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MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 1

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09175375413

INTRODUCTION
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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY


Food services have been an integral part of every establishment where
human activity is prevalent. The school canteen is a great place to promote an

enjoyment of healthy eating. For students who use the canteen regularly, the
food purchased makes a significant contribution to their total food intake and

nutrition; therefore it makes sense to ensure the best food possible is


available to enhance their ability to learn and take in the information

presented to them in class.

The two main ways in which school canteens have an impact on school
life are in supporting teaching through proper nutrition and health practices;

including the provision of special dietary requirements for some students and
staff, and in being sectors of schools which can easily become trouble zones if

specific measures are not put in place to prevent this.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


Well planned school canteens support student development and
learning. They provide adequate nutrition which gives students and staff high

energy levels and prevents diseases, such as obesity and anaemia, which are
related to poor diet.

However, overheated places can and will affect the occupant’s comfort
and productivity. Air conditioners keep the students, faculties, employees and
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guests comfortable, making the place more convenient to the students’

development and learning. The control of the indoor environment

Because of this, the designers were tasked to design an air-


conditioning system for a school canteen located at the Technological

Institute of the Philippines – Quezon City for the purpose of providing


comfortable for its occupants inside. The design’s objective is also to provide

comprehensive and detailed presentation of data and loads calculations in


order to select the most energy efficient system on the market.

1.3 DEFINITION OF TERMS


Throughout this technical report, there are some terms that are defined for

the purpose of understanding this report.

1. Air Change. A quantity of fresh air equal to the volume of the room or
building being ventilated.

2. Air-Conditioning. The artificial process of treating air to adjust its humidity,


temperature, cleanliness, air quality, circulation and distribution as
required by occupants, a process or a product in the space.
3. Air Infiltration. The uncontrolled inward leakage of outdoor air through

cracks, interstices, and other unintentional openings of a building, caused


by the pressure effects of the wind and/or the stack effect.

4. Air Leakage. The leakages of air in or out of a building or space usually


driven by artificially induce pressures.
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5. Building Envelope. The total area of the boundary surfaces of a building

through which heat, light, air and moisture are transferred between the
internal spaces and the outside environment.

6. Condensation. The precipitation of liquid from its vapor phase resulting


from the lowering of temperature at constant pressure; especially the

deposition of water from moist, warm air onto a relatively cold surface of
between two surfaces such as within a cavity wall.

7. Cooling Load. The rate at which heat must be extracted from a space to

maintain a desired room condition.


8. Dehumidification. The process of reducing the moisture content of the air

(humidity ration decreases); serves to increase the cooling power of the air
and can contribute to occupant comfort.

9. Dehumidifier. (1) An air cooler or washer used for lowering the moisture
content of the air passing through it; (2) An absorption or adsorption

device for removing moisture from air.


10. Dew Point, Apparatus. The temperature which would result if the

psychometric process occurring in a dehumidifier, humidifier or surface-


cooler were carried to the saturation condition of the leaving air while

maintaining the same ratio of sensible to total heat load in the process.
11. Enthalpy. The enthalpy of a mixture of dry air and water vapor is the sum

of the enthalpy of dry air and the enthalpy of water vapor.


12. Entropy. The ratio of the heat added to a substance to the absolute

temperature at which it is added.


13. Heat. Form of energy that is transferred by virtue of a temperature

difference.
14. Heat, Latent. Refers to the heat added or removed during a change of
state of a substance wherein the temperature remains constant.
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15. Heat, Sensible. The heat absorbed or evolved by a substance during a

change of temperature that is not accompanied by a change of state.


16. Heat, Specific. The ratio of the amount of heat required to raise the

temperature of a given mass of any substance one degree to the quantity


required to raise the temperature if an equal mass of a standard

substance.
17. Heat Transfer. The movement of heat energy from one body to another

(gas, liquid or solid or combinations thereof) by means of radiation,

convection or conduction.
18. Humidification. The process of increasing the moisture content of the air

(humidity ratio increases); transferring a mass of water to the atmospheric


air.

19. Humidity. It is defined as the amount of moisture or water vapor in the air.
20. Humidity, Specific. The amount of water vapor actually present in the air

expressed in kg of water vapor per kg of dry air. It is also called humidity


ratio.

21. Humidity, Relative. The ratio of the actual partial pressure exerted by the
water vapor in any volume of air to the saturation pressure corresponding

to the dry bulb temperature of the air, expressed in percentage.


22. Infiltration. The air flowing inward through a wall, crack, etc.

23. Psychrometric Chart. A graphical presentation of the physical properties of


moist air at a constant pressure (usually at sea level).

24. Psychrometry. The branch of physics that deals with the measurement of
atmospheric conditions and the study of the properties of mixtures of air

and water vapor.


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25. Temperature, Dew Point. The temperature where the water vapor content

of moist or humid air becomes saturated and any further cooling will
cause condensation.

26. Temperature, Dry Bulb. The temperature of air measured by an ordinary


mercury thermometer.

27. Temperature, Wet Bulb. The temperature of air measured by an ordinary


mercury thermometer whose bulb is covered by a wetted cotton wick and

exposed to a current of rapidly moving air.

28. Vapor. A gas, particularly one near to equilibrium with the liquid phase of
the substance and which does not follow the gas laws. Usually used

instead of gas for a refrigerant, and in general, for any gas below the
critical temperature.

29. Ventilation. The process of supplying or removing air, by natural or


mechanical means, to or from any space. Such air may or may not have

been conditioned.

1.4 PURPOSES OF HEATING, VENTILATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEMS


The purpose of an HVAC system is to provide the heating, cooling and
ventilation requirements of a building over a range of ambient conditions specific

to the building location. A system must be designed to cope with the maximum
value of each of these requirements. The degree to which an HVAC system fails

to match the requirements and overheats overcools or over-ventilates the


building space determines the amount of energy being wasted. Particular

systems may have one or more purposes, such as:


 To maintain comfort by controlling temperature and humidity within
acceptable limits;
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 To maintain air quality within acceptable limits of carbon dioxide, oxygen and

odor content;
 To remove airborne contaminants produced by processes and occupants;

 To remove internal heat gain by processes, building services and occupants;


and/or

To provide special environment control for equipment and processes.


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DESIGN
CONDITIONS
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CHAPTER 2
DESIGN CONDITIONS

2.1 INDOOR DESIGN CONDITIONS


The main focus of this technical report is to provide its occupants the

comfort that they need in order to increase their productivity and


development. The school canteen itself must also be a safe haven since the

people are paying for its premium food services.

For this design, the authors referred to the range set by the American
Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers. These

parameters would provide the optimal environment for occupants’ comfort


and productivity, which are:
24°C and 50% RH

2.2 OUTDOOR DESIGN CONDITIONS


For this part, the outdoor conditions were based upon the location of
the school canteen and the temperature conditions from local weather
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reports available. The designers chose the month of April 2016 as the basis for

summer air-conditioning design because it was recorded as the warmest


month of the year.

