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MEF 513D1 – Air-Conditioning & Ventilation Systems i

CHILLERS | 2015

TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF THE PHILIPPINES


938 Aurora Boulevard, Cubao, Quezon City

College of Engineering and Architecture


Mechanical Engineering Department

MEP 513D1
T.I.P. BASKETBALL COURT HVAC DESIGN

A Design Presented to the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in
MEP 513D1: Air-Conditioning & Ventilation Systems for the
Degree of Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering

Designed by:
Rev D. Bugayong
Elmer F. Cacho
James Aljondino M. Milan
Rollymar A. Nicolas
Reggiemund C. Raymundo
ME51FB1
1st Semester

Approved by:
Engr. Armando C. Emata, PME
Faculty

S.Y. 2015 – 2016


October 2015

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PREFACE

This thesis is designed for students to easily understand and analyze the
HVAC Systems, Load Calculations, Design Conditions, External Load Factors,
Internal Load factors, Ventilation, Infiltration, Psychometric Processes, Distribution of
Air, and Air Handling, Chiller and Ducting Selection. This design is an application of
the course, Air-Conditioning & Ventilation Systems (MEF 513D1). Each part of this
compilation is designed to deal with the concepts, principles and theories of Heating,
Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Systems.

The tables, charts, figures, illustrations, and other references are also
included for the readers to easily comprehend this study. Care has been taken to
minimize errors in writing this study and the authors would highly appreciate any
feedbacks and constructive criticism for the improvement of this work. The authors
hope that this book would fill its purpose and thus will be useful for the college
students.

CHILLERS

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors wish to convey their deepest appreciation and gratitude to the
significant people who contributed much to the success of this design:

- To Engr. Armando C. Emata, PME, our professor in Air-Conditioning &


Ventilation Systems, for his selfless dedication to guide us towards the
completion of this design in teaching us the step by step process and
techniques in writing this design;
- To our family, for their strength and encouragement that allowed us to strive
further and push harder, which compelled us to dedicate this precious work of
ours to them. Thus; because of their unwavering faith towards us, we value
their efforts as we endure the journey through those sleepless nights just to
complete this design;
- To our classmates and friends, especially to Mr. Jomer V. Ramos, Mr. Von
Freud P. Alvarez, Mr. Randell Y. Palisoc, Mr. Nicko A. Arugay, Mr. Kevin S.J.
Dolores, Mr. Lauren James S. Nidea, Ms. Jessica M. Pabillore, and Mr.
Cedryk D. Corpuz, who shared their ideas and constructive comments for this
design; and
- Finally, to our Lord Almighty God, who is constantly watching over and
sending us His Holy Spirit to give the team all the strength and inspiration that
we need for the fulfillment of this design.

CHILLERS

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE

Preface .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ii
Acknowledgements .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. iii

Chapter 1: Introduction .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1
1.1 Background of the Study .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 2
1.2 Statement of the Problem .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 3
1.3 Definition of Terms .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 4
1.4 Purposes of HVAC Systems .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 8
1.4 Purpose of Load Calculations .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 9
1.5 Principles of Cooling Loads .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 9

Chapter 2: Design Conditions .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 12


2.1 Indoor Design Conditions .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 13
2.2 Outdoor Design Conditions .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 13

Chapter 3: Architectural Layouts .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 16


3.1 Introduction .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 17
3.2 Architectural Layouts .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 17

Chapter 4: External Load Factors .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 35


4.1 Introduction .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 36
4.2 Formulas .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 36
Wall .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 39
Roof .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 44
Window .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 46
Floor .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 47
Door .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 48
Summary of External Heat Gain .. .. .. .. .. 53

Chapter 5: Internal Load Factors .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 54


5.1 Introduction .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 55
5.2 Formulas .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 55
Lighting .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 57
Occupancy .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 60

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Appliances .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 62
Summary of Internal Heat Gain .. .. .. .. .. 63

Chapter 6: Ventilation and Infiltration .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 64


6.1 Introduction .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 65
6.2 Ventilation .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 65
6.3 Infiltration .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 66
6.4 Formulas .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 66
Ventilation .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 69
Infiltration .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 71

Chapter 7: Psychrometric Processes .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 73


7.1 Introduction .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 74
7.2 Formulas .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 74
Heat Load Summary .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 76
Outdoor Heat Load Summary .. .. .. .. .. .. 77
Air-Conditioning Calculation .. .. .. .. .. .. 78
Grand Total Heat .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 81

Chapter 8: Distribution of Air .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 82


8.1 Introduction .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 83
8.2 Air Handling Units .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 83
Distribution of Air .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 85

Chapter 9: Summary .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 89
9.1 Conclusion .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 90
9.2 Maintenance .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 91
9.3 Troubleshooting .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 96
9.4 Recommendation .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 97
Fan Coil Equipment Schedule .. .. .. .. .. 101
Chiller Equipment Schedule .. .. .. .. .. 103

Bibliography .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 112
References .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

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INTRODUCTI
ON

1
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Introduction

 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY


The modern indoor basketball courts, which serves as a facility to develop
sports opportunities for everyone, consists of various sophisticated systems such
as foundation and support structures; electrical and lighting; and plumbing and
fixtures. Another fundamental part of any other building that is often taken for
granted by its inhabitants is the Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning (HVAC)
system.

Air quality is an essential consideration in maintaining productivity, comfort


and health of the occupants, and should not be trivialized. If air quality and
temperature are not maintained, occupants’ comfort on the playing surface can
suffer directly affecting the productivity and morale.

Comfort is best defined as the absence of discomfort. People became


uncomfortable when they are too hot or too cold, or when the air is odorous and
stale. Thermal comfort is that state of mind that is satisfied with the thermal
environment; it is thus the condition of minimal stimulation of the skin’s heat
sensors and of the heat-sensing portion of the brain.

The environmental conditions conducive to thermal comfort are not absolute,


but rather vary with the individual’s metabolism, the nature of the activity
engaged in, and the body’s ability to adjust to a wider or narrower range of
ambients. For comfort and efficiency, the human body requires a fairly narrow
range of environmental conditions compared with full scope of those found in
nature. The factors that affects humans pleasantly or adversely include:
temperature of the surrounding air; humidity of the air; radiant temperatures of

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the surrounding surfaces; air motion; odors; dust; aesthetics; acoustics; and
lighting.

Through understanding the importance of the occupants comfort, we realize


the significance of an HVAC system in a building design. Hence, the system is
responsible for controlling the temperature in the environment, providing fresh air
to the occupants, and filtering out dusts and contaminants while operating in an
energy efficient and unobtrusive manner.

 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


For centuries, buildings served as a primitive shelter to protect occupants
from the extremes of the outdoor environment. Control of the indoor environment
was chiefly dependent upon open fires for heat, and natural air circulation for
ventilation.

The emerging technology of the twentieth century paved way for the
development of HVAC systems capable of maintaining fully controlled indoor
environments. Air-conditioning is then defined as the simultaneous control of
temperature, humidity, air movement, and the quantity of air in space. On
account of these advancements, technological innovations are continuously
pushing the limits of air-conditioning and refrigeration systems to meet the wide
range of demands in order to provide safe, healthful and comfortable
environments that can operate at low energy consumption.

For this purpose, the authors were tasked to design an air-conditioning


system for a basketball court situated at the Technological Institute of the
Philippines (T.I.P.) campus premises in order to provide comfort applications for
the inhabitants in that sector. Moreover, the authors aims to provide a
convenient, consistent, and accurate method of calculating the loads which
enables them to select systems that meet the requirements for efficient energy
utilization and are also responsive to environmental needs.

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 1.3 DEFINITION OF TERMS


For better understanding of the terms used in the study, they are defined
below to provide clarity, understanding and immediate reference:

1. Air Change. A quantity of fresh air equal to the volume of the room or
building being ventilated.

2. Air-Conditioning. The artificial process of treating air to adjust its humidity,


temperature, cleanliness, air quality, circulation and distribution as
required by occupants, a process or a product in the space.

3. Air Exfiltration. The uncontrolled outward leakage of indoor air through


cracks, interstices, and other unintentional openings of a building, caused
by the pressure effects of the wind and/or stack effect.

4. Air Handling Unit (AHU). A central air-conditioner station that regulates the
conditioned air that is generally supplied into the space through ventilation
or ducting system.

5. Air Infiltration. The uncontrolled inward leakage of outdoor air through


cracks, interstices, and other unintentional openings of a building, caused
by the pressure effects of the wind and/or the stack effect.

6. Air Leakage. The leakages of air in or out of a building or space usually


driven by artificially induce pressures.

7. Building Envelope. The total area of the boundary surfaces of a building


through which heat, light, air and moisture are transferred between the
internal spaces and the outside environment.

8. By Pass Factor. The fraction of air moving through a conditioning


apparatus which is considered to pass through completely unaltered. (1 –
BF) is frequently called the contact factor and is considered to be that
portion of the air leaving the apparatus at the apparatus dew point.

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9. Centrifugal Fan. A fan in which the air is turned from parallel to the axis of
rotation on entry to a direction tangential to the arc described by the tips of
the rotating blades or vanes.

10. Commercial Building. A building whose primary purpose is to provide


space for commercial activity rather than domestic. This includes offices,
plant, farm, public and some factory classifications.

11. Condensate. Moisture removed from the air when it is cooled below its
dew point; normally associated with moisture removal during
dehumidification process. The liquid formed by condensation of vapor.

12. Condensation. The precipitation of liquid from its vapor phase resulting
from the lowering of temperature at constant pressure; especially the
deposition of water from moist, warm air onto a relatively cold surface of
between two surfaces such as within a cavity wall.

13. Conductance, Thermal. The time rate of heat flow through a body
(frequently per unit area) from one of its bounding surfaces to the other for
a unit temperature difference between the two surfaces, under steady
conditions.

14. Conduction, Thermal. The process of heat transfer through a material


medium in which kinetic energy is transmitted by particles of the material
from particle to particle without gross displacement of the particles.

15. Conductivity, Thermal. The time rate of heat flow through unit area and
unit thickness of a homogenous material under steady conditions when a
unit temperature gradient is maintained in the direction perpendicular to
area. Materials are considered homogenous when the value of the thermal
conductivity is not affected by variation in thickness or in size of sample
within the range normally used in construction.

16. Cooling Load. The rate at which heat must be extracted from a space to
maintain a desired room condition.

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17. Convection. Transference of heat through a liquid or gas by the actual


movement of the fluid. Portions in contact with the source of heat become
hotter, expand, become less dense, and rise; their place is then taken by
colder portions, thus setting up convection currents.

18. Dehumidification. The process of reducing the moisture content of the air
(humidity ration decreases); serves to increase the cooling power of the
air and can contribute to occupant comfort.

