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Program Description:

"BEAMANAL" is a spreadsheet program written in MS-Excel for the purpose of analysis of either single-span or continuous-span beams subjected to virtually any type of loading configuration. Four (4) types of single-span beams and two (2) through (5) span, continuous-span beams, considered. Specifically, beam end reactions as well as the maximum moments and deflections are calculated. Plots of both the shear and moment diagrams are produced, as well as a tabulation of the shear, moment, slope, and deflection for the beam or each individual span. Note: this is a metric units version of the original "BEAMANAL.xls" spreadsheet workbook. This program is a workbook consisting of three (3) worksheets, described as follows:

Worksheet Name

Doc Single-Span Beam Continuous-Span Beam

Description

This documentation sheet Single-span beam analysis for simple, propped, fixed, & cantilever beams Continuous-span beam analysis for 2 through 5 span beams

**Program Assumptions and Limitations:
**

1. The following reference was used in the development of this program (see below): "Modern Formulas for Statics and Dynamics, A Stress-and-Strain Approach" by Walter D. Pilkey and Pin Yu Chang, McGraw-Hill Book Company (1978), pages 11 to 21. 2. This program uses the three (3) following assumptions as a basis for analysis: a. Beams must be of constant cross section (E and I are constant for entire span length). b. Deflections must not significantly alter the geometry of the problem. c. Stress must remain within the "elastic" region. 3. On the beam or each individual span, this program will handle a full length uniform load and up to eight (8) partial uniform, triangular, or trapezoidal loads, up to fifteen (15) point loads, and up to four (4) applied moments. 4. For single-span beams, this program always assumes a particular orientation for two (2) of the the four (4) different types. Specifically, the fixed end of either a "propped" or "cantilever" beam is always assumed to be on the right end of the beam. 5. This program will calculate the beam end vertical reactions and moment reactions (if applicable), the maximum positive moment and negative moment (if applicable), and the maximum negative deflection and positive deflection (if applicable). The calculated values for the end reactions and maximum moments and deflections are determined from dividing the beam into fifty (50) equal segments with fifty-one (51) points, and including all of the point load and applied moment locations as well. (Note: the actual point of maximum moment occurs where the shear = 0, or passes through zero, while the actual point of maximum deflection is where the slope = 0.) 6. The user is given the ability to input two (2) specific locations from the left end of the beam to calculate the shear, moment, slope, and deflection. 7. The user is also given the ability to select an AISC W, S, C, MC, or HSS (rectangular tube) shape to aide in obtaining the X-axis moment of inertia for input for the purely analysis worksheets. 8. The plots of the shear and moment diagrams as well as the displayed tabulation of shear, moment, slope, and deflection are based on the beam (or each individual span) being divided up into fifty (50) equal segments with fifty-one (51) points. 9. For continuous-span beam of from two (2) through five (5) spans, this program utilizes the "Three-Moment Equation Theory" and solves a system simultaneous equations to determine the support moments 10. This program contains numerous “comment boxes” which contain a wide variety of information including explanations of input or output items, equations used, data tables, etc. (Note: presence of a “comment box” is denoted by a “red triangle” in the upper right-hand corner of a cell. Merely move the mouse pointer to the desired cell to view the contents of that particular "comment box".)