The selection of the outdoor dry bulb temperature was based from the

mean high temperature recorded on a certain day of April. In The value of


relative humidity was based from the local weather reports as well. The

outdoor design condition parameters are as follows:


37°C and 70% RH

The following chart was the basis for the selection of the dry bulb
temperature which was based from a monthly weather report on Quezon City,

Philippines as of April 2016.

Quezon City Local Weather (as of April 2016)


40

35

30

25

20

15

10

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Actual High Temperature Actual Low Temperature


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ARCHITECTURAL
LAYOUT
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CHAPTER 3
ARCHITECTURAL LAYOUTS
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EXTERNAL LOAD
GAIN
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CHAPTER 4
EXTERNAL LOAD GAIN

4.1 INTRODUCTION TO EXTERNAL LOAD CALCULATIONS


There are different loads that were detrimental to the computation of
the grand total heat, but the two major load calculations are the external

loads and the internal loads. External load gains are cooling loads which were
based from the outside factors that influences the space being conditioned.

These are the heat conducted through walls, ceiling, floors, doors and glass
partitions.

4.2 FORMULAS, CHARTS, FIGURES AND TABLES


The formulas of external load gain are as follows:

1. Heat Gain Through Building Walls


Q=UA(∆T)
Where: Q – Heat flow through walls, kW
U – Overall coefficient of heat transfer in wall partition, W/m2K

A – Cross sectional area, m2


ΔT – Cooling load temperature difference, °C

2. Heat Gain Through Ceilings


Q=UA(∆T)
Where: Q – Heat flow through ceiling, kW
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U – Overall coefficient of heat transfer in ceiling partition,

W/m2K
A – Cross sectional area, m2

ΔT – Cooling load temperature difference, °C

3. Heat Gain Through Glass


Q=UA(∆T)
Where: Q – Heat flow through glass, kW

U – Overall coefficient of heat transfer in glass partition, W/m2K


A – Cross sectional area, m2

ΔT – Cooling load temperature difference, °C

4. Heat Gain Through Flooring


Q=UA(∆T)
Where: Q – Heat flow through floor, kW

U – Overall coefficient of heat transfer in the floor, W/m2K


A – Cross sectional area, m2

ΔT – Cooling load temperature difference, °C

From the Table 18.2 Surface Heat Transfer Coefficients (p. 577)

Orientation of Air Velocity Direction of Heat Surface Emissivity


Surface Flow
0.9 0.7 0.5
Horizontal still air Up 9.4 5.2 -
4.4
Horizontal still air Down 6.3 2.2 -
1.3
Vertical still air Horizontal 8.5 4.3 -
3.5
Any Position 25 kmph Any 35 - -
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-
Any Position 12.5 kmph Any 23.3 - -
-

From the Table 18.1: Thermophysical Properties of Selected Building and

Insulating Materials (p. 576)


Specific Thermal
Density Conductance
Material Description Heat Conductivity

kJ/kg K kg/m3 W/mK W/m2K

Asphalt 0.74 – 0.76 -

Bricks Common 0.84 1600 0.77 -


Face brick 0.84 2000 1.32 -
Diatomaceous (fired) - - 0.24 -
Firebrick (500 to 1100) 0.96 2000 1.04 to 1.09 -
Magnesite (200 to 1200) 1.13 -

Woods Ply 544 0.1


Hard 2.39 720 0.158 -
Soft 2.72 512 0.1 -

Masonry Concrete 0.88 1920 1.73 -

Materials Plaster, cement 0.796 1885 8.65 -


Hollow clay tiles, 10 cm - - - 5.23
Hollow clay tiles, 20 cm - - - 3.14
Hollow clay tiles, 30 cm - - - 2.33
Hollow concrete blocks, 10 cm - - - 8.14
Hollow concrete blocks, 20 cm - - - 5.23
Hollow concrete blocks, 30 cm - - - 4.54
Foam concrete (precast slabs for roof) - 210 - 704 0.043 – 0.128 -

Glass Window 0.84 2700 0.78 -


Corosilicate - 2200 1.09 -

Insulating
Mineral or Glass Wool 0.67 24 - 64 0.038 -
Materials
Rockwool 64 0.067 -
Fibreglass Board 0.7 64 - 144 0.038 -
Cork board 1.884 104 - 128 0.038 -
Cork granulated 1.88 45 - 120 0.045 -
Expanded polysterene (thermocole) - 30 0.037 -
PUF (Polyurethane foam) - 0.0173 -
Diatomaceous earth - 320 0.061 -
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Felt - 330 0.052 -


Insulex, dry - 0.064 -
Kapok - 0.035 -
Magnesia - 270 0.067 -
Asbestos 0.816 470 - 570 0.154 -

4.3 GLASS WINDOW HEAT GAIN


GLASS WINDOW

Thermal Thermal
Thickness Conductance
Material Conductivity Resistance
(m) (W / m2 K)
(W / m K) (m2 K / W)
External
- - 35 0.028571
Surface
Glass 0.00635 0.78 - 0.008141
Internal
- - 8.5 0.117647
Surface
Total Thermal Resistance, RT 0.154359

Solving for the Overall Coefficient of Heat Transfer


1 1
Ugw = =
RT 0.154359 m ∙K⁄W
2

Ugw = 6.478404 W⁄ 2
m ∙K

Northeast Side
Agw = (0.40 m)(0.10 m)
Agw = 0.04 m2

Qgw = UA∆T = (6.478404)(0.04)(37-24)


Qgw = 3.36877 W

Qgw actual = Qgw (no. of windows)


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Qgw actual = 3.36877×16


Qgw actual = 53.90032 W
Qgw actual = 0.0539 kW

Southwest Side
Agw = (0.40 m)(0.10 m)
Agw = 0.04 m2

Qgw = UA∆T = (6.478404)(0.04)(37-24)


Qgw = 3.36877 W

Qgw actual = Qgw (no. of windows)


Qgw actual = 3.36877×5
Qgw actual = 16.84385 W
Qgw actual = 0.01684 kW

Total Heat Gain through Glass Windows


Qtgw = 0.0539 + 0.01684
Qtgw = 0.07074 kW
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4.4 GLASS DOOR HEAT GAIN (ENTRANCE PART)


Thermal Thermal
Thickness Conductance
Material Conductivity Resistance
(m) (W / m2 K)
(W / m K) (m2 K / W)
External
- - 35 0.028571
Surface
Glass 0.00635 0.78 - 0.008141
Internal
- - 8.5 0.117647
Surface
Total Thermal Resistance, RT 0.154359