19. Dehumidifier. (1) An air cooler or washer used for lowering the moisture
content of the air passing through it; (2) An absorption or adsorption
device for removing moisture from air.

20. Dew Point, Apparatus. The temperature which would result if the
psychometric process occurring in a dehumidifier, humidifier or surface-
cooler were carried to the saturation condition of the leaving air while
maintaining the same ratio of sensible to total heat load in the process.

21. Duct. A passageway made of sheet metal or other suitable material, not
necessarily leak tight, used for conveying air or other gas at low
pressures.

22. Duct Air Leakage. Air which leaks of out from supply air ducts.

23. Enthalpy. The enthalpy of a mixture of dry air and water vapor is the sum
of the enthalpy of dry air and the enthalpy of water vapor.

24. Entropy. The ratio of the heat added to a substance to the absolute
temperature at which it is added.

25. Heat. Form of energy that is transferred by virtue of a temperature


difference.

26. Heat, Latent. Refers to the heat added or removed during a change of
state of a substance wherein the temperature remains constant.

27. Heat, Sensible. The heat absorbed or evolved by a substance during a


change of temperature that is not accompanied by a change of state.

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28. Heat, Specific. The ratio of the amount of heat required to raise the
temperature of a given mass of any substance one degree to the quantity
required to raise the temperature if an equal mass of a standard
substance.

29. Heat Transfer. The movement of heat energy from one body to another
(gas, liquid or solid or combinations thereof) by means of radiation,
convection or conduction.

30. Humidification. The process of increasing the moisture content of the air
(humidity ratio increases); transferring a mass of water to the atmospheric
air.

31. Humidity. It is defined as the amount of moisture or water vapor in the air.

32. Humidity, Absolute. The amount of water vapor present in a unit volume of
air, expressed in kilograms per cubic meter.

33. Humidity, Specific. The amount of water vapor actually present in the air
expressed in kg of water vapor per kg of dry air. It is also called humidity
ratio.

34. Humidity, Relative. The ratio of the actual partial pressure exerted by the
water vapor in any volume of air to the saturation pressure corresponding
to the dry bulb temperature of the air, expressed in percentage.

35. Infiltration. The air flowing inward through a wall, crack, etc.

36. Psychrometric Chart. A graphical presentation of the physical properties of


moist air at a constant pressure (usually at sea level).

37. Psychrometry. The branch of physics that deals with the measurement of
atmospheric conditions and the study of the properties of mixtures of air
and water vapor.

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38. Saturation Ratio / Degree of Saturation. The ratio of the actual specific
humidity to the specific humidity of saturated air at the same dry bulb
temperature.

39. Temperature, Dew Point. The temperature where the water vapor content
of moist or humid air becomes saturated and any further cooling will cause
condensation.

40. Temperature, Dry Bulb. The temperature of air measured by an ordinary


mercury thermometer.

41. Temperature, Wet Bulb. The temperature of air measured by an ordinary


mercury thermometer whose bulb is covered by a wetted cotton wick and
exposed to a current of rapidly moving air.

42. Vapor. A gas, particularly one near to equilibrium with the liquid phase of
the substance and which does not follow the gas laws. Usually used
instead of gas for a refrigerant, and in general, for any gas below the
critical temperature.

43. Ventilation. The process of supplying or removing air, by natural or


mechanical means, to or from any space. Such air may or may not have
been conditioned.

 1.4 PURPOSES OF HVAC SYSTEMS


The purpose of an HVAC system is to provide the heating, cooling and
ventilation requirements of a building over a range of ambient conditions specific
to the building location. A system must be designed to cope with the maximum
value of each of these requirements. The degree to which an HVAC system fails
to match the requirements and overheats, overcools or over-ventilates the
building space determines the amount of energy being wasted. Particular
systems may have one or more purposes, such as:
 To maintain comfort by controlling temperature and humidity within
acceptable limits;

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 To maintain air quality within acceptable limits of carbon dioxide, oxygen and
odor content;
 To remove airborne contaminants produced by processes and occupants;
 To remove internal heat gain by processes, building services and occupants;
and/or
 To provide special environment control for equipment and processes.

 1.5 PURPOSES OF LOAD CALCULATIONS


The objectives of load calculations can be obtained not only through providing
accurate methods of calculation but also through understanding the basis for the
loads. The load calculations can be used to accomplish one or more of the
following:
 To provide information for equipment selection and HVAC system design;
 To provide data for evaluation of the optimum possibilities for load reduction;
and / or
 To permit analysis of partial loads as required for system design, operation
and control.

 1.6 PRINCIPLES OF COOLING LOADS


In air-conditioning design, there are three (3) distinct but related heat flow
rates, each of which varies with time:
1. Heat Gain or Heat Loss;
2. Cooling Load or Heating Load; and
3. Heat Extraction or Heat Addition Rate.

Heat gain, or perhaps more correctly, instantaneous rate of heat gain, is the
rate at which heat enters or is generated within a space at a given instant of time.
There are two (2) ways that heat gain is classified – the manner in which heat
enters the space and the type of heat gain.

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The components of the load source which enters a space can be summarized
as follows:
1. Heat conduction through exterior walls and roof;
2. Solar radiation and heat gain through transparent surfaces such as
windows;
3. Heat conduction through interior partition walls, ceilings, and floors;
4. Loads as a result of ventilation and infiltration of outdoor air;
5. Heat generated within the space by occupants, lights, appliances,
equipment and processes; and
6. Other miscellaneous heat gains.

There are two distinct components of the air-conditioning load classified by


the type of heat gain: the sensible heat load (heat gain); and the latent heat load
(water vapor gain).

Sensible heat gain is the direct addition of heat to a space, which shall result
in an increase in space temperature. The factors influencing sensible heat loads
are:
1. Solar and transmission heat gain through exterior walls, roof, floors, etc.;
2. Transmission eat gain through partition walls;
3. Ventilation and infiltration through cracks in the building, doors, and
windows;
4. Occupants;
5. Heat generated by appliances and equipment; and
6. Lights.

Latent heat gain is the heat contained in water vapor. Latent heat does not
cause a temperature rise, but it constitutes a load on the cooling equipment.
Latent load is the heat that must be removed to condense the moisture out of
the air. The factors influencing latent heat loads are:

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1. Ventilation and infiltration through cracks in the building, doors, and


windows;
2. Occupants; and
3. Heat generated by appliances and equipment.

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DESIGN
CONDITIONS

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2
CHAPTER

Design Conditions

 2.1 INDOOR DESIGN CONDITIONS


The indoor design conditions to be maintained within a building are the dry
bulb temperature and relative humidity of the air at the breathing line, three (3) to
five (5) feet above the floor in an area that would indicate average conditions at
that level and which would not be affected by abnormal or unusual heat gains or
losses from the interior or exterior.

The design indoor air temperature may vary in accordance with the nature of
the activity engaged in and with the intended use of the building. For this
purpose, the authors were tasked design an air-conditioning system for a
basketball court given the following indoor design conditions:

𝑇𝐼𝑁𝑆𝐼𝐷𝐸 = 24℃

𝑅𝐻 = 50%

where:
𝑇𝐼𝑁𝑆𝐼𝐷𝐸 = Indoor Air Temperature (℃)
𝑅𝐻 = Relative Humidity (%)

 2.2 OUTDOOR DESIGN CONDITIONS


For the outside design conditions in summer, it is, therefore, recommended to
use the mean monthly maximum dry bulb temperature and its corresponding wet
bulb temperature. Very often, the value of the wet bulb temperature cannot be
ascertained from the data provided by metrological laboratories. The wet bulb
temperatures fall usually at the time of maximum dry bulb temperature.

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However, it is essential to take the value of the wet bulb temperature in this
manner, and nit the value of the maximum wet bulb temperature as that would
lead to an erroneously high cooling load. This is because the relative humidity is
the lowest when the dry bulb temperature is the highest, and vice versa.

In choosing the outdoor design conditions, the authors determined the time of
day and decided the month of year to design an air-conditioning system for a
basketball court from published data for the specific location of Quezon City,
based on the available weather bureau records. The following are the outdoor
design conditions and are presented in Figure 1: Temperature Graph for
February 2015:

Figure 1: Temperature Graph for February 2015


𝑇𝑂𝑈𝑇𝑆𝐼𝐷𝐸 = 34℃

𝑅𝐻 = 73%

where:
𝑇𝑂𝑈𝑇𝑆𝐼𝐷𝐸 = Outdoor Air Temperature (℃)
𝑅𝐻 = Relative Humidity (%)

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ARCHITECTUR
AL
LAYOUTS

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3
CHAPTER

Architectural Layouts

 3.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter of the study presents the technical drawings of the proposed
HVAC design for an indoor basketball court situated at the T.I.P. campus
premises. These architectural drawings are made according to a set of
conventions, which include particular views such as sectional views and floor
layouts, vicinity map or location map, elevations, and isometric projections.

 3.2 ARCHITECTURAL LAYOUTS

Illustration 1: Vicinity Map, Technological Institute of the Philippines

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2: External View, North West


Illustration 3: Perspective
East Perspective

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Illustration 4: External View, South West Perspective

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Illustration 5: External View, South East Perspective

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Illustration 6: Internal View, First Person Perspective

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Illustration 7: Internal View, First Person Perspective

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Illustration 8: Internal View, Top Perspective

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Illustration 9: External View, Air Handling Units & Chiller

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Illustration 10: Isolated View, Ducting System Layout

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Illustration 11: Isolated View, Ducting System Layout

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Illustration 12: Isolated View, Ducting System Layout

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Illustration 13: Internal View, Ducting System Layout

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Illustration 14: Internal View, Ducting System Layout

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Intentionally Left Blank for


Floor Plan Layout
(DWG File)

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Intentionally Left Blank for


Lighting Layout
(DWG File)

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Intentionally Left Blank for


Equipment Layout
(DWG File)

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Intentionally Left Blank for


Ducting System Layout
(DWG File)

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EXTERNAL
LOAD
FACTORS

4
CHAPTER
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External Load Factors

 4.1 INTRODUCTION
External load factors are those involved in the calculation of components of
the cooling load which arise from influences external to the space being cooled.
These components of cooling load came from:
1. Heat conduction through walls and roof;
2. Solar radiation and transmission heat gain through transparent surfaces
such as windows; and
3. Heat conduction through interior partition walls, ceilings, and floors.