Slope.Formulas Used to Determine Shear. and Deflection in Single-Span Beams For Uniform or Distributed Loads: Loading functions for each uniform or distributed load evaluated at distance x = L from left end of beam: FvL = -wb*(L-b-(L-e)) + -1/2*(we-wb)/(e-b)*((L-b)^2-(L-e)^2)+(we-wb)*(L-e) FmL = -wb/2*((L-b)^2-(L-e)^2) + -1/6*(we-wb)/(e-b)*((L-b)^3-(L-e)^3)+(we-wb)/2*(L-e)^2 FθL = -wb/(6*E*I)*((L-b)^3-(L-e)^3) + -1/(24*E*I)*(we-wb)/(e-b)*((L-b)^4-(L-e)^4)+(we-wb)/(6*E*I)*(L-e)^3 F∆L = -wb/(24*E*I)*((L-b)^4-(L-e)^4) + -1/(120*E*I)*(we-wb)/(e-b)*((L-b)^5-(L-e)^5)+(we-wb)/(24*E*I)*(L-e)^4 Loading functions for each uniform or distributed load evaluated at distance = x from left end of beam: If x >= e: Fvx = -wb*(x-b-(x-e)) + -1/2*(we-wb)/(e-b)*((x-b)^2-(x-e)^2)+(we-wb)*(x-e) Fmx = -wb/2*((x-b)^2-(x-e)^2) + -1/6*(we-wb)/(e-b)*((x-b)^3-(x-e)^3)+(we-wb)/2*(x-e)^2 Fθx = -wb/(6*E*I)*((x-b)^3-(x-e)^3) + -1/(24*E*I)*(we-wb)/(e-b)*((x-b)^4-(x-e)^4)+(we-wb)/(6*E*I)*(x-e)^3 F∆x = -wb/(24*E*I)*((x-b)^4-(x-e)^4) + -1/(120*E*I)*(we-wb)/(e-b)*((x-b)^5-(x-e)^5)+(we-wb)/(24*E*I)*(x-e)^4 else if x >= b: Fvx = -wb*(x-b) + -1/2*(we-wb)/(e-b)*(x-b)^2 else: Fvx = 0 Fmx = -wb/2*(x-b)^2 + -1/6*(we-wb)/(e-b)*(x-b)^3-(x-e)^3 else: Fmx = 0 Fθx = -wb/(6*E*I)*(x-b)^3 + -1/(24*E*I)*(we-wb)/(e-b)*(x-b)^4 Fθx = 0 else: F∆x = -wb/(24*E*I)*(x-b)^4 + -1/(120*E*I)*(we-wb)/(e-b)*(x-b)^5 F∆x = 0 else: For Point Loads: Loading functions for each point load evaluated at distance x = L from left end of beam: FvL = -P FmL = -P*(L-a) FθL = -P*(L-a)^2/(2*E*I) F∆L = P*(L-a)^3/(6*E*I) Loading functions for each point load evaluated at distance = x from left end of beam: If x > a: Fvx = -P else: Fmx = -P*(x-a) else: Fθx = -P*(x-a)^2/(2*E*I) else: F∆x = P*(x-a)^3/(6*E*I) else: For Applied Moments: Loading functions for each applied moment evaluated at distance x = L from left end of beam: FvL = 0 FmL = -M FθL = -M*(L-c)/(E*I) F∆L = M*(L-c)^2/(2*E*I) Loading functions for each applied moment evaluated at distance = x from left end of beam: If x >= c: Fvx = 0 else: Fmx = -M else: Fθx = -M*(x-c)/(E*I) else: F∆x = M*(x-c)^2/(2*E*I) else: Fvx = 0 Fmx = 0 Fθx = 0 F∆x = 0 Fvx = 0 Fmx = 0 Fθx = 0 F∆x = 0 (continued) . Moment.

Moment. McGraw-Hill Book Company (1978) . moment. moment. slope.Formulas Used to Determine Shear. slope. and deflection: Simple beam: Vo = -1/L*Σ(FmL) Mo = 0 θo = 1/L*Σ(F∆L)+L/(6*E*I)*Σ(FmL) ∆o = 0 Propped beam: Vo = -3*E*I/L^3*Σ(F∆L)-3*E*I/L^2*Σ(FθL) Mo = 0 θo = 3/(2*L)*Σ(F∆L)+1/2*Σ(FθL) 0 Fixed beam: Vo = -12*E*I/L^3*Σ(F∆L)-6*E*I/L^2*Σ(FθL) Mo = 6*E*I/L^2*Σ(F∆L)+2*E*I/L*Σ(FθL) θo = 0 ∆o = 0 Cantilever beam: Vo = 0 Mo = 0 θo = -Σ(FθL) ∆o = -Σ(F∆L)-L*Σ(FθL) Summations of shear. Slope. Pilkey and Pin Yu Chang. and Deflection (continued) Initial summation values at left end (x = 0) for shear. and deflection at distance = x from left end of beam: Shear: Moment: Slope: Deflection: Vx = Vo+Σ(Fvx) Mx = Mo+Vo*x+Σ(Fmx) θx = θo+Mo*x/(E*I)+Vo*x^2/(2*E*I)+Σ(Fθx) ∆x = -(∆o-θo*x-Mo*x^2/(2*E*I)-Vo*x^3/(6*E*I)+Σ(F∆x) ∆o = Reference: "Modern Formulas for Statics and Dynamics. A Stress-and-Strain Approach" by Walter D.