Solving for the Overall Coefficient of Heat Transfer


1 1
Ugd = =
RT 0.154359 m ∙K⁄W
2

Ugd = 6.478404 W⁄ 2
m ∙K

Southeast Side
Agd = (0.80 m)(2.10 m)(2)
Agd = 3.36 m2

Qgd = UA∆T = (6.478404)(3.36)(37-24)


Qgd = 282.976687 W

Qgd actual = Qdw (no. of windows) = = 282.976687×3


Qgd actual = 848.93 W = 0.84893 kW
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Total Heat Gain through Glass Doors


Qtgd = 0.84893 kW

4.5 WOODEN DOOR HEAT GAIN


For the Glass Doorlite Portion

Thermal Thermal
Thickness Conductance
Material Conductivity Resistance
(m) (W / m2 K)
(W / m K) (m2 K / W)
External
- - 35 0.028571
Surface
Glass 0.00635 0.78 - 0.008141
Internal
- - 8.5 0.117647
Surface
Total Thermal Resistance, RT 0.154359

For the Wood portion

Thermal Thermal
Thickness Conductance
Material Conductivity Resistance
(m) (W / m2 K)
(W / m K) (m2 K / W)
External
- - 35 0.028571
Surface
Wood, hard 0.05 0.158 - 0.316456
Internal
- - 8.5 0.117647
Surface
Total Thermal Resistance, RT 0.462674

Solving for the Overall Coefficient of Heat Transfer


1
Udoorlite = =6.478404 W⁄ 2
0.154359 m K
1
Uwood = =2.161349 W⁄ 2
0.462674 m K
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Heat Gain on each component of the door


Adoorlite = (0.127)(0.914) = 0.116078 m2
Awood = (0.8)(2.1) = 1.68 m2

Qdoorlite = UA(∆T) = (6.478404)(0.116078)(37-24)


Qdoorlite = 9.776 W = 0.009776 kW
Qwood = UA(∆T) = (2.161349)(1.68)(37-24)
Qwood = 47.20 W = 0.04720 kW
Heat Gain per each Door panel
Qtd = Qdoorlite +Qwood = 0.009776 + 0.0472
Qtd = 0.056976 kW

Northeast Side
Qtdne =2(0.056976)=0.113952 kW

Southeast Side
Qtdse =2(0.056976)=0.113952 kW

Southwest Side
Qtdsw =3(0.056976)=0.170928 kW

Northwest Side
Qtdnw =2(0.056976)=0.113952 kW

Total Heat Gain through Wooden Doors


Qtwd = Qtdne +Qtdse +Qtdsw +Qtdnw
Qtwd =(0.113952×3)+0.170928
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Qtwd =0.51278 kW

4.6 WALL HEAT GAIN


Thermal Thermal
Thickness Conductance
Material Conductivity Resistance
(m) (W / m2 K)
(W / m K) (m2 K / W)
External
- - 35 0.028571
Surface
Plaster, cement 0.01 8.65 - 0.001156
Hollow
concrete 0.20 - 5.23 0.191205
blocks, 20 cm
Plaster, cement 0.01 8.65 - 0.001156
Internal
- - 8.5 0.117647
Surface
Total Thermal Resistance, RT 0.339735

Solving for the Overall Coefficient of Heat Transfer


1 1
Uwall = =
RT 0.339735 m ∙K⁄W
2

Uwall = 2.943470 W⁄ 2
m ∙K

Northeast Side
Awne =[(3×81)-(16×0.04)-(2×0.8×2.1)]
Awne =239.0 m2

Qwne =UA(∆T)=2.943470×239×(37-24)
Qwne =9145.36 W=9.14536 kW
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Southeast Side
Awse =42+27+5.64
Awse =74.64 m2

Qwse =UA(∆T)=2.943470×74.64×(37-24)
Qwse =2856.11 W=2.85611 kW

Southwest Side
Awsw =79.32+21+11.28+64.14+21+77.44
Awsw =274.18 m2

Qwsw =UA(∆T)=2.943470×274.18×(37-24)
Qwsw =10491.53 W=10.49153 kW

Northwest Side
Awnw =42+13.5+5.64+11.82
Awnw =72.96 m2

Qwnw =UA(∆T)=2.943470×72. 96×(37-24)


Qwnw =2791.82 W=2.79182 kW

Total Heat Gain through Walls


Qwall =Qwne +Qwse +Qwsw +Qwnw
Qwall =9.14536+2.85611+10.49153+2.79182
Qwall =25.28482 kW
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4.7 CEILING HEAT GAIN


Thermal Thermal
Thickness Conductance
Material Conductivity Resistance
(m) (W / m2 K)
(W / m K) (m2 K / W)
External
- - 23.3 0.042918
Surface
Cement,
0.025 8.65 - 0.002890
plaster
Concrete 0.10 1.73 - 0.057803
Internal
- - 6.3 0.158730
Surface
Total Thermal Resistance, RT 0.262341

Solving for the Overall Coefficient of Heat Transfer


1 1
Uceiling = =
RT 0.262341 m2 K⁄
W
Uceiling = 3.81183 W⁄ 2
m K

Total Heat Gain through Ceiling


Aceiling =1048.50 m2

Qceiling =UA∆T=3.81183×1048.5×(30-24)
Qceiling =23980.22 W

Qceiling =23.98022 kW
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4.8 FLOOR HEAT GAIN


Thermal Thermal
Thickness Conductance
Material Conductivity Resistance
(m) (W / m2 K)
(W / m K) (m2 K / W)
External
- - 9.4 0.106383
Surface
Tiles 0.10 - 5.23 0.191205
Concrete 0.40 1.73 - 0.231214
Internal
- - 9.4 0.106383
Surface
Total Thermal Resistance, RT

Solving for the Overall Coefficient of Heat Transfer


1 1
Ufloor = =
RT 0.635185 m2 K⁄
W
Ufloor = 1.574344 W⁄ 2
m K

Total Heat Gain through Floor


Afloor =Aceiling =1048.50 m2

Qfloor =UA∆T
Qfloor =1.574344×1048.50×(30-24)
Qfloor =9904.198 W

Qfloor =9.90420 kW
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4.9 SUMMARY OF EXTERNAL HEAT GAIN

Qtgw = 0.07074 kW

Qtgd = 0.84893 kW
Qtwd = 0.51278 kW

Qwall = 25.28482 kW
Qceiling = 23.98022 kW

Qfloor = 9.90420 kW

QEXT = 60.60169 kW
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INTERNAL LOAD
GAIN
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CHAPTER 5
INTERNAL LOAD GAIN

5.1 INTRODUCTION TO INTERNAL LOAD CALCULATIONS


Internal load gains are cooling loads which were based from the inside
factors that influences the space being conditioned. These components of

cooling load came from lightings, occupants, equipment and other internal
loads.