 4.2 FORMULAS
The calculation of external load factors are achieved using the following basic
formulas enumerated below:

1. Heat Gain through Building Walls:

𝑄𝑊𝐴𝐿𝐿 = 𝑈𝐴 (𝐶𝐿𝑇𝐷)

where:
𝑄𝑊𝐴𝐿𝐿 = Heat Flow through Wall (𝑘𝑊)
𝑈 = Overall Coefficient of Heat Transfer (𝑊/𝑚2 𝐾)
𝐴 = Cross-Sectional Area (𝑚2 )
𝐶𝐿𝑇𝐷 = Cooling Load Temperature Difference (℃)

2. Heat Gain through Building Roof:

𝑄𝑅𝑂𝑂𝐹 = 𝑈𝐴 (𝐶𝐿𝑇𝐷)

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where:
𝑄𝑅𝑂𝑂𝐹 = Heat Flow through Roof (𝑘𝑊)
𝑈 = Overall Coefficient of Heat Transfer (𝑊/𝑚2 𝐾)
𝐴 = Cross-Sectional Area (𝑚2 )
𝐶𝐿𝑇𝐷 = Cooling Load Temperature Difference (℃)

3. Heat Gain through Window Glass:

𝑄𝑊𝐼𝑁𝐷𝑂𝑊𝑆 = 𝑈𝐴 (𝐶𝐿𝑇𝐷)

where:
𝑄𝑊𝐼𝑁𝐷𝑂𝑊𝑆 = Heat Flow through Window Glass (𝑘𝑊)
𝑈 = Overall Coefficient of Heat Transfer (𝑊/𝑚2 𝐾)
𝐴 = Cross-Sectional Area of Glass (𝑚2 )
𝐶𝐿𝑇𝐷 = Cooling Load Temperature Difference (℃)

4. Heat Gain through Floor:

𝑄𝐹𝐿𝑂𝑂𝑅 = 𝑈𝐴 (𝐶𝐿𝑇𝐷)

where:
𝑄𝐹𝐿𝑂𝑂𝑅 = Heat Flow through Floor (𝑘𝑊)
𝑈 = Overall Coefficient of Heat Transfer (𝑊/𝑚2 𝐾)
𝐴 = Cross-Sectional Area (𝑚2 )
𝐶𝐿𝑇𝐷 = Cooling Load Temperature Difference (℃)

5. Heat Gain through Door:

𝑄𝐷𝑂𝑂𝑅 = 𝑈𝐴 (𝐶𝐿𝑇𝐷)

where:
𝑄𝐷𝑂𝑂𝑅 = Heat Flow through Door (𝑘𝑊)
𝑈 = Overall Coefficient of Heat Transfer (𝑊/𝑚2 𝐾)
𝐴 = Cross-Sectional Area (𝑚2 )

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𝐶𝐿𝑇𝐷 = Cooling Load Temperature Difference (℃)

WALL

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Thermal Thermal
Material Thickness (m) Conductivity Resistance
(W / m K) (m2 K / W)

External Surface – – 0.04

External Render 0.0254 1.00 0.019

8 ’’ Concrete
0.2032 1.33 0.075
Block

Batt Insulation 0.0894 0.05 3.33

5/8 ’’ Gypsum
0.0159 0.16 0.18
Board

Internal Surface – – 0.12

Total 3.764

*The Thermal Conductivity and Resistance can be referred in the URL:http://www.mctaggartinsulation.com/cavityloftinsulation.html.

RT = 3.764 m2 K/ W

Solve for the Overall Coefficient of Heat Transfer (U):


1 1
U= =
RT 3.764 m2 K/ W
U = 0.26567 W/ m2 K

Cooling Load Solar Time


Wall Facing
Temperature (15 hours)

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Difference NE 23
(CLTD)
NW 12
SE 29

SW 16

*The CLTD values can be refereed in the 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook.

CLTDCORRECTED (NE) = CLTD + (25.5 – TR) + (TMAX – 29.4)


CLTDCORRECTED (NE) = 23 + (25.5 – 24) + [(34 – 11.6/2) – 29.4]
CLTDCORRECTED (NE) = 23.3 °C

CLTDCORRECTED (NW) = CLTD + (25.5 – TR) + (TMAX – 29.4)


CLTDCORRECTED (NW) = 12 + (25.5 – 24) + [(34 – 11.6/2) – 29.4]
CLTDCORRECTED (NW) = 12.3 °C

CLTDCORRECTED (SE) = CLTD + (25.5 – TR) + (TMAX – 29.4)


CLTDCORRECTED (SE) = 29 + (25.5 – 24) + [(34 – 11.6/2) – 29.4]
CLTDCORRECTED (SE) = 29.3 °C

CLTDCORRECTED (SW) = CLTD + (25.5 – TR) + (TMAX – 29.4)


CLTDCORRECTED (SW) = 16 + (25.5 – 24) + [(34 – 11.6/2) – 29.4]
CLTDCORRECTED (SW) = 16.3 °C

NORTH EAST
Area (A) = (W) (H)

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Area (A) = (30.6288 m) (4.8768 m)


Area (A) = 149.37053 m2

Overall Coefficient of Heat Transfer (U) = 0.26567 W/ m2 K


CLTDCORRECTED (NE) = 23.3 °C

QNE = UA (CLTDCORRECTED)
QNE = (0.26567 W/ m2 K) (149.37053 m2) (23.3 °C)
QNE = 924.62016 W
QNE = 0.92462 kW

NORTH WEST
Area (A) = (L) (H)
Area (A) = (43.6801 m) (4.8768 m)
Area (A) = 213.01911 m2

Overall Coefficient of Heat Transfer (U) = 0.26567 W/ m2 K


CLTDCORRECTED (NW) = 12.3 °C

QNW = UA (CLTDCORRECTED)
QNW = (0.26567 W/ m2 K) (213.01911 m2) (12.3 °C)
QNW = 696.09127 W
QNW = 0.69609 kW

SOUTH EAST
Area (A) = (L) (H)

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Area (A) = (43.6801 m) (4.8768 m)


Area (A) = 213.01911 m2

Overall Coefficient of Heat Transfer (U) = 0.26567 W/ m2 K


CLTDCORRECTED (SE) = 29.3 °C

QSE = UA (CLTDCORRECTED)
QSE = (0.26567 W/ m2 K) (213.01911 m2) (29.3 °C)
QSE = 1,658.16865 W
QSE = 1.65816 kW

SOUTH WEST
Area (A) = (W) (H)
Area (A) = (30.6288 m) (4.8768 m)
Area (A) = 149.37053 m2

Overall Coefficient of Heat Transfer (U) = 0.26567 W/ m2 K


CLTDCORRECTED (SW) = 16.3 °C

QSW = UA (CLTDCORRECTED)
QSW = (0.26567 W/ m2 K) (149.37053 m2) (16.3 °C)
QSW = 646.83727 W
QSW = 0.64683 kW

TOTAL HEAT GAIN THROUGH BUILDING WALLS


QWALL = QNE + QNW + QSE + QSW

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QNE = 0.92462 kW

QNW = 0.69609 kW

QSE = 1.65816 kW

QSW = 0.64683 kW

QWALL = 3.92570 kW

QWALL = 3.92570 kW

ROOF

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Thermal Thermal
Material Thickness (m) Conductivity Resistance
(W / m K) (m2 K / W)
Asph Roll Roof
– – 0.02642
(AR01)
Bldg Paper Felt
– – 0.01057
(BP01)
Wood Sft ¾ ’’
0.019049 0.115440 0.16501
(WD01)
Minwool Batt R11
– – 1.54096
with 2x4 Frame
Gypsum Board
0.015879 0.160266 0.09908
5/8 ’’ (GP02)

Total 1.84204

*The Overall U-Value can be referred in the Table E1.2: Resistances and U-Values for some Typical Walls.

RT = 1.84204 m2 K/ W

Solve for the Overall Coefficient of Heat Transfer (U):


1 1
U= =
RT 1.84204 m2 K/ W
U = 0.54287 W/ m2 K

AROOF = 2 (L) (W)


AROOF = 2 (47.97552 m) (29.15031 m)
AROOF = 2,797.00256 m2

Cooling Load
Description of Solar Time
Temperature
Construction (15 hours)
Difference

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(CLTD)
Steel Sheet with 1 ’’
77 °F
(or 2 ’’) Insulation

*The CLTD values can be refereed in the 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook.

QROOF = UA (CLTD)
QROOF = (0.54287 W/m2 K) (2,797.00256 m2) [(5/9) (77 °F – 32)]
QROOF = 37,960.21949 W
QROOF = 37.96021 kW

WINDOW
AWINDOW = (3 ft x 2 ft) = 6 ft2 = 3.34 m2

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Overall Coefficient of Heat Transfer (U) = 4.60 W/ m2 K

*The Overall Coefficient of Heat Transfer (U) can be referred in the 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook on Table 34,
Page 28.49.

CLTDCORRECTED = CLTD + (25.5 – TR) + (TMAX – 29.4)


CLTDCORRECTED = 8 + (25.5 – 24) + [(35 – 11.6/2) – 29.4]
CLTDCORRECTED = 9.3 °C

QWINDOW = UA (CLTDCORRECTED)
QWINDOW = (4.60 W/ m2 K) (3.34 m2) (9.3 °C)
QWINDOW = 142.88520 W

QWINDOW ACTUAL = QWINDOW (No. of Windows)


QWINDOW ACTUAL = (142.88520 W) (12 windows)
QWINDOW ACTUAL = 1,714.62240 W
QWINDOW ACTUAL = 1.71462 kW

FLOOR

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Thermal Thermal
Thickness Conductivity Resistance
Components
(mm)
(W / m K) (m2 K / W)

Surface Resistance – – 0.140

Screed 25 1.400 0.046

Concrete
150 4.300 0.930
(High)

Insulation 25 0.028 1.786

Screed 25 1.400 0.018

Total 2.920
*The Overall U-Value can be referred in the Table E1.2: Resistances and U-Values for some Typical Walls.

