen).
precisely in Yogyakarta Special Region. At the top is In this study using the classification of B.S Wade (2011),
limited by Oyo Formations with clastic carbonate rocks in 2009 the reasearch of Integrated Ocean Drilling
and the bottom by Ngelanggeran Formation with rock Program (IODP) Wade has analysis biostratigraphy
breccia and volcanic rocks. In this area there is using foraminiferal is extensively employed during
abundant bioturbation at the bottom and small shipboard and establish age-depth relationships.
foraminifera fossil content. This study focuses on the In this research obtained three datums: Datum
distribution of foraminifera which is used as Globigerinoides primordius; Globogerinoides
biostratigraphy and paleoecology interpretation and altiaaperturus; and Globorotalia plesiotumida. Datum
stratigraphy data used for sequence stratigraphy on Globigerinoides primordius obtained on Sn 39 samples
sambipitu formation with early-late miocene. was 24.3 Ma. Datum Globogerinoides altiaperturus on
samples Sn 31 aged 20.50 Ma. As for Datum
Globorotalia plesiotumida on Sn 9 sample 8,58 Ma. And
than the calibration is performed using zonasi Blow,
1969.
4.1. Globoquadrina dehiscens zone N4a dehiscens
This zone, with the age of the early Miocene,
attributed by first appearance in Globoquadrina
dehiscens as a first occurrence to Globoquadrina
altispira. N4a zone composed of sandstones and
looping rock units of the shale stone where the
abundance of fossils are abundant enough
Globoquadrina dehiscens (Medium 20 – 30 specimens).
4.2. Globigerinoides primordius zone N4b
This zone, with early Miocene age, characterized by
the Globigerinoides primordius first appearance to the
Fig. 1. Research Sites located on the Ngiono River. first occurrence Globigerinoides trilobus. N4b zone
composed of rock units and shale stone looping
3.1. FORAMINIFERA sandstones where an abundance of fossil
Foraminifera are members of a phylum or class of Globigerinoides primordius is abundant (ambundance >
protists. Foraminifera typically produce a test, or shell, 50 specimen).
which can have either one or multiple chambers. These 4.3. Globigerinoides obliquus zone N5
shells are commonly made of calcium carbonate This zone, with early Miocene age, at the interval of
(CaCO3) or agglutinated sediment particles. Because of
the first attributed by appearance Globigerinoides
their diversity, abundance, and complex morphology,
fossil foraminiferal assemblages are useful for obliquus to first occurrence Globigerina seminulina.
biostratigraphy, and can accurately give relative dates Zone N5 unit of rocks composed of sandstones with
to sedimentary rocks. Calcareous fossil Foraminifera perselingan shale stone and breksi where the
are formed from elements found in the ancient seas abundance of fossil Globigerinoides obliquus is
where they lived. medium (Medium 20 – 30 specimens).

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4.4. Globigerinoides diminutus zone N6a 5. PALEOENVIRONMENT
This zone was early Miocene, with interval from The research area is dominated by carbonate
first appearance to the first occurance Globigerinoides sandstone which is clastic sedimentary rock grain size
diminutus, Globigerinoides altiaperturus. Penyusunya ranges from gravel to very fine sand. Then there are
rocks are sandstone units with inset shale stone where also some structures recorded on the sandstone
an abundance of fossil Globigerinoides diminutus is including wavy laminate, inverse graded bedding,
medium (Medium 20 – 30 specimens). laminate and crossbedding (Fig. 3.).
4.5. Globigerinoides altiaperturus zone N6b
This zone was attributed to early Miocene gift fisrt
appearance Globigerinoides altiaperturus to the first
occurance Globorotalia peripherorondes. N6b zone
composed of rock units of the sandstones with inset
shale stone. The abundance of Globigerinoides
altiaperturus is medium (Medium 20 – 30 specimens).
4.6. Globorotalia peripherorondes zone N6 – N12
This zone is characterized by the appearance of the
first Globorotalia peripherorondes to the first
occurance Sphaeroidinella subdehiscens with the age
of the early Miocene – Middle Miocene. rock units of
the compiler of this zone is sandstones. The abundance
of Globorotalia peripherorondes is medium (Medium
20 – 30 specimens).