5.2 FORMULAS
The formulas of external load gain are as follows:

1. Sensible Heat Gain due to Lightings


Qlights =1.25(Qwatt )(N)

Where:

Qwatt –Wattage of Lighting, W


N – Quantity of Lights

1.25 – Lighting Factor

2. Sensible and Latent Heat Gain due to Occupants


Qoccupants =(QS +QL )(N)
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Where:

QS – Sensible Heat Gain due to Occupants, kW


QL – Latent Heat Gain due to Occupants, kW

N – Number of occupants in space

3. Sensible Heat Gain due to Equipment


QSEQ =(QS )(N)
Where:
QS – Sensible Heat Gain due to Occupants, kW

N – Number of equipment in space

3. Latent Heat Gain due to Equipment


QLEQ =(QL )(N)
Where:
QL – Sensible Heat Gain due to Occupants, kW

N – Number of equipment in space


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5.3 LIGHTNING LOAD

The conditioned space uses GE work spaces 32 watt T8 for its interior

lighting, which provides 88 lumens per watt. GE work space fluorescent bulbs
provide neutral white light to help facilitate a positive place for work to get

done. These bulbs are ideal for home and commercial offices, retail and light
commercial applications.
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Quantity of Lighting Used: 67 pieces

Rating: 32 Watts

Qlights =1.25(Qwatt )(N) = 1.25 × 32 × 67


Qlights =2680 Watts

Qlights =2.680 kW

5.4 OCCUPANTS
By utilizing Table 19.1 for the rating of its occupants (indoor
temperature of 24°C), the designers are able to determine the proper rating

for its occupants. Diners fall under the category of eating in a restaurant,
counter staffs and food servers fall under standing category, food stalls crews

fall under light work in factory category, and the cleaners fall under the
category of dancing (even though they were not but their nature of its

metabolic rate is somewhat similar to it).


Since this year 2016, the number of occupants grew because the TIP

Canteen also caters Senior Highschool Students and Faculty members. Thus, it
is expected that the heat gain from the occupants is much bigger than the

previous designs.

Table 19.1 : Heat Liberated due to Occupancy (based on 24°C)


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Heat Liberated
Type of Quantit Sensible Latent
Occupants S L y Heat Heat

Diners 85 W 75 W 372 31.62 kW 27.9 kW

Counter 82 W 68 W 3 0.246 kW 0.204 kW


Staffs
Food Servers 82 68 7 0.574 kW 0.476 kW

Food Stall 100 135 6 0.6 kW 0.810 kW


Crews
Cleaners 105 W 160 W 3 0.315 kW 0.48 kW

Total 391 33.355 29.87 kW


kW

5.5 EQUIPMENT

Food Stalls Appliances Power Output, W

Type Qty Brand

Canteen's Snack Beverage 1 Cornelius 329.6


Bar Dispenser
1 Cratcho 112

Two door 1 Sandeninterool 67.2


chiller
Waffle Time Refrigerator 1 Panasonic 25.28

Electric Food 1 Heatmax 480


Warmer
Waffle Dog 2 Heatmax 1600
Baker
Stir Fried Noodles Refrigerator 1 Condura 41.92
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Steamer 1 Bella 720

Griller 1 Genesis 3516.8

Mister Donut Food 1 24


Showcase
Cabinet
Juiced-Up Chiller 1 Omely 128.96

Afford-D-Balls Refrigerator 1 Panasonic 28.8

Fryer 1 Heatmax 2000

Steamer (Box 1 Stylux 720


type)

I Love Milktea Freezer 1 American Home 39

Quick Bites Refrigerator 1 Condura 41.92

Main Food 1 Beverage 1 Cornelius 329.6


Dispenser

1 Cratcho 112

Food 1 920
Warmer
Chiller 1 - 64

Electric Oven 1 - 1280

Thermos 1 West Brand 560


International

Utensil 1 - 240
Sanitizer

Main Food 2 Beverage 1 Cornelius 329.6


Dispenser

1 Cratcho 280

Food 2 - 920
Warmer
- 690

Chiller 1 Haier 128.96


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Utensil 1 - 240
Sanitizer
Two-Way 1 - 28.8
Drinking
Fountain
Main Food 3 Food warmer 1 - 920
(Faculty lounge)
Chiller 1 - 368

Utensil 1 - 240
Sanitizer
Total 17550.44 W
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VENTILATION
AND
INFILTRATION

CHAPTER 6
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Hot and Humid

VENTILATION AND INFILTRATION

6.1 INTRODUCTION TO VENTILATION AND INFILTRATION


Ventilation Air can be natural or mechanical. In modern commercial
structures, the term ventilation refers to mechanical ventilation. It is the

intentional controlled introduction of outdoor air into an enclosed occupied


space. Ventilation is provided using mechanical systems such as fans. The

entry of outdoor air through an open door or window is considered


infiltration and not ventilation. The total air supplied to a space consisting of

outdoor air and indoor recirculation air is not ventilation air either. It is
referred to as supply air.

Infiltration Air refers to the unintentional and uncontrolled entry of

outdoor air into an enclosed space. Infiltration occurs through cracks in the
building envelope and due to pressure differences between the inside and

outside conditions. The outdoor air entering through open doors and
windows is considered infiltration although the purpose of opening the door

or window might be ventilation.

6.2 FORMULAS
The calculation of ventilation and air change rate are achieved using the

following basic formulas enumerated below:

1. Outdoor Air Sensible Heat due to Ventilation

OASH=0.0204∙cmmd ∙(to -ti )


MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 37
Hot and Humid

where:

OASH=Outdoor Air Sensible Heat, kW


QV =Volume of air , cmm

∆T=Inside and Outside Temperature Difference, °C

2. Outdoor Air Latent Heat due to Ventilation:


OALH=50∙cmmd ∙(ωo -ωi )
where:

OALH=Outdoor Air Latent Heat, kW

QV =volume of air, cmm

∆T=Inside & Outside Humidity Ratio Difference, kg/kg

3. Outdoor Air Total Heat or Ventilation Load:

OATH= OASH + OALH


where:

OATH=Outdoor Air Total Heat, kW


OASH=Outdoor Air Sensible Heat, kW

OALH=Outdoor Air Latent Heat, kW

4. Air change rate


60∙q
N=
V
where:
N= Air change rate, air change per hour

q= Volume flow rate


V= Volume of the Room
MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 38
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6.3 VENTILATION AIR REQUIREMENTS


Volume of the Conditioned Space
Vspace =Aspace ×height
Vspace =1048.50×3
Vspace =3145.50 m3

Outdoor Conditions
tout =37°C
RHout =70%
Indoor Conditions
tin =24°C
RHin =50%

From the Psychrometric Charts:


kg
ωout =0.02821
kg
kg
ωin =0.0093
kg
MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 39
Hot and Humid

Minimum
Recommended
Application Smoking Status cmm/m floor
cmm/person cmm/person
area