RT = 2.920 m2 K/ W

Solve for the Overall Coefficient of Heat Transfer (U):


1 1
U= =
RT 2.920 m2 K/ W
U = 0.34246 W/ m2 K

AFLOOR = (L) (W) = (43.6801 m) (30.6288 m)


AFLOOR = 1,337.87 m2

TOUT = 34 °C
TIN = 24 °C

QFLOOR = UA (∆T) = (0.34246 W/ m2 K) (1,337.87 m2) (34 – 24) °C


QFLOOR = 4,581.66960 W
QFLOOR = 4.58166 kW

DOOR

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NORTH EAST DOOR


AGLASS = (L) (W) = (0.6096 m) (0.9144 m)
AGLASS = 0.55741 m2

ADOOR = (L) (W) = (3.0480 m) (1.5240 m)


ADOOR = 4.64515 m2

ASTEEL = ADOOR – AGLASS = 4.64515 m2 – 0.55741 m2


ASTEEL = 4.08773 m2

ASTEEL = 4.08773 m2 AGLASS = 0.55741 m2


USTEEL = 25 W/ m2 K UGLASS = 4.6 W/ m2 K
TOUTSIDE = 34 °C TINSIDE = 24 °C

QSTEEL NE = UA (∆T) = (25 W/ m2 K) (4.08773 m2) (34 – 24) °C


QSTEEL NE = 1021.93250 W
QSTEEL NE = 1.02193 kW

QGLASS NE = UA (∆T) = (4.6 W/ m2 K) (0.55741 m2) (34 – 24) °C


QGLASS NE = 25.64086 W
QGLASS NE = 0.02564 kW

QNE = QSTEEL NE + QGLASS NE = (1.02193 kW + 0.02564 kW)


QNE = 1.04757 kW

SOUTH WEST DOOR


AGLASS = (L) (W) = (2) (0.6096 m) (0.9144 m)

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AGLASS = 1.11482 m2

ADOOR = (L) (W) = (3.0480 m) (1.5240 m)


ADOOR = 4.64515 m2

ASTEEL = ADOOR – AGLASS = 4.64515 m2 – 0.55741 m2


ASTEEL = (2) 4.08773 m2
ASTEEL = 8.17546 m2

ASTEEL = 8.17546 m2 AGLASS = 1.11482 m2


USTEEL = 25 W/ m2 K UGLASS = 4.6 W/ m2 K
TOUTSIDE = 34 °C TINSIDE = 24 °C

QSTEEL SW = UA (∆T) = (25 W/ m2 K) (8.17546 m2) (34 – 24) °C


QSTEEL SW = 2043.86500 W
QSTEEL SW = 2.04386 kW

QGLASS SW = UA (∆T) = (4.6 W/ m2 K) (1.11482 m2) (34 – 24) °C


QGLASS SW = 51.28172 W
QGLASS SW = 0.05128 kW

QSW = QSTEEL SW + QGLASS SW = (2.04386 kW + 0.05128 kW)


QSW = 2.09514 kW

NORTH WEST DOOR


AGLASS = (L) (W) = (2) (0.6096 m) (0.9144 m)

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AGLASS = 1.11482 m2

ADOOR = (L) (W) = (3.0480 m) (1.5240 m)


ADOOR = 4.64515 m2

ASTEEL = ADOOR – AGLASS = 4.64515 m2 – 0.55741 m2


ASTEEL = (2) 4.08773 m2
ASTEEL = 8.17546 m2

ASTEEL = 8.17546 m2 AGLASS = 1.11482 m2


USTEEL = 25 W/ m2 K UGLASS = 4.6 W/ m2 K
TOUTSIDE = 34 °C TINSIDE = 24 °C

QSTEEL NW = UA (∆T) = (25 W/ m2 K) (8.17546 m2) (34 – 24) °C


QSTEEL NW = 2043.86500 W
QSTEEL NW = 2.04386 kW

QGLASS NW = UA (∆T) = (4.6 W/ m2 K) (1.11482 m2) (34 – 24) °C


QGLASS NW = 51.28172 W
QGLASS NW = 0.05128 kW

QNW = QSTEEL NW + QGLASS NW = (2.04386 kW + 0.05128 kW)


QNW = 2.09514 kW

SOUTH EAST DOOR


AGLASS = (L) (W) = (2) (0.6096 m) (0.9144 m)

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AGLASS = 1.11482 m2

ADOOR = (L) (W) = (3.0480 m) (1.5240 m)


ADOOR = 4.64515 m2

ASTEEL = ADOOR – AGLASS = 4.64515 m2 – 0.55741 m2


ASTEEL = (2) 4.08773 m2
ASTEEL = 8.17546 m2

ASTEEL = 8.17546 m2 AGLASS = 1.11482 m2


USTEEL = 25 W/ m2 K UGLASS = 4.6 W/ m2 K
TOUTSIDE = 34 °C TINSIDE = 24 °C

QSTEEL SE = UA (∆T) = (25 W/ m2 K) (8.17546 m2) (34 – 24) °C


QSTEEL SE = 2043.86500 W
QSTEEL SE = 2.04386 kW

QGLASS SE = UA (∆T) = (4.6 W/ m2 K) (1.11482 m2) (34 – 24) °C


QGLASS SE = 51.28172 W
QGLASS SE = 0.05128 kW

QSE = QSTEEL SE + QGLASS SE = (2.04386 kW + 0.05128 kW)


QSE = 2.09514 Kw

NORTH EAST (BACK) DOOR


ADOOR = (L) (W) = (3.0480 m) (1.03022 m)

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ADOOR = 3.14011 m2

ADOOR = 3.14011 m2 TOUTSIDE = 34 °C


UWOOD = 0.64 W/ m2 K TINSIDE = 24 °C

QNE BACK = UA (∆T) = (0.64 W/ m2 K) (3.14011 m2) (34 – 24) °C


QNE BACK = 20.09670 W
QNE BACK = 0.02009 kW

TOTAL HEAT GAIN THROUGH DOORS


QDOOR = QNE + QSW + QNW + QSE +QNE BACK

QNE = 1.04757 kW

QSW = 2.09514 kW

QNW = 2.09514 kW

QSE = 2.09514 kW

QNE BACK = 0.02009 kW

QWALL = 7.35308 kW

QWALL = 7.35308 kW

SUMMARY OF EXTERNAL HEAT GAIN

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QEXT = QWALL + QROOF + QWINDOW + QFLOOR +QDOOR

QWALL = 3.92570 kW

QROOF = 37.96021 kW

QWINDOW = 1.71462 kW

QFLOOR = 4.58166 kW

QDOOR = 7.35308 kW

QEXT = 55.53527 kW

QEXT = 55.53527 kW

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INTERNAL
LOAD
FACTORS

5
CHAPTER
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Internal Load Factors

 5.1 INTRODUCTION
Internal load factors are those involved in the calculation of components of
the cooling load which arise from influences internal to the space being cooled.
These components of cooling load came from:
4. Lightings;
5. Occupants;
6. Appliances and Equipment; and
7. Other Internal Loads.

 5.2 FORMULAS
The calculation of internal load factors are achieved using the following basic
formulas enumerated below:

1. Sensible Heat Gain due to Lightings:

𝑄𝐿𝐼𝐺𝐻𝑇𝑆 = 3.41 (𝑊)(𝐹𝑈𝑇 )(𝐹𝐵𝐹 ) (𝐶𝐿𝐹)

where:
𝑄𝐿𝐼𝐺𝐻𝑇𝑆 = Sensible Heat Gain due to Lighting (𝑘𝑊)
𝑊 = Total Lamp Wattage (𝑊)
𝐹𝑈𝑇 = Lighting Use Factor
𝐹𝐵𝐹 = Special Ballast Allowance Factor
𝐶𝐿𝐹 = Cooling Load Factor

2. Sensible and Latent Heat Gain due to Occupants:

𝑄𝑆 = 𝑁 (𝑄𝑆 ) (𝐶𝐿𝐹)

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𝑄𝐿 = 𝑁 (𝑄𝐿 )

where:
𝑄𝑆 = Sensible Heat Gain due to Occupants (𝑘𝑊)
𝑁 = Number of Occupants in Space
𝑄𝑆 = Sensible Heat Gain per Person (𝑘𝑊)
𝐶𝐿𝐹 = Cooling Load Factor
𝑄𝐿 = Latent Heat Gain due to Occupants (𝑘𝑊)
𝑄𝐿 = Latent Heat Gain per Person (𝑘𝑊)

3. Sensible Heat Gain due to Appliances and Equipment:

𝑄𝑆 = 𝑁 (𝑄𝑆 )

where:
𝑄𝑆 = Sensible Heat Gain due to Appliances (𝑘𝑊)
𝑄𝑆 = Sensible Heat Gain per Equipment (𝑘𝑊)
𝑁 = Quantity of Equipment in Space

LIGHTINGS

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At Table 4.1: Average Values for Ballast Factors on Cooling and Heating
Load Calculation Manual (Page 4.1), use:
FBF = 1.08
FUT = 1.00

Table 4.1 Average Values of Ballast Factor, FBF, for Fluorescent Lights

Lamp Number of Lamps per


FBF
Wattage Fixture
35
1 1.30
40

35
2 1.20
40

60
1 1.30
75

60
2 1.20
75

110 1 1.25
110 2 1.07
160 1 1.15

160 2 1.08
185
1 1.08
215

185
2 1.06
215

At Table 4.3 “a”: Classification for Lights on Cooling and Heating Load
Calculation Manual (Page 4.1), use:

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0.55: Recessed lights which are not vented. Medium to high air supply
rate – more than 0.5 cfm/ft2 of floor area. Supply and return diffusers
below ceiling or through celling space and grill.

Table 4.3 “a” Classification for Lights

Light Fixture and Ventilation Arrangements

Recessed lights which are not vented. Low air supply rate – less than 0.5
0.45
cfm/ft2 of floor area. Supply and return diffusers below ceiling.

Recessed lights which are not vented. Medium to high air supply rate –
0.55 more than 0.5 cfm/ft2 of floor area. Supply and return diffusers below
ceiling or through celling space and grill.

Vented or free hanging lights. Supply air through ceiling or wall but return
0.65
air flows around light fixtures and through a ducted return.

Vented or free hanging lights. Supply air through ceiling or wall but return
0.75
air flows around light fixtures and through a ducted return.

At Table 4.3: Classification for Lights on Cooling and Heating Load


Calculation Manual (Page 4.3), use:
High room air circulation induced by primary air of induction unit or by
fan coil unit.

Table 4.3 “b” Classification for Lights

Floor Construction and Floor Weight


in Pounds per Square Foot of Floor Area

Room Air Circulation 2 ’’ 3 ’’ 6 ’’ 8 ’’ 12 ’’


Wooden Concrete Concrete Concrete Concrete
and Type of Supply Floor Floor Floor Floor Floor
and Return 10 lb/ft2 40 lb/ft2 75 lb/ft2 120 lb/ft2 160 lb/ft2

Low Ventilation Rate –


Minimum required to handle
cooling load. Supply through B B C D D
floor, wall or ceiling diffuser.
Ceiling space not vented.

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Medium Ventilation Rate.


Supply through floor, wall or
ceiling diffuser. Ceiling space
A B C D D
not vented.

High Room Air Circulation


induced by primary air of
induction unit or by fan coil A B C C D
unit. Return through ceiling
space.

Very High Room Air


Circulation used to minimize
room temperature gradients.
A A B C D
Return through ceiling space.