4.7. Sphaeroidinella subdehiscens zone N13
This zone of the Middle Miocene age with the
appearance of the first identifier Sphaeroidinella
subdehiscens to the first occurance Globorotalia
nepenthes. This zone is structured upon the rocks of Fig. 4. A, Sn31 Ichnofossil, B, Sn27 Wavy Lamination, C,
sandstone with looping unit shale stone. An abundance Sn26 Inverse Gradded bedding, D, Sn31 lamination, E,
of Sphaeroidinella subdehiscens is a medium (Medium Sn33 Cross lamination.
20 – 30 specimens).
4.8. Globigerina Nepenthes zone N14 5.1. SEQUANCE STRATIGRAPHY
This zone is characterized by first appearance 5.1.1. SEQUENCE BOUNDARY
Globigerina nepenthes to the first occurance of In the study area there were five sequence
Globorotalia plesiotumida, Middle Miocene age. Rock boundaries, SB1, SB2, SB3, SB4, and SB5 which have
units of the compiler of this zone is looping sandstones been observed based on changes in rock texture and
and shale stone. The abundance of fossil Globigerina benthic foraminifera content. The entire sequence
nepenthes is abundant (Medium 20 – 30 specimens). boundary is characterized by a decrease in
4.9. Globigerinoides immaturus zone N15 paleobatimetry recorded on rocks.
This zone was the late Miocene with the 5.1.2. LOWSTAND SYSTEM TRACK (LST)
appearance of the first identifier Globigerinoides There are five observed LST hoses. The LST is usually
immaturus. Units constituting rocks are sandstone and indicated by altered paleobatimetry changes and then
shale stone looping. The abundance of fossil the fossil diversity of both planktonic and benthic
Globigerinoides immaturus is abundant (Medium 20 – foraminifera. LST deposits are usually characterized by
30 the specimen). the presence of fossils rework and mixing of shallow
deep and shallow seawater foraminifera.
5.1.3. TRANSGRESSIVE SYSTEM TRACK (TST)
In the study there were six TST, TST hose showed a
deepening of the basin tends to show greater
abundance of foraminifera plankton than benthic
foraminifera. So it can be known if the process of
deepening will usually show abundance of more
plankton foraminifera.
5.1.4. HIGHSTAND SYSTEM TRACK (HST)
There are five observed HSTs, indicating
increasingly shallower with declining diversity and
abundance.
5.1.5. TRANSGRESSIVE SURFACE (TS)
There are five TS points where each TS indicates a
relatively shallow depth environment - in characterized
Fig. 3. List of fossils by permanent silting. Relatively shows the decline in

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abundance and diversity of both plankton and benthic emergence of the Globorotalia menardii fossil,
foraminifera. Globigerinoides trilobus, Globigerinoides ruber,
5.1.6. MAXIMUM FLOODING SURFACE (MFS) Orbulina universa, and Pulleniatina obliqueculata
In the study there were as many as six times the showing the paleotemperature phase of the Warm
MFS which showed an abundance of plankton water tropical area (Banerji, Schaper & Vine, 1971).
foraminifera with varying diversity, followed by the Compared with the current temperature does not
difficulty of the difference between foraminifera which experience a significant temperature change where the
is a rework and insitu because sea level changes quite current temperature indicates 35oC.
quickly. 6.2. PALEOSALINITY
Analyzing 18O data they also found that deep waters
6. PALEOECOLOGY were within error of the freezing point, with oceanic
Paleoecology is study of interactions between waters exhibiting a greater degree of homogeneity in
organisms and interactions between organisms and temperatures. In the result of abundance analysis of
their environments across geologic timescales. The aim benthos foraminifera to know paleosalinity of some
of paleoecology is to build the most detailed model genus obtained normal marine. The benthos genus
possible of the life environment of previously living belongs to the stenohaline which means that the genus
organisms found today as fossils. Often much of this is only able to survive under normal marine conditions.
