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Motivation is a psychological phenomenon, which arises from the feeling of needs & wants of individuals.
It causes goal directed behaviour.

 Motivation may be defined as the process of stimulating people to action, to accomplish desired goals.
 Motivation is defined as an internal drive that activates behavior and gives it direction.

Key Elements Of Motivation • Intensity: how hard a person


• Direction: toward beneficial goal

• Persistence: how long a person

Intensity Persistence tries...



Goal Conflict

Importance of Motivation
A positive motivation philosophy and practice should improve "productivity, quality and service”
Motivation helps people to:
 Achieve goals
 Gain a positive perspective
 Create the power to change
 Build self-esteem and capability
 Manage their own development and also help others
 Improves efficiency
 Creates friendly relationships
Acc. To Smith
 “Motive is a drive that motivates an individual to take the action he believes will satisfy his needs.”
Classification of Motives
 Primary Motives: These needs arises out of the basic psychology of life & are important for the
survival of a man.
Egs. Hunger, thirst, air
 Secondary Motives: These needs are related to mind. This develops as one matures.
Egs. Belongingness, self esteem
This varies according to people.

 Theories of Motivation
1. Content Theories:
1. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory
2. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory
3. Alderfer ERG Theory

2. Process Theories
1. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
2. Porter Lawler Model

3. Contemporary Theories
1. Equity Theory of Work Motivation
2. McClelland’s Needs Theory
1. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory
• Physiological: the need for food, sleep,
water, air, and sex
Hierarchy • Security: the need for safety, family,
of Needs Self stability, and economic security
Esteem • Social or affiliation: the need to belong,
to interact with others, to have friends,
Social and to love and be loved

• Esteem: the need for respect and

recognition of others

Physiological • Self-actualization: the need to realize

one’s potential, to grow, to be creative,
and to accomplish
2. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory

Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory

Dissatisfaction Not dissatisfied Positive

and but satisfaction
demotivation not motivated and motivation

Hygiene Factors Motivational Factors

Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory

Separate constructs Motivators:
 Hygiene Factors---
•Salary Related to Dissatisfaction
•Work  Motivation Factors---
Conditions Related to Satisfaction •Growth

3. Alderfer’s ERG Theory