At Table 4.4B: Cooling Load Factors when Lights are on for 10 Hours on
Cooling and Heating Load Calculation Manual (Page 4.4), use:
Cooling Load Factor (CLF) = 0.89

Table 4.4B Cooling Load Factors when Lights are on for 10 Hours

“a” Classification “b” Classification Cooling Load Factor

0.55 C 0.89

High Intensity Density (HID) Lights = 400 W

Sensible Heat Gain due to Lightings:


QS = 3.41 (400 W) (25 HID Lights) (1.00) (1.08) (0.89)
QS = 32,776.92 W
QS = 32.77692 kW

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OCCUPANCY
Number of Sensible Heat Latent Heat
Activity
People (W) (W)

80 Athletics 210 315

540 Seating 75 40

840 Standing 82 68

20 Dancing 105 160

Equipment
20 100 135
Operating

At Table 4.6: Sensible Heat Cooling Load Factors for People on Cooling and
Heating Load Calculation Manual (Page 4.6), use:
Cooling Load Factor (CLF) = 0.60

Table 4.6 Sensible Heat Cooling Load Factors for People

Hours after
Total Hours
Each Entry
in Space
into Space

6 0.60

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Solving for Total Sensible Occupancy Load:

QS = (80) (0.210 KW) (0.60) = 10.08 kW

QS = (540) (0.075 KW) (0.60) = 24.30 kW

QS = (840) (0.082 KW) (0.60) = 41.32 kW

QS = (20) (0.105 KW) (0.60) = 1.26 kW

QS = (20) (0.100 KW) (0.60) = 1.20 kW

QS TOTAL = 78.16 kW

QS = 78.16 kW

Solving for Total Latent Occupancy Load:

QL = (80) (0.315 KW) = 25.2 kW

QL = (540) (0.040 KW) = 21.6 kW

QL = (840) (0.068 KW) = 57.12 kW

QL = (20) (0.160 KW) = 3.20 kW

QL = (20) (0.135 KW) = 2.70 kW

QL TOTAL = 109.82 kW

QL = 109.82 kW

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APPLIANCES

Sensible Latent Total


Description Quantity
Heat Heat Heat

Samsung 32’’ 1080p


TV 50 W – 9 pcs. 450 W
LED TV / 60 Hz.

Wide Voltage
Shot Clock Basketball Stadium 70 W – 1 pc 70 W
Electronic

Konzert Speaker kS-


Speaker 600 W – 8 pcs. 2400 W
650 V

Big-Ass Fan Power


Fan 1492 W – 2 pcs. 2984 W
Foil X2.0

Mixer Yamaha EMX212S 8


500 W – 1 pc 500 W
Sounds Input Powered Mixer
Electric Ibanez SRX300 Bass
Guitar & Guitar / Ibanwz RGKP6
100 W – 3 pcs. 300 W
Amplifier Mini Korg Electric
Head Guitar

Pearl EXX705 Drum


Drum Set 150 W – 1 pc 150 W
Set with Hardware

Microphone
Pyle Home PT110 70 W – 1 pc 70
Amplifier

TOTAL 6,924 W

Total Sensible Heat Gain due to Appliances / Equipment Load:


QS = 6,924 W
QS = 6.92400 kW

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SUMMARY OF INTERNAL HEAT GAIN


QINT S = QLIGHTS + QS + QS

QLIGHTS = 32.77692 kW

QOCCUPNY = 78.16000 kW

QAPPLIANCES = 6.92400 kW

QINT S = 117.86092 kW

QINT SENSIBLE = 117.86092 kW


QINT LATENT = 109.82000 kW

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VENTILATION
AND
INFILTRATIO
N

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6
CHAPTER

Ventilation and Infiltration

 6.1 INTRODUCTION
Outdoor Air is assumed to be fresh, clean air made up of the right
combination of oxygen (21%), nitrogen (78%), and other gases (1% hydrogen,
argon, carbon dioxide, water vapor). People and all animal life needs oxygen to
live. Nitrogen and the other gases are inert and are not harmful to animal life.
People breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide. The oxygen level in an
enclosed occupied space must therefore be replenished by supplying outdoor air.
The outdoor air must be cleaned and filtered before it is supplied.

Indoor Air in an enclosed occupied space loses its oxygen due to the
occupants and it can also be contaminated from within the space with organisms
such as bacteria and viruses and with pollutants from the processes that occur in
the space. Indoor air must therefore be cleaned and its oxygen content
maintained by adding outdoor air. For a typical building structure, the outdoor air
supply quantity is determined on the basis of the number of occupants and
process pollution.

 6.2 VENTILATION
Ventilation Air can be natural or mechanical. In modern commercial
structures, the term ventilation refers to mechanical ventilation. It is the
intentional controlled introduction of outdoor air into an enclosed occupied space.
Ventilation is provided using mechanical systems such as fans. The entry of
outdoor air through an open door or window is considered infiltration and not
ventilation. The total air supplied to a space consisting of outdoor air and indoor
recirculation air is not ventilation air either. It is referred to as supply air.

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 6.3 INFILTRATION
Infiltration Air refers to the unintentional and uncontrolled entry of outdoor air
into an enclosed space. Infiltration occurs through cracks in the building envelope
and due to pressure differences between the inside and outside conditions. The
outdoor air entering through open doors and windows is considered infiltration
although the purpose of opening the door or window might be ventilation.
Generally, infiltration occurs mainly in winter when the air outside is colder and
heavier than the air inside. However, it factors such as wind velocity, wind
direction and the air-tightness of the building envelope affects infiltration air. In
the case of high-rise building structures, the stack effect also causes infiltration.

Exfiltration Air refers to the flow of indoor air from an enclosed building space
to the outdoor air. Commercial air-conditioned building structures are designed to
be air-tight (windows cannot be opened) and pressurized. In summer, the air
inside is colder (air-conditioned) and therefore denser (heavier) than the hotter
air outside. The natural air flow direction then moves from the inside to outside
air. Since commercial building structures are pressurized, the air flow leakage is
from the inside to the outside. However, the amount of exfiltration is small, hence
it is usually neglected in HVAC calculations.

 6.4 FORMULAS
The calculation of ventilation and infiltration are achieved using the following
basic formulas enumerated below:

1. Outdoor Air Sensible Heat due to Ventilation:

𝑂𝐴𝑆𝐻 = 0.0204(𝑄𝑉 )(∆𝑇)

where:
𝑂𝐴𝑆𝐻 = Outdoor Air Sensible Heat (𝑘𝑊)
𝑄𝑉 = Ventilation (𝑐𝑚𝑚)
∆𝑇 = Inside and Outside Temperature Difference (℃)

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2. Outdoor Air Latent Heat due to Ventilation:

𝑂𝐴𝐿𝐻 = 50(𝑄𝑉 )(∆𝑊)

where:
𝑂𝐴𝐿𝐻 = Outdoor Air Latent Heat (𝑘𝑊)
𝑄𝑉 = Ventilation (𝑐𝑚𝑚)
∆𝑇 = Inside and Outside Humidity Ratio Difference (𝑘𝑔𝑤 ⁄𝑘𝑔𝑑𝑎 )

3. Outdoor Air Total Heat or Ventilation Load:

𝑂𝐴𝑇𝐻 = 𝑂𝐴𝑆𝐻 + 𝑂𝐴𝐿𝐻

where:
𝑂𝐴𝑇𝐻 = Outdoor Air Total Heat (𝑘𝑊)
𝑂𝐴𝑆𝐻 = Outdoor Air Sensible Heat (𝑘𝑊)
𝑂𝐴𝐿𝐻 = Outdoor Air Latent Heat (𝑘𝑊)

4. Room Sensible Heat due to Infiltration:

𝑅𝑆𝐻 = 1,210(𝐴𝑖𝑟 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤)(∆𝑇)

where:
𝑅𝑆𝐻 = Room Sensible Heat (𝑘𝑊)
𝐴𝑖𝑟 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 = Infiltration Air Flow (𝑚3 ⁄𝑠)
∆𝑇 = Inside and Outside Temperature Difference (℃)

5. Room Latent Heat due to Infiltration:

𝑅𝐿𝐻 = 3,010(𝐴𝑖𝑟 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤)(∆𝑊)

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where:
𝑅𝑆𝐻 = Room Latent Heat (𝑘𝑊)
𝐴𝑖𝑟 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 = Infiltration Air Flow (𝑚3 ⁄𝑠)
∆𝑇 = Inside and Outside Humidity Ratio Difference (𝑘𝑔𝑤 ⁄𝑘𝑔𝑑𝑎 )

VENTILATION
Area (A) = 1,337.87 m2
Volume (V) = 6,817.12 m3

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QV/ person = 0.21 cmm (Table 16.2, Page 518. C.P. Arora)
Occupancy = 1500 persons (Maximum)

QV = 0.21 cmm (1500 persons) = 315 cmm

(315 cmm) (60 min/hr)


No. of Air Change of Ventilation Air =
6,817.12 m3
No. if Air Changes of Ventilation Air = 2.77243

Dry Bulb Relative Humidity W


Condition
Temperature (DBT) (%) (kgw/ kgda)

Outside 34 °C 73 0.02481

Inside 24 °C 50 0.00930
*The values for Dry Bulb Temperature, Relative Humidity and Humidity Ratio can be referred in the Psychometric Chart.

Outside Air Sensible Heat (OASH)


OASH = 0.0204 (QV) (TOUTSIDE – TINSIDE)
OASH = (0.0204) (315 m3/min) (34 – 24) °C
OASH = 64.26 kW

Outside Air Latent Heat (OALH)


OALH = 50 (QVENTILATION) (∆W)
OALH = (50) (315 m3/min) (0.02481 – 0.00930) kgw/ kgda
OALH = 244.2825 kW

Ventilation Load or Outside Air Total Heat (OATH)


OATH = OASH + OALH
OATH = (64.26 kW + 244.2825 kW)

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OATH = 308.5425 kW

INFILTRATION
Estimates of Infiltration Airflow (Air Changes/ Flow)

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Neutral Pressure; Poor Construction 1.0

Neutral Pressure; Average Construction 0.6

Neutral Pressure; Tight Construction 0.3

Pressurized; Poor Construction 0.5

Pressurized; Average Construction 0.3

Pressurized; Tight Construction 0.0


*The Estimates of Infiltration Airflow can be referred in the Commercial Load Calculations Manual.