information is lost or distorted by the fossilization Genus derived from an abundance analysis based on
process or diagenesis of the enclosing sediments, Murray 1973: Cibicides normal marine life in artic-
making interpretation difficult. tripical, shelf-bathyal, Cassidulina normal marine with
6.1. PALEOTEMPERATURE cold temperature, shelf-bathyal, Lenticulina normal
Understanding temperatures occurring in the past, marine with cold temperature, outer shelf and bathyal,
present and predict future temperatures can be done Cyclammina normal marine with temperature 10oC,
by utilizing the analysis of the abundance of outer shelf and top bathyal, Textularia normal marine
foraminifera. The foraminifera fossil is a reference for with artic tropical temperature, shelf and top bathyal.
planktonic foraminifera because this planktonic
Gaudryina normal marine with medium temperature,
foraminifera fossil is thought to interpret the
upper bathyal shelf, Lagena normal marine with cold
temperature data more accurately on the surface.
tropical temperature, shelf, Trochammina normal
Banerji, Schaper & Vine (1971) conducted a
marine cold temperature, shelf-bathyal, normal marine
paleotemperature study based on planktonic
Planorbulina with temperature subtropical, inner shelf,
foraminifera located in the equator and the North
normal marine Eponides with normal temperatures,
Pacific Ocean. From the results, there are five zones of
Quinquelloculina marine shelf bathyal and hypersaline
Warm water tropical area, Warm temperate area,
lagoon with medium temperature - tropical, slight
Cosmopolitan species, Cold temperate area, Cold water
Globobulimina, hyposaline and normal marine with
area.
temperature <10o, Normal Marine normal with cold
Table 1. Table of fauna association equator area and temperature, outher shelf and bathyal, Amphistegina
North Pacific Ocean according to Banerji, Schaper & temperature 25-26oC, inner shelf. The trend of fossil
Vine (1971). fossil presence in each sample shows a uniform
abundance of no change in abundance though so
Area Fauna researchers assume that no extreme salinity event
Warm water tropical area Gla. aequilateralis, Gs. conglobatus,
(average surface water Gs. ruber, Gs. sacculiferus, Gs. occurs.
approximate 25oC). trilobus, Gr. menardii, Gr. tumida, 6.3. PALEOBATIMETRY
Orbulina universa, Pulleniatina Paleobathymetry the determination of ancient
obliqueloculata, Sphaeroidinella water depth is the paleoenvironmental interpretation.
dehiscens. Etc.
Benthic foraminifera are usually used for this purpose.
Warm temperate area Gr. infilata, Gr. hirsuta, Gq. dutertrei As bottom dwellers, they provide information about
(average surface water app. (and some water species) conditions at the sea floor. Many species live within a
20oC) relatively limited range of water depths in patterns
normally related to water mass distribution within the
Cosmopolitan species Globigerina glutinata, Gr. inflata (in
surface) basin rather than directly to bathymetry.
Cold temperate area G. bulloides, G. pachyderma (dextral), Reconstruction of paleobatimetry based on data from
(northern boundary app. At Gr. inflata (some cosmopolitan benthic foraminifera fossils. Based on the result of the
10oC isotherm) species and warm water species)
reconstruction, there was a strong retrogradation
Cold water area (average G. bulloides, G. pachyderma (sinistral), process shown in Sn 31-30 samples with depth
surface water at Gq. dutertrei (small forms), Gr. reaching 1400 - 1450 asl (above sea level) at early
temperature less 10oC). cavernula, Globigerinita glutinata. miocene stage and the highest progradation process
reaching height 165 - 175 m at middle miocene
From the analysis of planktonic foraminifera fossils moment shown in Sn 15-14 samples.
obtained a phase of paleotemperature based on the

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7. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION calibration to the geomagnetic polarity and
In this research obtained three datums: Datum astronomical time scale, Earth-Science (2011).