6.4 Apartments Some 0.56 0.28 -

Offices and Occasional-


VE factories Some
0.28 – 0.56 0.21 -

Restaurants Some 0.4 - -


NTI
Board rooms Very heavy 1.4 0.56 0.03
LAT Department
None 0,21 0.14 0.0015
stores
IO
N
RA
TE
FO
R THE CONDITIONED SPACE
MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 40
Hot and Humid

F Theatres None 0.21 0.14 -

r Hotel rooms Heavy 0.84 0.7 -

Hospital wards None 0.84 - -


o
Hospital
m
operation None All outdoor - -
theatres
T
able 16.2: Ventilation Air Requirements on page 518

From Table,

The occupant count was based from the occupancy load calculations of the

diners. The count was 372 people. The designers utilize 0.21 cmm per person
based from the table above.

cmm=(no. of person) (0.21 cmm⁄person)

cmm=372×0.21
3
cmm=78.12 m ⁄min

6.5 AIR CHANGE RATE

By utilizing natural ventilation via infiltration


cmm×60 78.12×60
N= = =1.49
V 3145.50
N=2 air changes per hour

6.6 TOTAL VENTILATION LOAD


OASH=0.0204(cmm)(tout -tin )
MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 41
Hot and Humid

OASH=0.0204×78.12×(37-24)
OASH=20.72 kW

OALH=50(cmm)(ωout -ωin )
OALH=50×78.12×(0.02821-0.0093)
OALH=73.86 kW

OATH = OASH+OALH = 20.72+73.86


OATH=94.58 kW

6.7 INFILTRATION RATE


From Table 18.13: Infiltration through doors on adjacent walls on page 609
cmm/m2 Area cmm

Description standing open

no use average use no vestibule vestibule

Revolving Doors - Normal


0.24 1.58 - -
Operation
MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 42
Hot and Humid

Revolving Doors - Panels Open - - 34 25

Glass Door – 4.75 mm Crack 1.37 3.0 20 14

Wood Door 0.3 1.98 20 14

Small Factory Door 0.23 1.98 - -

Garage Door – Room Door 0.61 1.37 - -

Ramp Garage Door 0.61 2.06 - -

Given doors: 9 unused wooden doors (with doorlite) and 6 glass doors

1. Doors Crack: Unused Doors

IR=(no. of doors)(area of door) (cmm⁄ 2 )


m
IR=9×1.68×0.3
IR=4.536 cmm

2. Doors Crack: Average Use

IR=(no. of doors)(area of door) (cmm⁄ 2 )


m
IR=6×1.68×3
IR=30.24 cmm

3. Total Infiltration Rate


TIR=4.536+30.24
TIR=34.776 cmm

6.8 TOTAL INFILTRATION LOAD


Given: Total infiltration on doors = 34.776 cmm
OASH=0.0204(cmm)(tout -tin )
OASH=0.0204×34.776×(37-24)
OASH=9.223 kW
MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 43
Hot and Humid

OALH=50(cmm)(ωout -ωin )
OALH=50×34.776×(0.02821-0.0093)
OALH=32.880 kW

OATH = OASH+OALH = 9.223+32.880


OATH=42.103 kW

FOOD LOAD
MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 44
Hot and Humid

CHAPTER 7
FOOD LOAD

7.1 INTRODUCTION
7.2 FORMULAS

7._ COMPUTATIONS
Dish Load

1. Chicken (fried);

QS = mCp∆t

m = 10 kg

Hours = 2hrs
10 kg 1 hr kg
m=( ) ( 3600 s ) = 0.001388888
2 hr s

kg kj
QS = (0.001388888 s ) (3.1 kg°C)(190 – 20)°C
MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 45
Hot and Humid

QS = 0.731943976 kW

QL = mhfg (w1 – w2 )

Wherein, (w1-w2) is the moisture content removed from


the product
kj
= 66% - 60% = 6 %(2257) = 135.42 kg

kj kg
QL = (135.42 kg)(0.001388888 s )

QL = 0.188083213 kW

2. Fish (fried);

QS = mCp∆t

m = 3 kg

Hours = 2 hrs.
3 kg 1 hr kg
m = ( 2 hr ) ( 3600 s ) = 0.000416666 s

kg kj
QS = (0.000416666 s ) (3.6 kg°C)(190 – 20)°C

QS =0.255 kW

QL = mhfg (w1 – w2 )

Wherein, (w1-w2) is the moisture content removed from


the product
kj
= 55% - 50% = 5 %(2257) = 112.85kg

kj kg
QL = (112.85 kg)(0.000416666 )
s

QL = 0.0470207581 kW
MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 46
Hot and Humid

3. Beef

QS = mCp∆t

m = 10 kg

Hours = 2hrs
10 kg 1 hr kg
m=( ) ( 3600 s ) = 0.001388888
2 hr s

kg kj
QS = (0.001388888 ) (3.36kg°C)(100 – 20)°C
s

QS =0.3733333333 kW

QL = mhfg (w1 – w2 )

kj
= 64% - 60% = 4 %(2257) = 90.28kg

kj kg
QL = (90.28 kg)(0.001388888 s )

QL = 0.1253888086 kW

4. Pork;

QS = mCp∆t

m = 10 kg

Hours = 2hrs
10 kg 1 hr kg
m=( ) ( 3600 s ) = 0.001388888
2 hr s

kg kj
QS = (0.001388888 s ) (1.51 kg°C)(190 – 20)°C

QS =0.3565275496 kW

QL = mhfg (w1 – w2 )

Wherein, (w1-w2) is the moisture content removed from


the product
MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 47
Hot and Humid

kj
= 50% - 44% = 6 %(2257) = 135.42 kg

kj kg
QL = (135.42 kg)(0.001388888 s )

QL = 0.188083213 kW

A. Fruit Load

1. Banana
QBanana = mBanana (Respiration Heat)
m = 20 kg
W
= 20 kg (0.3kg)
QL = 6 W = 0.006 kW

B. Cooked Rice

Given:

75 cups of grain rice = 15 kg

75 cups of water = 15 kg

Total weight = 30 kg

kj
Cp(mix)=2.2142 kg C as according to research.net

QS = mCp∆t
30 kg 1 hr kj
QS = ( ) ( 3600 s )(2.2142 kg C) (100 − 20)
1 hr

QS = 1.476133333 kW

QL = mhg (w1 – w2 )
MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 48
Hot and Humid

m = 5 kg of water
kj
hg=2676.1kg @ sat. Temp 1000C

15 kg 1 hr kj
QL = ( ) ( 3600 s )(0.43) (2676.1 kg)
1 hr

QL = 4.794679167 kW

7.2 SUMMARY OF THE HEAT LOAD OF THE FOODS IN THE CANTEEN


Food Load Sensible Latent Total

Chicken (fried) 0.73194 kW 0.18808 kW 0.920027 kW

Fish (fried) 0.255 kW 0.04702 kW 0.30202 kW

Beef 0.37333 kW 0.12538 kW 0.49872 kW

Pork bacon (fried) 0.35652 kW 0.18808 kW 0.54461 kW

Banana _ 0.006 kW 0.006 kW

Cooked Rice 1.47613 kW 4.79467 kW 6.27081 kW

Total 3.19293 kW 5.3541 kW 8.54709 kW


MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 49
Hot and Humid
MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 50
Hot and Humid

PSYCHROMETRIC
PROCESSES

CHAPTER 8
PSYCHROMETRIC PROCESSES

8.1 INTRODUCTION
After the cooling and heating loads are calculated, these loads must be
picked up and applied to a specific system to be able to select the proper

HVAC equipment. One of the most useful tools available for this step is the
MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 51
Hot and Humid

psychrometric chart. The psychrometric processes and the calculations can

provide the data for equipment selection.