Use: Pressurized Average; Construction

Volume of Space (Rectangular Section) = (L) (W) (H)


Volume of Space (Rectangular Section) = (1,337.87 m2 x 4.8768 m)
Volume of Space (Rectangular Section) = 6,524.52 m3

Volume of Space (Triangular Section) = ½ (B) (H)


Volume of Space (Triangular Section) = ½ (120 m) (4.8768 m)
Volume of Space (Triangular Section) = 292.60 m3

Total Volume of Space = Rectangular Section + Triangular Section


Total Volume of Space = (6,524.52 + 292.60) m3
Total Volume of Space = 6,817.12 m3

(Volume of Space) (Air Change per hour)


Infiltration Air Flow =
3600
(6,817.12 m3 ) (0.3)
Infiltration Air Flow =
3600
Infiltration Air flow = 0.56809 m3/s

Dry Bulb Relative Humidity W


Condition
Temperature (DBT) (%) (kgw/ kgda)

Outside 34 °C 73 0.02481

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Inside 24 °C 50 0.00930
*The values for Dry Bulb Temperature, Relative Humidity and Humidity Ratio can be referred in the Psychometric Chart.

QS = (1,210) (Air Flow) (∆T)


QS = (1,210) (0.56809 m3/s) (34 – 24) °C
QS = 6,873.889 W
QS = 6.87388 kW

QL = (3,010) (Air Flow) (∆W)


QL = (3,010) (0.56809 m3/s) (24.81 – 9.3) gw/ kgda
QL = 26,521.33846 W
QL = 26.52133 kW

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PSYCHROMET
RIC
PROCESSES

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7
CHAPTER

Psychrometric Processes

 7.1 INTRODUCTION
After the cooling and heating loads are calculated, these loads must be
picked up and applied to a specific system to be able to select the proper HVAC
equipment. One of the most useful tools available for this step is the
psychrometric chart. The psychrometric processes and the calculations can
provide the data for equipment selection.

 7.2 FORMULAS
The calculation of psychrometric processes are achieved using the following
basic formulas enumerated below:

1. Effective Room Sensible Heat:

𝐸𝑅𝑆𝐻 = 𝑅𝑆𝐻 + (𝑂𝐴𝑆𝐻)(𝐵𝑃𝐹)

where:
𝐸𝑅𝑆𝐻 = Effective Room Sensible Heat (𝑘𝑊)
𝑅𝑆𝐻 = Room Sensible Heat (𝑘𝑊)
𝑂𝐴𝑆𝐻 = Outdoor Air Sensible Heat (𝑘𝑊)
𝐵𝑃𝐹 = By Pass Factor

2. Effective Room Latent Heat:

𝐸𝑅𝐿𝐻 = 𝐿𝑆𝐻 + (𝑂𝐴𝐿𝐻)(𝐵𝑃𝐹)

where:
𝐸𝑅𝐿𝐻 = Effective Room Latent Heat (𝑘𝑊)

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𝑅𝐿𝐻 = Room Latent Heat (𝑘𝑊)


𝑂𝐴𝐿𝐻 = Outdoor Air Latent Heat (𝑘𝑊)
𝐵𝑃𝐹 = By Pass Factor

3. Effective Sensible Heat Factor:

𝐸𝑅𝑆𝐻
𝐸𝑆𝐻𝐹 =
𝐸𝑅𝑆𝐻 + 𝐸𝑅𝐿𝐻

where:
𝐸𝑆𝐻𝐹 = Effective Sensible Heat Factor
𝐸𝑅𝑆𝐻 = Effective Room Sensible Heat (𝑘𝑊)
𝐸𝑅𝐿𝐻 = Effective Room Latent Heat (𝑘𝑊)

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HEAT LOAD SUMMARY


Load Sensible Heat Latent Heat

QWALL = 3.92570 kW

QROOF = 37.96021 kW

QWINDOW = 1.71462 kW

QFLOOR = 4.58166 kW

QDOOR = 7.35308 kW

QLIGHTS = 32.77692 kW

QOCCUPNY = 78.16000 kW 109.82 kW

QAPPLIANCES = 6.92400 kW

QINFILTRATION = 6.87388 kW 26.52133 kW

QTOTAL = 180.27007 kW 136.34133 kW

A 5% allowance of heat load is needed for safety for both on RSH and RLH,
therefore:
Room Sensible Heat (RSH):
RSH = QTOTAL SH + (5% Allowance) (QTOTAL SH)
RSH = 180.27007 kW + (0.05) (180.27007 kW)
RSH = 189.28357 kW

Room Latent Heat (RLH):


RLH = QTOTAL LH + (5% Allowance) (QTOTAL LH)
RLH = 136.34133 kW + (0.05) (136.34133 kW)
RLH = 143.15839 kW

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OUTDOOR HEAT LOAD SUMMARY


Load Sensible Heat Latent Heat

QVENTILATION = 64.26 kW 244.2825 kW

QTOTAL = 64.26 kW 244.2825 kW

Outdoor Air Sensible Heat (OASH):


OASH = 64.26 kW

Outdoor Air Latent Heat (OALH):


OALH = 244.2825 kW

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AIR-CONDITIONING CALCULATION

OUTSIDE
CONDITIONS
TDB = 34°C
RH = 73%
BASKETBALL
COURT
T4 = 24°C
RH = 50%


1 ○
2 ○
3 ○
4 ○
5 ○
6
CONDITIONER FAN

EFFECT OF BY PASS FACTOR


From Table 19.8, Page 642. C.P. Arora., use 0.05 for higher latent heat loads
or large outdoor-air load.

Table 19.8 Typical Bypass Factors of Finned Coils for Various Applications

Coil BFP Type of Application Example

0.3 to 0.5 Small Total Load Residence

0.2 to 0.3 Low SHF and Large Total Residence, Small Retail,

Load Shop, Factory

0.1 to 0.2 Typical Comfort Department Store, Bank,

Application Factory

0.05 to 0.1 Higher Latent Loads or Department Store,

Large Outdoor Air Loads Restaurant

0 to 0.1 All Outdoor Air Applications Hospital, Operation Rooms

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Effective Room Sensible Heat (ERSH):


ERSH = RSH + BFP (OASH)
ERSH = 189.28357 kW + (0.05) (64.26 kW)
ERSH = 192.49657 kW

Effective Room Latent Heat (ERLH):


ERLH = RLH + BFP (OALH)
ERLH = 143.15839 kW + (0.05) (244.2825 kW)
ERLH = 155.37251 kW

Effective Sensible Heat Factor (ESHF):


ERSH
ESHF =
ERSH + ERLH
192.49657 kW
ESHF =
192.49657 kW + 155.37251 kW
ESHF = 0.55335

But 0.5769 is low for ESHF is too low. Use the ESHF value commonly used in
air-conditioning practices are ranging from 0.75 to 0.80 for economical use. Use
0.75. The intersection with the saturation curve gives the ADP as 11 °C.

ERSH + Reheat
0.75 =
ERSH + ERLH + Reheat
192.49657 kW + Reheat
0.75 =
192.49657 kW + 155.37251 kW + Reheat
Reheat = 273.62096 kW

ERSH + Reheat
cmm =
(0.0204) (TINSIDE + TADP ) (1 – BFP)
192.49657 + 273.62096
cmm =
(0.0204) (24 – 11) (1 – 0.05)
cmm = 1,850.11324 cmm

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From Ventilation Load, QV = 315 cmm

Reheat
MBP =
CP AIR (∆T)
273.62096 kJ/s
MBP =
(1.0062 kJ/kg K) (24 – 11) °C
MBP = 20.91807 kg/s

cmmBP = MBP (VINSIDE) = (20.91807 kg/s) (0.85438 m3/kg)


cmmBP = 17.87198 m3/s
cmmBP = 1,072.31883 cmm

Supply Air Temperature:


RSH
TSUPPLY = TINSIDE –
0.0204 (cmmBP )
189.28357 kW
TSUPPLY = 24°C –
0.0204 (1,072.31883 cmm)
TSUPPLY = 15.34715 °C

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GRAND TOTAL HEAT

GRAND TOTAL HEAT (GTH):


GTH = RSH + RLH + OASH + OALH + Reheat

RHS = 189.28357 kW

RHL = 143.15839 kW

OASH = 64.26 kW

OALH = 244.28250 kW
273.62096 kW
Reheat =

GTH = 914.60542 kW

1 TR
GTH = 914.60542 kW x
3.516 kW
GTH = 260.12668 TR

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DISTRIBUTIO
N
OF AIR

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8
CHAPTER

Distribution of Air

 8.1 INTRODUCTION
The design and selection of air distribution equipment in today’s building
structures presents one of the more unique challenges for mechanical designers.
Unlike any other mechanical equipment required for these environmental
systems, the air distribution equipment selection must combine a proper choice
of engineered products efficiently providing conditioned air to the space while
adding architectural features which complement the interior design. Air outlet
selection and application is no less important than any other facet of the HVAC
system. However, if the air outlets are improperly applied or selected, the entire
system could be considered a failure.

 8.2 AIR HANDLING UNITS


Draw-through Units have the tempering coils on the low-pressure or inlet side
of the fan. The air passes through dampers and filter back before entering the
coils. This minimizes the distance between the coils and the fan inlet while still
providing uniform flow through the coils. The fan then discharges the air either
directly into a duct or into a plenum with several supply ducts attached.

Blow-through Units are the opposite of draw-through. The coils are located on
the high-pressure or outlet side of the fan. Because of fan-discharge air is
turbulent; the coil must be far enough downstream from the fan to ensure
sufficiently laminar air flow for effective heat transfer. These systems are usually
larger than draw-through units. Alternately, a pressure plate can be installed
downstream from the fan discharge to ensure laminar air flow across the coil.

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This shortens the casing length but causes a significant pressure drop in the
system, increasing energy use.