Globigerinoides primordius obtained on Sn 39 samples Khoiril Anwar M., Sebaran foraminifera dalam
was 24.3 Ma, Datum Globogerinoides altiaperturus on hubungannya dengan stratigrafi sikuen (Studi kasus:
samples Sn 31 aged 20.50 Ma, As for Datum daerah Blora dan seitarnya/daerah lintang rendah),
Globorotalia plesiotumida on Sn 9 sample 8,58 Ma, In PROC. ITB, Vol 30, (1998).
the study area there were five sequence boundaries, Sartono, The Stratigraphy and Sedimentation of the
SB1, SB2, SB3, SB4, and SB5 which the entire sequence Most Eastern Part of the Gunung Sewu, (1958).
boundary is characterized by a decrease in Van Bemmelen, Report on the volcanic activity and
paleobatimetry recorded on rocks, there are five volcanological research in Indonesia during the period
observed LST hoses, usually indicated by altered 1936–1948, Springer (1949).
paleobatimetry changes and then the fossil diversity of Banerji,et al, Environmental relationships and
both planktonic and benthic foraminifera, there were distribution of planktonic foraminifera in the equatorial
six TST hose, show greater abundance of foraminifera and northern Pacific waters: Dep. Energy, Mines, Res,
plankton than benthic foraminifera, there are five Marine Science Branch, Atlantic Ocean
observed HSTs, indicating increasingly shallower with Laboratory(1971).
declining diversity and abundance, there are five TS Muray, 1973 Distribution and ecology of living
points where each TS indicates a relatively shallow benthic foraminiferids, agris.fao.org (1973).
depth environment - in characterized by permanent
silting. Relatively shows the decline in abundance and
diversity of both plankton and benthic foraminifera, 11. PHOTOS AND INFORMATION
there were as many as six times the MFS which showed
Harman Dwi R. received the S.T.
an abundance of plankton foraminifera with varying
(2016) He with the Master
diversity, followed by the difficulty of the difference
Program of Departemen Teknik
between foraminifera which is a rework and insitu
Geologi, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas
because sea level changes quite quickly.
Gadjah Mada Jln. Grafika 2
Paleoecology, From the analysis of fossils obtained
Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia.
paleotemperature phase of the Warm water tropical
His Current interests include
area. Paleosalinity, The trend of fossil fossil presence in
Stratigraphy, Sedimentology and
each sample assume that no extreme salinity event
Paleontology
occurs. Paleobatimetry, there was a strong
retrogradation process with depth reaching 1400 - Moch Rahmat Ramdhani. received
1450 asl (above sea level) at early miocene stage and the student collage of Geological
the highest progradation process reaching height 165 - engineering from UPV “Veteran”
175 m at middle miocene moment. Yogyakart. . His Current interests
include Stratigraphy, Sedimentology
8. CONCLUSIONS and Paleontology.
The pattern of distribution of foraminifera can be
used as a reference to determine the deposition
environment and paleoekologi when data taken in Adnan Widodo. received the student
detail or referring to previous researchers. The role of collage of Geological engineering
foraminifera is also important as determination of age from UPV “Vet eran” Yogyakarta. His
(biostratigraphy), as well as the identification of Current interests include
sequences and track systems. Paleoecology use of Stratigraphy, Sedimentology and
plankton and benthic foraminifera can be a problem Paleontology.
solver in discussing paleobatimetry, paleocalinity, and
paleo temperature. Ryan Avirsa. received the student
collage of Geological engineering
9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT from UPV “Veteran” Yogyakarta. His
The authors thank the staff of the paleontology Current interests include
laboratory in UPN “Veteran” Yogyakarta. This research Stratigraphy, Sedimentology and
was supported by Paleontology Research. Paleontology.

10. REFERENCES
C. Waelbroeck, et al, Sea – level an deep water Abraham Ivan P. received the
temperature changes derived from benthic student collage of Geological
foraminifera isotopic records, Quaternary Science engineering from UPV “Veteran”
Reviews 21 (2002). Yogyakarta. His Current interests
Wade, et al, Review and revision of Cenozoic include Stratigraphy, Sedimentology
tropical planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy and and Paleontology.

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Fig. 5. Analysis paleoecology and biostratigraphy