8.2 HEAT LOAD SUMMARY

Cooling Load Sensible Heat Latent Heat


Components

Wall Gain 26.71 0

Ceiling Gain 23.98 0

Flooring Gain 9.90 0

Infiltration 9.223 32.880

Occupancy 33.355 29.87

Equipment 17.55 0

Lightning 2.680 0

Food in serve 3.19 5.35

Qtotal 132.977 68.1

A 5% allowance of heat load is needed for safety for both RSH and RLH,
therefore:

Room Sensible Heat, RSH


RSH=1.05(QTSH )=1.05×132.977
MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 52
Hot and Humid

RSH=139.63 kW

Room Latent Heat, RLH


RLH=1.05(QTLH )=1.05×68.1
RLH=71.5 kW

8.4 OUTDOOR HEAT LOAD SUMMARY

Cooling Load Sensible Heat Latent Heat

Components
Ventilation 20.72 73.86

Qtotal 20.72 73.86

Outdoor Air Sensible, OASH

OASH = 20.72 kW

Outdoor Air Latent Heat, OALH


OALH = 73.86 kW

8.5 GRAND TOTAL HEAT


The formula for the grand total heat is:
GTH = RSH+RLH+OASH+OALH
MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 53
Hot and Humid

RSH 139.63

RLH 71.5

OASH 20.72

OALH 73.86

GTH 305.71 kW

1 TR
GTH=305.71 kW×
3.516 kW
GTH=86.9482 TR

GTH=90 TONS OF REF


MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 54
Hot and Humid

EQUIPMENT
SCHEDULE AND
SPECIFICATION

CHAPTER 9
EQUIPMENT SCHEDULE AND SPECIFICATION

9.1 EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION


5TR Under Ceiling Units
MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 55
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MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 56
Hot and Humid

9.2 EQUIPMENT SCHEDULE


MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 57
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Eq. No. Eq. Name Description Qty Power Location


kW P/V Hz
Carrier Under Ceiling FIXED SPEED

ACCU-1 Air-Cooled Energy Efficiency Ratio:11.7kJ/W- 11 5.4 3/230 60


Condensing Hr
Unit
Model No.:38ASB600DC
Unit Dimensions
(WxHxD):(935x724x344)mm

Unit Weight:95.0Kg
Maximum Pipe Length 25.0m

Maximum Vertical
Seperation:15.0m

Compressor Type:Scroll
Refrigerant Piping
Connection:Flare

Refrigerant:R22
(Piping) Liquid:9.52mm (diameter)
Gas:19.05mm (diameter)
Connection Type:Flare
Condensate Drain:25mm
(outside diameter)

AHU-1 Air-Handling Type:Under Ceiling (Fixed Speed) 11 5.4 3/230 60


Unit

Cooling Capacity:63,300kJ/Hr

Model No.:42XQ061
Unit Dimensions
(WxHxD):(1650x625x232)mm

Unit Weight:39.0Kg
Carrier Floor Mounted FIXED SPEED

ACCU-2 Air-Cooled Energy Efficiency Ratio:12.4kJ/W- 3 5.1 1/230 60


Condensing Hr
Unit
Model No.:38ASB600DC
Unit Dimensions
(WxHxD):(935x724x344)mm

Unit Weight:90.0Kg
MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 58
Hot and Humid

Maximum Pipe Length 30.0m

Maximum Vertical
Seperation:15.0m

Compressor Type:Scroll
Refrigerant Piping
Connection:Brazed

Refrigerant:R22
(Piping) Liquid:9.52mm (diameter)
Gas:19.05mm (diameter)
Connection Type:Flare
Condensate Drain:25mm
(outside diameter)

AHU-2 Air-Handling Type:Floor Mounted (Fixed 3 5.1 1/230 60


Unit Speed)

Cooling Capacity:63,300kJ/Hr

Model No.:42ASBFE600
Unit Dimensions
(WxHxD):(580x1750x430)

Unit Weight:62.0Kg

9.3 ACU SCHEDULE AND USAGE


MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 59
Hot and Humid

The AC units that are placed near the walls will start operating at 7:45

am with a mid-range fan speed at a temperature of 24C up to 10:00 in the


morning. Then when past 10:00am, where most of the diners of the school

came in and out of the canteen to take early snack and take their lunch time
begun, all of the AC units will be started and changed in a high-cooled fan

with the same temperature for them to be more comfortable when peak
hours occur especially when it is 12 noon of the day where the diners keep on

coming with an increasing number volume of people where all of appliances

becomes fully-operational that contributes a lot in the total heat load inside
the canteen.

Then after the peak hours and the hottest hour of the days which is

around 3:00 pm, the AC units that are in the middle will be the one left
operating until the closing hours of the canteen to prevent the over-usage of

the units and to control the electrical consumption.


MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 60
Hot and Humid

9.4 INSTALLING OF EVAPORATORS

Step 1: Read the Installation Manual

Reading Installation Manuals or Tips before installing a unit in certain area can

save you time and money. And it covers the basic, but it also provides specific
guidelines for special situations that you may encounter in installing. It shows

drawings, charts and diagrams that help you get the most out of your
equipment.

Step 2: Expansion Valve Selection and Adjustment

The proper thermal expansion valve adjustment for superheat can increase
the efficiency of the evaporator, give you better system balance and more

efficient operation. It controls the volume of refrigerant entering the


evaporator coil. This is accomplished by controlling the superheat leaving the

evaporator. A properly sized and adjusted expansion valve will adjust to the
varying evaporator load and frosting conditions, allowing the evaporator to

function at maximum capacity. If the system is operating with an expansion


valve that is too small, the evaporator will the starved, lacking adequate

refrigerant, preventing the system from cooling enough. The expansion valve
should be selected for the condensing unit capacity and not the evaporator

capacity.