DISTRIBUTION OF AIR

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GIVEN: RSH = 189.28357 kW


TINSIDE = 24°C
TSUPPLY = 15.34715 °C

Solve for the Supply Air Flow:


Room Sensible Heat
Supply Air Flow =
1,210 (TINSIDE – TSUPPLY )
189283.57 J/s
Supply Air Flow =
1,210 (24 – 15.34715)
Supply Air Flow = 18.07874 m3/s

Solve for the Entering Coil Conditions:


QV/ person = 0.21 cmm (Table 16.2, Page 518. C.P. Arora)
Occupancy = 1500 persons (Maximum)

QV = 0.21 cmm (1500 persons)


QV = 315 cmm
QV = 5.25 cms

Ventilation Air Flow


% Outdoor Air =
Supply Air Flow
5.25 cms
% Outdoor Air =
18.07874 cms
% Outdoor Air = 0.29039

Mixing of Air:

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34°C (0.29309) = 9.96506°C

24°C (1 – 0.29309) = 16.96584°C

= 26.93093°C

GIVEN: Volume (V) = 6,817.12 m3


Air Changes per hour = 0.3 Air Changes per hour

Solve for the Room Air Supply Volume Flow Rate:


(Air Changes per hour) (Volume of Room)
Volume Flow Rate =
3,600
(0.3) (6,817.12 m3 )
Volume Flow Rate =
3,600
3
m3 60 s 3.28 ft
Volume Flow Rate = 0.56809 x x
s min m3
Volume Flow Rate = 1,202.79032 cfm
Volume Flow Rate = 34.08540 cmm

Solve for Duct Leakage Volume Flow Rate:


Assume: Duck Leakage = 5%
Volume Flow Rate of Duct leakage = 1,202.79032 (0.05)
Volume Flow Rate of Duct leakage = 60.13951 cfm
Volume Flow Rate of Duct leakage = 1.70427 cmm

Solve for the Room Occupancy Volume Flow Rate:


QV/ person = 0.21 cmm (Table 16.2, Page 518. C.P. Arora)
QV = 0.21 cmm (1500 persons)
QV = 315 cmm
QV =115.57888 cfm
Solve for the Total Room Air Supply

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Total Room Air Supply = Volume Flow Rate of Room Air Supply +
Volume Flow Rate of Duck Leakage + Room Occupancy Volume Flow
Rate
Total Room Air Supply = (1,202.79032 + 60.13951 + 115.57888) (1.05)
Total Room Air Supply = 1,447.43414 cfm
Total Room Air Supply = 40.98677 cmm

Solve for the Total Mass of Air Supply to the Room:


- 5% factor of safety is included in the calculation.
- The filter must have 10 to 50 micron per size. (ASHRAE Standards)
- From room occupancy volume flow rate, calculate the value of
recommended ACH/person.
- From Table 16.2, Page 518. C.P. Arora:

Total Room Air Supply = 1,447.43414 cfm


Total Room Air Supply = 40.98677 cmm

Mass of Pressure Air = 1.2 kg/m3

Mass of Air Supply = (Total Room Air Supply) (Mass of Pressure Air)
Mass of Air Supply = (40.98677 cmm) (1.2 kg/m3)
Mass of Air Supply = 49.18412 kg/min
Mass of Air Supply = 0.81973 kg/s

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Solve for the Exhaust Air Flow Rate:


Assume that the Exhaust Flow Rate is 100 cfm more than the Air Supplied
to the room.

VEXHAUST AIR = VAIR SUPPLIED + 100 cfm


VEXHAUST AIR = 1,447.43414 cfm + 100 cfm
VEXHAUST AIR = 1,5447.43414 cfm
VEXHAUST AIR = 43.81845 cmm

Solve for the Mass of Air Exhaust from the Room:


VEXHAUST AIR = 1,5447.43414 cfm
VEXHAUST AIR = 43.81845 cmm

Mass of Pressure Air = 1.2 kg/m3

Mass of Air Supply = (Total Room Air Supply) (Mass of Pressure Air)
Mass of Air Supply = (43.81845 cmm) (1.2 kg/m3)
Mass of Air Supply = 52.58214 kg/min
Mass of Air Supply = 0.87636 kg/s

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SUMMARY

9
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Summary

 9.1 CONCLUSION
The matter of acceptable air quality and comfortable environmental conditions
in this building where a maximum capability of 1,500 spectators is foreseen, is
the major concern. Proper ventilation and supply of fresh air play a significant
role in controlling the indoor air quality and thermal comfort for the intense
metabolism due to the overcrowding of people.

T.I.P. Basketball Court, usually referred as the Congregating Area, is a


place where students gather whenever there will be an event. One of the events
that have the most number of T.I.P. students are attending is the annual
Student’s Night to have fun. In order for the students to fully enjoy the night, the
authors designed an air-conditioning system to deliver enough comfort cooling to
the students while they are conducting activities. The authors did their best to
consider all the factors affecting the temperature. From the specification of
materials for the wall, roof, floor and other cooling loads were all taken into
considerations.

Since the Student’s Night is always crowded, the authors come up with a
design where student will be kept comfortable while they are actively participating
in any series of events. Two (2) air-handling units (AHU) are placed to maintain
cleanliness, temperature and motion of air.

WALLS, the authors recommend that the wall must be insulated so that heat
may not able to pass through. Moreover, it should be maintained well so that
minor cracks won’t cause any infiltration in the area. The recommended wall

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compositions have layers such as: External Surface, External Render, Concrete
Block, Insulation, Concrete Block, Plaster and Internal Surface.

FLOORS, the authors recommend a floor made from concrete. Surface


Resistance, Screed, Concrete (High), Insulation and Screed are layers the
authors designed respectively to minimize the heat gain load that floor may give.

CEILING, the authors recommend the use Metal Roof, ½ ’’ Insulation Board,
½ ’’ Exp. Polystyrene and ½ ’’ Exp. Urethane to have a low value of overall
coefficient of friction (U). This layer of materials will help to lessen the effects of
solar radiation.

DOORS, different doors are designed to for specific purposes. All of the
proposed doors are two way and has a glass window placed onto it. The purpose
of having a door like this is for the students to know if there is someone entering
or exiting the area. In addition to, placing a glass would prevent accidents.

HVAC System, the authors recommend that an HVAC System is needed to


obtain proper comfort conditions for people standings on the tribunes in term of
temperature. It is needed to maintain the comfort cooling of people inside the
T.I.P Basketball Court especially to those students who are actively participating
in the event because of the high temperature they are feeling.

 9.2 MAINTAINANCE
Predictive Maintenance
 Find, identify, and correct minor problems inexpensively, before they lead to
more complex and expensive repairs;
 Avoid needless downtime and inconvenience or discomfort to occupants;
 Ensure continued production when equipment is used in process application;
 Control energy costs;
 Prolong equipment life, deferring replacement expense;

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 Change your air filters regularly. A clogged or improperly installed air filter
makes your system work harder. So, if you forget to change your filters, you
might notice you’re paying more for air conditioning that you’re not enjoying
nearly as much;
 Be sure not to block your floor, wall or ceiling vents. When drapes, furniture,
toys or anything else blocks the vents, it will restrict the airflow—and
decrease the system’s efficiency and life span;
 Check your outside condensing unit periodically to make sure it isn’t covered
up or clogged with leaves or debris. Give it space—at least a foot—by cutting
back shrubs or tall grass. Air needs to flow in through the sides to cool the
coil;
 Check the drain system to make sure it isn’t clogged. Because your air
conditioner removes humidity from your home during the cooling season, you
should notice water trickling from the condensate drain of the indoor unit.
Keep in mind that the drainage will be limited if you live in a very dry
environment;
 Don’t try to turn your home into an icebox. You shouldn’t run your system in
cooling mode when outdoor temperatures are lower than 55°F/12.78°C
unless your outdoor unit is modified to handle cooling in colder weather;
 Have a Carrier® expert clean your indoor coil and replace your filters
routinely. If you notice longer operating cycles and reduced energy efficiency,
the coil could be to blame;
 Check for water in the base of your outdoor unit. It likely means the support
base has settled or shifted since installation and is no longer level. If that’s the
case, be sure to re-level it to assure proper drainage. Also check for standing
water or ice under the unit in and arrange for it to drain away; and
 Consider having your ducts sealed or insulated. Air leaks can lead to wasted
energy and an overworked air conditioner;

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Ventilator maintenance
Your ventilator is designed to remove stale and polluted air from your home,
while keeping valuable energy from escaping. We’ve included some tips here to
keep it running at its best. But, of course, you can always have your
Carrier® expert maintain your ventilation system for you.
 Lubricating the bearings is not recommended. The motors are factory
lubricated;
 Core maintenance: First, it’s very important to know which type of unit you
have, because core cleaning varies by type and you could cause damage
with improper cleaning. The serial number will include either the letters ERV
or HRV to tell you what you have. For Energy Recovery Ventilator (ERV)
cores, vacuum every 3 months to remove dust that would inhibit the energy
transfer. Do not use water. The core should only be serviced when the
outdoor temperature is between 60°F (16°C) and 75°F (24°C) and dry. NOTE:
If the edges of the core are soft, do not try to service the core. The air
passages can be damaged and/or closed off by handling it or trying to remove
it. For Heat Recovery Ventilator (HRV) cores, wash once a year. And handle
with care. First, soak the core for 3 hours in a bath of warm water and mild
soap. Then rinse under warm, not hot, water. Hot water and strong detergents
can damage a heat recovery core;
 A dirty air filter will cause excessive strain on the blower motor. The filters in
your ventilator are washable and should be cleaned every 3 months. Use a
vacuum cleaner to remove the heaviest portion of accumulated dust, then
wash in warm water. NOTE: Do NOT clean these filters in a dishwasher or
dry them with heating appliances. This will cause permanent damage. Use
lukewarm water to clean filters. Replace filters only when they are completely
dry; and
 Regularly check the screen on the exterior intake hood and clean as
necessary.

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Care and Maintenance of HVAC Ducts


Under normal circumstances, your air conditioner's ducts need little special
care. During regular maintenance inspections, your air-conditioning and ventilation
technician should examine ducts for breaks or tears, loose connections or insulation
loss, but problems are rare.

Cleaning Air Ducts


One of the most common concerns about your ducts is their cleanliness. You
can easily change filters and even clean your system's condenser and evaporator
coils, but cleaning air ducts is beyond the scope of most do-it-yourself projects.
Professional duct cleaning uses specialized equipment, including vacuums, forced
air, antimicrobial solutions and other tools to clean your system. As
the Environmental Protection Agency points out, accumulated dust and soil in ducts
has not been definitively linked to increased allergic reactions or other health
concerns. However, dust build-up can limit the efficiency of your system. The EPA
also recommends cleaning if you see the following signs of trouble:
 Substantial and obvious mold growth on duct interiors;
 Signs of animal or insect activity such as droppings or insect parts; and
 Heavy accumulation of soil and dust around air vents.

Sealing Ducts
Duct sealing can have a dramatic effect on your utility bills. By properly
insulating and sealing ducts, you reduce the amount of cool air lost to your attic or
basement. According to data on the EPA's Energy Star site, leaking ducts can cost
your heating and air conditioning system as much as 20 percent of its efficiency.
Sealing also protects the system from animal or insect invasions that could
necessitate a complete duct cleaning. Sealed ducts improve indoor air quality by
creating a barrier between your ventilation network and potential pollutants that
could find their way into the system.

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Troubleshooting Duct Problems


While your ducts will probably remain trouble-free as long as you change your
return air filters regularly, problems can occur. Duct problems are usually silent;
unlike problems that affect your compressor, blower or other mechanical parts of
your AC system, trouble with ducts can go undiagnosed for years.
 Insufficient air flow: When you hold your hand to an intake vent or register, you
should feel air movement. If you detect little or no air, you may have a breach
or kink in the duct. Check the damper on the vent, too. Dampers are meant to
limit air flow, and if someone in your household inadvertently closed it, the
solution may be as simple as sliding a lever.
 Dust collecting on vents: If you see soil near vents, check your filter first. A
dirty filter lets dust into the return air system and sends it throughout the
house via the vents. After cleaning the dust away from the vents and
changing the filter, monitor the amount of dust the AC produces. If the system
still leaves visible dust after a week or two of observation, you may have a
breach that needs professional attention.
 Hot and cold zones in your home instead of uniform temperatures: Improperly
installed ducts can lead to unwanted temperature differentials. A duct that's
too small for the room it serves or that becomes constricted can't deliver
enough cool air for comfort. Before contacting a professional, check the
dampers on vents to ensure that they haven't been closed.
 Unpleasant or musty smells: Ducts normally deliver clean, scentless air, but a
marked odor could indicate that an animal has made its home in your ducts.
Musty aromas can come from mold growth, especially if your AC system is
inefficient at removing humidity from the air.

Your HVAC system's ductwork is vital to its efficiency and to your comfort. If you
suspect a problem with your ducts, contact a professional duct cleaning and
maintenance service such as the team at AC Southeast for an assessment.

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 9.3 TROUBLESHOOTING
SYSTEM NOT RUNNING
 Check to make sure that your control or thermostat is set in cooling mode.
Make sure that the temperature is set cooler than the current indoor
temperature. If it isn’t, your system won’t know to provide cooling.
 Make sure your outdoor cooling (condensing) unit is running. If not, check the
circuit breakers in your home’s circuit breaker box (or electrical panel). They
should be in the ON position.
 Check the main power switch for your outdoor unit, usually found within a few
feet of the unit in a box mounted to the exterior of the house. Make sure it’s in
the ON position.
 Ensure that the blower motor in your furnace or air handler (fan coil) is
running. If the system is set for cooling, the blower motor should be running. If
not, check to make sure your indoor unit switch is in the ON position.

SYSTEM NOT COOLING ENOUGH


 Check the filter for buildup. If you have one-inch-thick furnace filters, a once-
a-month change is recommended. Two-inch-thick filters—and other high-
capacity pleated filters—usually only need to be changed every other month,
depending on the type. If you don’t change it, the filter will eventually become
so full; it will block the proper airflow and cause your outdoor air conditioner
unit to shut down.
 Check all return air grilles to make sure they are not blocked. Return air grilles
are larger and are located on a wall or the ceiling in newer homes. Older
homes frequently have return air grilles on the floor.
 Check all supply registers to make sure they are open and blowing air.

If you still don’t feel that refreshing flow of cool air throughout your home or
your system is under-delivering cooling, it’s time to contact your local Carrier
expert for service.

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OTHER SIGNS THAT INDICATE A SERVICE CALL MAY BE IN ORDER


 Your system is struggling to keep up and seems to be turning itself on and off
frequently.
 Your indoor summer humidity levels seem unusually high.
 You hear your indoor-unit fan coming on but the air from the registers isn’t
cool or the fan is turning on and off more frequently than usual. NOTE: If your
system control has a “Constant ON” feature, you will not always feel warmth,
even though air may be blowing.

 9.4 RECOMMENDATION
We recommend that it is best to schedule professional HVAC service before it
is needed. Generally speaking, maintenance on the cooling portion should be
done once a year, during the spring. This spring service call should include the
following maintenance tasks: Ensure that the thermostat is functioning properly,
Inspect the furnace filter, Inspect and clean the evaporator and coil, Inspect,
clean, and adjust the blower motor, Inspect the condensate drain for blockage,
Inspect and clean the condenser and coil, Inspect the fan motor and blades for
damage and proper operation, Inspect all components, wiring, and controls to
ensure that they are safe and working properly, and Inspect refrigerant piping for
leakage, repair any existing leak(s), measure and (if necessary) balance the
refrigerant level.

For the kitchen exhaust system we recommend that cleaning is a must,


removing grease that has accumulated inside the ducts, hoods, fans and vents of
exhaust systems of kitchens. Left uncleansed, kitchen exhaust systems
eventually accumulate enough grease to become extreme fire hazards. Exhaust
systems must be inspected regularly, at intervals consistent with usage, to
determine whether or not cleaning needed before a dangerous amount of grease
has accumulated.

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Caustic chemicals can be applied to break down the grease. After that, hot
water can be used to rinse away the residue. Chemicals are generally applied
with either a garden type sprayer, downstream injection through a pressure
washer or with a chemical foamer. Once the chemicals are applied, they are
allowed to dwell on the surface of the grease for a period of time, before being
washed off of the surface with hot water. In extreme situations, where grease
buildup is too heavy for a chemical application and a rinse, scrapers may be
used to remove excess buildup from the contaminated surfaces, before
chemicals are applied.

Hot water pressure-washing, machines can be used that both boil water and
then apply this water under pressures up to 2000PSI. In a common method of
preparation, heavy-duty tarps are first clipped to the hoods and then angled into
plastic garbage cans to catch the run-off. As the cans are filled the contents are
disposed of successively. The grease should be removed rather than just
emptied into the local drains to avoid clogging issues. Hand scraping is also
common technique for degreasing the exhaust system back to bare metal.

It is possible for a knowledgeable technical person with the proper tools to


complete such tasks. This maintenance will ensure that the unit will do its
performance to maintain desired room conditioned and clean kitchen exhaust
system.

Shading from Vegetation

Vegetation is in fact a powerful tool in shading, as well as in reducing solar


radiation, wind and precipitation and trees planted well can save up to 30 percent
of a building's total energy requirement. Trees and vegetation can be used to
provide shade where it is seasonally beneficial. In hot places, plants and trees,
planted in front of a window do not only reduce solar radiation but the
evaporation process also helps to cool the air. In winter, properly placed trees

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and shrubs shield your home from cold winds, reducing heat loss by 10 to 30
percent.

In summer, shade provided by trees and the cooling effect of water


evaporating from leaves can significantly reduce your need for cooling. The
purpose of identifying the right tree type for a particular building requires the
following steps:
 Identifying the "solar window," which is how much sun the building
receives given its placement on the lot. For example, the Pacific
Northwest climate, the ideal solar window is 90 degrees east and
about 50 degrees west of true south.
 The building should be kept clear for winter warmth and light. If there
is need to plant trees inside the solar window, minimize the impact by
planting deciduous, "solar friendly" trees that have open crowns in the
winter, leaf late spring and drop their leaves early in the fall (for
example: redbud, green ash, and honey locust.). Tall, high crowned
trees planted close to the building are the best. Palm trees are often
chosen for this. Vines are also a common choice for this purpose.
When properly placed, mature trees have shading coefficients (S.C)
from 0.25 to 0.20.
 Outside the solar window, conifers or deciduous trees with dense
winter crowns should be planted to protect from the cold winter wind.
Deciduous trees may be preferable on the west side because they'll
give more light in the winter.

Window Blind
A Venetian blind (or venetian blind) has horizontal slats, one above another.
Venetian blinds are basic slatted blinds made of metal or plastic; wooden slats
are sometimes used but in the US these are now usually referred to as wood
blinds or bamboo blinds. They are suspended by strips of cloth called tapes, or
by cords, by which all slats in unison can be rotated through nearly 180 degrees.

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The slats can be rotated such that they overlap with one side facing inward and
then in the opposite direction such that they overlap with the other side facing
inward. Between those extremes, various degrees of separation may be effected
between the slats by varying the rotation. There are also lift cords passing
through slots in each slat. When these cords are pulled, the bottom of the blind
moves upward, causing the lowest slats to press the underside of the next
highest slat as the blind is raised. A modern variation of the lift cords combines
them with the rotational cords in slots on the two edges of each slat. This avoids
the slots otherwise required to allow a slat to rotate despite a lift cord passing
through it, thus decreasing the amount of light passing through a closed blind.
Slat width can be between 16 and 120 mm, with 25 mm being a common width.

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FAN COIL EQUIPMENT SCHEDULE


AIRSTREAM™42B
BELT DRIVE FAN COILS

1,019 TO 6,796 M³/H


600 TO 4,000 CFM

42BH - Horizontal
40BV - Vertical
The 42B belt drive fan coil units provide year-round comfort air conditioning with central station operating economy. The 42B units are designed for high-
static, ducted applications, using furred-in, horizontal and vertical models

PERFORMANCE FEATURES

 Airflow capacities from 600 to 4000 Cfm


 Outside air capability with mixing box
 Wide range of coil options for 2-pipe or 4-pipe system combinations
 Motors available from ¼ hp to 5 hp
 Forward-curved, centrifugal, double-inlet fans are statically and dynamically balanced at the
factory
 2 in. pleated filter for indoor air quality

PHYSICAL DATA (SIZES 06-12)

Unit Size 06 08 10 12

Nominal Cfm 600 800 1000 1200

42BHE Operating Wt (lb.)

No heat 235 269 292 296

With heat 266 268 327 329

42BVE Operating Wt (lb.)

No heat 232 234 283 287

With heat 263 265 316 320

Filters (2 in. pleated)

Number 1 1 1 1

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Size (in.) 16½ x 24 16½ x 24 18¼ x 33 18¼ x 33

Face Area (sq. ft.) 2.8 2.8 4.2 4.2

Hydronic Coils

Size (in.) 15 x 20 15 x 20 15 x 29 15 x 29

Face Area (sq. ft.) 2.1 2.1 3.0 3.0

Fins per inch 10 10 10 10

Coil Water Volume (approx. gal. per row of coil) 0.240 0.240 0.324 0.324

4 and 6 Row (Cooling) ¾ nominal ¾ ¾ nominal ¾ nominal

0.875OD nominal 0.875OD 0.875OD

0.875OD

1 Row (Heating) ½ nominal ½ ½ nominal ½ nominal

0.625 OD nominal 0.625 OD 0.625 OD

0.625 OD

2 Row (Heating) ½ nominal ½ ½ nominal ½ nominal

0.625OD nominal 0.625OD 0.625OD

0.625OD

DX Coil Conn. Liquid Line (in.) ¼ nominal ¼ ¼ nominal ¼ nominal

0.375OD nominal 0.375OD 0.375OD

0.375OD

DX Coil Conn. Sunction Line (in.) ¾ nominal ¾ ¾ nominal ¾ nominal

0.875OD nominal 0.875OD 0.875OD

0.875OD

Drain Conn. Sizes (in.) ¾ MPT ¾ MPT ¾ MPT ¾ MPT

Fans

Qty...Size (in.) 1...9 x 4 1...9 x 6 1...10 x 4 1...10 x 7

Hydronic Coil Conn. (in.)

8 Row (Cooling) 1 nominal 1 nominal 1 nominal 1 nominal

1.125 OD 1.125 OD 1.125 OD 1.125 OD

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CHILLER EQUIPMENT SCHEDULE

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