Step 3: Evaporator Placement


MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 61
Hot and Humid

The best way to prevent this is by correctly configuring evaporator placement.

From the evaporator, air must freely circulate in and around the product and
return back to the evaporator. The installation manual outlines minimum

space requirements away from walls and between units. It also provides tips
like, “Always avoid placement of unit cooler directly above doors and doors

opening.” Also, take into consideration accessibility to the unit for future
service and maintenance. It is not enough to get the unit in place, you must

have access to end panels, drain pan, etc. to be able to work on it later. In our

design, we place evaporative unit with .3 meters away from the wall.

Step 4: Piping Practices


Correct system piping is essential for proper system operation and adequate

oil return to the compressor. From Tech Topics volume three, number one:
“For oil return, the suction pipe is the most critical. The suction pipe should

slope toward the compressor and should be sized for minimum pressure drop
and proper refrigerant velocities.” Select pipe sizes carefully. If the pipe size

selected is too large, the refrigerant velocity becomes insufficient to carry oil
vertically up to the compressor when the compressor is above the evaporator.

The oil must pass freely through the entire system and reach a state of
equilibrium to maintain stable oil levels in the compressor.

Equally important in system piping design is the use of traps in the suction
line.

Step 5: Wirings

Prior to an installation, you need to evaluate your system and determine the
type and gauge of wire required for that particular job. For each length of
wire, you should consider all loads that will be powered on that circuit
MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 62
Hot and Humid

including relays, contactors, and solenoids. The wire and transformer should

be not affecting the operation of the microprocessor. In addition, always refer


back to the Installation & Maintenance Guide for the manufacturer’s

recommendations.

Step 6: Outdoor Unit Placement


When placing your condensing unit or remote condenser, allow for plenty of

outside air to get to your unit. That includes space away from walls, fences,

and other units. Also, make sure one unit’s exhaust is not feeding into another
unit’s intake. Each unit should be located so air may circulate freely and not

be re-circulated. For proper airflow and access, all sides of the unit should be
a minimum of the width of the unit “W” away from any wall or obstruction. It

is preferred that this distance be increased whenever possible. Also make sure
you are providing yourself enough clearance to come back and service the

unit. Make sure all panels can open freely and that you have space to
manoeuvre tools and equipment. And don’t forget to look up, overhead

obstructions need to be avoided for proper airflow and safety.


Without proper clearance for air circulation, you will eventually run into

problems like loss of capacity and higher head pressures, which cause poor
operation and potential failure of equipment.

Step 7: Nozzle Selection

Before you install the expansion valve on the distributor of the evaporator, the
proper distributor nozzle must be installed. Most evaporators come with at

least two distributor nozzles, one for R-22 and another for most other
refrigerants. The nozzles that are shipped with the evaporator are sized to
meet most standard applications. The nozzles supplied the majority of
MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 63
Hot and Humid

applications. The Installation & Operation Manual provides exceptions and

formulas for sizing nozzles on page eight, should special conditions

Step 8: Insulating Lines


A refrigeration system involves a delicate balance of fluid volumes at a

particular temperature and pressure flowing through a carefully designed

system. To function optimally, fluid temperatures must not pick up or lose


heat from the surrounding environment until they are supposed to. Therefore,

after the final leak test, refrigerant lines exposed to high or low temperature
environment conditions should be insulated to reduce subcooling in the

liquid line or heat gain in the suction line. Proper insulation maintains
consistent refrigerant temperatures, allowing the expansion valve and nozzle

to work properly. The thickness is determined by the environment the pipe is


going through. It may be a boiler room, a freezer, or it may go outside of the

building. Suction line Insulation must be thick enough to prevent


condensation on the outside of the insulation. This is determined by the

temperature of the suction line you are running and by the R factor of the
insulation.
MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 64
Hot and Humid

RECOMMENDATIONS
MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 65
Hot and Humid

CHAPTER 10
RECOMMENDATIONS

We recommend putting rolling blinds at every glass window in the

canteen to minimize the Solar Heat Load. The ACU will be placed beside of
the food table or the food warmer to prevent the scattering of the odor of the

food.

The number of lights (fluorescent lights) should be lessen to minimize


the Lighting Load in the condition space or used a Light that has low wattage
but lumens like LED lights.

Used energy saving appliances in the main food counters especially in


the food stalls because it will produce a small amount of heat load. The diners

should observed proper etiquette inside the canteen and avoid unnecessary
activities aside from eating that produce higher occupancy load.

The walls should be insulated so that the heat coming from the solar
radiation would be minimal. The glass windows should be reduced especially
MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 66
Hot and Humid

in the south west area so that it will minimize the heat transfer coming from

direct sunlight especially during peak of the hottest hours of the day.

MAINTENANCE TIPS

You wouldn’t drive your car 100,000 miles without changing the oil.
The same logic holds true for your home comfort system. Regular HVAC

preventative maintenance is the best way to ensure trouble-free operation


and peak performance. Pre-season maintenance is also important. It can help

to avoid a system failure in severe hot or cold weather when you need it
most, and it can also keep your energy bill from getting out of control.

HVAC PREVENTICVE MAINTENANCE CHECKLIST

Many dealers provide priority service for their customers who have an
annual maintenance or service agreement. Bi-annual preventative

maintenance will ensure that your system runs as efficiently as possible. Your
local dealer will perform the following tasks, depending on the unit:

FOR OUTDOOR UNITS:

 Inspect unit for proper refrigerant level and adjust if necessary


 Clean dirt, leaves and debris from inside cabinet
MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 67
Hot and Humid

 Inspect base pan for restricted drain openings—remove obstructions

as necessary
 Inspect coil and cabinet—clean as needed

 Inspect fan motor and fan blades for wear and damage—on older
models lubricate as needed

 Inspect control box, associated controls/accessories, wiring and


connections. Controls may include contactors, relays, circuit boards,

capacitors, sump heat and other accessories. All control box and

electrical parts should be checked for wear or damage.


 Inspect compressor and associated tubing for damage

FOR INDOOR UNITS:

 Inspect and clean blower assembly (includes blower housing, blower


wheel and motor)

 On older models, lubricate motor and inspect and replace fan belt if
needed

 Check combustion blower housing for lint and debris and clean as
necessary

 Inspect evaporator coil, drain pan and condensate drain lines. Clean
as needed

 Inspect for gas leaks in gas furnaces


 Inspect burner assembly—clean and adjust as needed

 Inspect ignition system and safety controls—clean and adjust as


needed

 Inspect heat exchanger or heating elements


MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 68
Hot and Humid

 Inspect flue system—check for proper attachment to the furnace, any

dislocated sections, and for signs of corrosion. Replace if necessary.


 Inspect control box, associated controls, wiring and connections

 Clean or replace air filters


 Inspect conditioned airflow system (ductwork)—check for leaks

WHILE YOUR SYSTEM IS OPERATING


 Monitor system starting characteristics and capabilities

 Listen for abnormal noise

 Search for source of unusual odours


 Monitor air conditioning and heat pump systems for correct

refrigerant charge
 Measure outdoor dry bulb temperature

 Measure indoor dry and wet bulb temperature


 Measure high and low side system pressures

 Monitor gas furnace for correct line and manifold gas pressure—
make adjustments as needed

 Measure temperature rise and adjust airflow as needed


 Check vent system for proper operation

 Monitor system for correct line and load volts/amps


 Monitor system operation per manufacturer's specifications

 Provide system operation report and recommend repairs or


replacement as necessary

NOTE: All maintenance and service work be performed by a professional air

conditioning and heating dealer that holds the appropriate credentials to


install and service air conditioning and heating equipment.
MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 69
Hot and Humid

COOLING SYSTEM MAINTENANCE


 Set the thermostat as high as comfort will permit.

 Make sure attics are adequately ventilated to relieve heat buildup. If


necessary, improve airflow by adding or enlarging vents.

 When building a new house or renovating an old one, choose light-


colored roof shingles to reflect more of the sun's heat.

 During moderate weather, don't use the air conditioner unnecessarily.

 Draw blinds or drapes to block the sunlight during the hottest part of
the day.

 Install awnings over windows exposed to direct sunlight.


 In the cooling season, don't run kitchen and bath exhaust fans longer

than necessary.
 Don't place lamps, TV sets or other heat-producing devices beneath a

wall-mounted thermostat. Rising heat from that equipment may cause


the air conditioning system to overcool your house.

CLEAN OR CHANGE FILTER

Maintaining your air filter is easy, and routine maintenance will keep
you breathing easier.

Most filters are easy to slide or swap out, and it’s one of the few things
you can do to maintain your filter.

HOW OFTEN DO I NEED TO CLEAN/CHANGE MY FILTER?


MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 70
Hot and Humid

You should always double-check your owner’s manual for specific

recommendations, but generally speaking it’s best to clean or change your


filters once every 3 to 9 months. Remember, regular cleaning/changing of

your filter will ensure the best filtration, increase the life of your machine, and
give you peace of mind that you’re breathing easier

HOW DO I CLEAN MY CLEANEFFECTS?

To clean your Clean Effects™, simply remove your filter and then rinse

or vacuum it. If you rinse the collection cells, allow them to dry thoroughly
before replacing them.

SAFETY REMINDERS

Check if the breaker is ON.

When turning on:

 Set the thermostat to a rating of 6. Rating is from 1 minute to 10

minutes maximum or set it to econozone level.


 On the selection switch, set desired temperature setting,

 Fan – re-circulating the filtered room air at low fan speed without the

cooling function. This should be done within 5 minutes before shifting


the selector mode to low or high cool.

 Low cool – switches the compressor on the fan motor at high speed
for quick lowering of temperature depending on the weather

condition.
MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 71
Hot and Humid

 Temperature control – automatically controls the room temperature

when set to a desired temperature. Turn the knob clockwise for cooler
temperature and counter clockwise for warmer.

 Horizontal and/ or Vertical Air Swing Switch – switches ON and


OFF the air swing motor that swing the horizontally louvers up and

down and/ or vertically louver from left to right. This should not be
done all throughout the day and should be ON only for 30 minutes to

spread evenly the cool temperature within the areas and also to

conserve energy / power consumption.


 Horizontal and/ or Vertical Air Swing Indicating Lamp – indicates

whether the vertical and/ or horizontal air swing motor is energized


when lighted. The vertical louver in particular should be set centered

or on a straight position. Make sure that the louver is not set


downward so as to let the temperature be centered on the floor that

brings warm temperature and consumes more energy / power


consumption.

NOTE: For COMPRESSOR PROTECTION FEATURES, allow 5 minutes time delay


to ensure balance of the internal pressure of the unit before restarting in

order to prevent compressor damage.

PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE OF AIR-CONDITIONING


To help you achieve the reliable and uninterrupted service you expect

from your A/C unit during the coming cooling season, we are offering the
following recommendations
MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 72
Hot and Humid

 CRANKCASE - One of the most critical controls in the A/C unit is the

crankcase heater. Preferably, the heater should be left energized while


the equipment is idle. During Spring start up the A/C units may operate

below the evaporator temperatures. If Spring or Fall operation is


required a crankcase heater is required. An external crankcase heater

can readily be installed if not factory supplied. Install indicator lights


wired in series with heater to provide confirmation. The energized

heater will minimize refrigerant migration, foaming of the oils and

immediate compressor failure. It is vital that the crankcase heater be


energized at least 8 hours before starting the A/C unit.

 CONDENSER - The unit’s condenser should be cleaned at a minimum

of once each year. If the condenser is located in a high dust and dirt
area, it should be scheduled for more frequent cleaning. A clean

condenser will prevent high head pressure which can shorten the life of
the unit. This is a easy step to avoid external equipment failure.

 ELECTRICAL - The motor magnetic starters should be inspected prior

to start-up,
1. The contacts may be deteriorated as the result of cycling of

the compressor.
2. All terminal connections should be checked and tightened,

and all pitted contacts should be replaced.

 MECHANICAL - Because the operating and safety controls are the


heart of the unit, they should be checked to see that they are properly
MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 73
Hot and Humid

calibrated and in working order. Like all electrical and mechanical

equipment, these controls wear out and must be replaced.


The oil in the unit should be tested prior to starting the unit. The

results of the analysis will let you know if the oil will hold up for the
coming season. If there is any question about the oil quality, the oil

should be replaced.

 MOISTURE - The A/C system should be equipped with a moisture

indicator. This device will detect the presence of moisture within the
system. If moisture is present, filter dryers should be installed or

changed to remove this moisture. More importantly, the source of the


moisture should be determined and preventive action taken to correct

the condition. New refrigerants (post R-22), will attract moisture and
can cause internal icing failures.

 COST - Even when machinery insurance is available, the deductible

may still account for a considerable expense.


1. Because we are talking about A/C units, we are usually

talking about hot weather breakdowns.


2. In addition, if you have tenants or are trying to run a

business, you don’t need the added headaches of irate


customers because your system is down from minor

maintenance oversights.

 HSB HELP - A/C logs are available through your local HSB inspector.
This information will help you schedule maintenance for your unit.
MEF 513D1 – Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 74
Hot and Humid

1. All of the work outlined above can be handled at one pre-

season inspection by a good A/C service contractor. Your


HSB inspector will assist you in finding a local concern that

will look after your A/C unit requirements.


2. Please give us a call! We are ready to assist you in taking

care of your A/C unit needs.

Our advice is intended to complement the equipment manufacturers’

recommendations - not replace them. If you have doubts about any


particular procedure, contact your equipment service representative.