a system of (N+1) x (N+1) simultaneous equations can be set up to solve for the unknown support moments. the theoretical number of spans used is = N + 2. A fixed end is modeled as a very stiff span (very short length and very large inertia)."Three-Moment Theory" Used for Continuous-Span Beam Analysis: The "Three-Moment" Equation is valid for any two (2) consecutive spans as follows: Ma*L1/I1+2*(Mb)*(L1/I1+L2/I2)+Mc*L2/I2 = -6*(FEMab*L1/(6*I1)+FEMba*L1/(3*I1))-6*(FEMbc*L2/(3*I2)+FEMcb*L2/(6*I2)) =-(FEMab+2*FEMba)*L1/I1-2*(FEMbc+FEMcb)*L2/I2 where: Ma = internal moment at left support Mb = internal moment at center support Mc = internal moment at right support L1 = length of left span I1 = moment of inertia for left span L2 = length of right span I2 = moment of inertia for right span FEMab = total Fixed-End-Moment for left end of left span FEMba = total Fixed-End-Moment for right end of left span FEMbc = total Fixed-End-Moment for left end of right span FEMcb = total Fixed-End-Moment for right end of right span N = actual number of beam spans "Dummy" spans are used to model the left end and right end support conditions for the beam. A pinned end is modeled as a very flexible span (very long length and very small inertia). page 2-294 .Allowable Stress Design (ASD) . Thus. By writing an equation for each pair of consecutive spans and introducing the known values (usually zero) of end moments. Note: Reference: AISC Manual of Steel Construction .9th Edition (1989).

0400 5.0 -60.0000 0. or Cantilever Beams (Metric Units Version) Subject: Originator: c Simple Beam Propped Beam Fixed Beam Loading Functions Evaluated a Checker: Points: ### ### ### ### ### Beam Data: Span Type? Simple Span.000 @x= 0.I L x RR +M +we ### ### +w ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### 0.6400 2.0 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### Moment Diagram 160.0 0.0 40.0 x (m) Moments: #1: #2: #3: #4: c (m) M (kN-m) Moment (kN-m) 120.4000 2.5600 5.9200 2.69 RR = 46.9600 1.69 ML = N.2000 1.0000 ### 6.4800 0.7600 ### .7200 1.0000 0.00 @x= 0. Fixed.0 20.8000 5. Moments (kN-m) and Locations (m): +M(max) = 136.2400 0.2400 0.1200 3.0 60.4800 0.2800 5.4400 1.A.8000 5.0 80. I = 16274.8400 4.2800 5.0 0.xls" Program (metric version) Version 1.683 @x= 3.4400 1.0 SINGLE-SPAN BEAM ANALYSIS Job Name: Job Number: Input Data: e For Simple.8800 3.6800 1.6800 2.5200 0.0 Shear (kN) 0.6000 4.000 ∆(ratio) = L/473 Shear Diagram Point Loads: #1: #2: #3: #4: #5: #6: #7: #8: #9: #10: #11: #12: #13: #14: #15: a (m) 3.0 -40.79 @x= 3.000 -M(max) = 0.5600 5. MR = N.0 40.0800 4.3200 4. L = 6.7200 1.3600 3.4000 3.0000 m Modulus.000 +∆(max) = 0.0800 4.6400 3.0 20.0 100.9600 1.3600 3.6000 4.8400 4.2000 2.0400 5.7600 ### ### x (m) 5 of 6 09/27/2010 02:03:29 6.9200 2.1600 2. Max.A.1600 2. Deflections (mm) and Locations (m): -∆(max) = -12.65 cm^4 Beam Loadings: Full Uniform: w = 0."BEAMANAL.3200 4.0000 0.5200 Cantilever Beam kN/m RL Nomenclature End Start b (m) wb (kN/m) e (m) we (kN/m) Results: Reactions (kN and kN-m): RL = 46. E = 200000 MPa Inertia.00 60. Propped.8800 3.1200 3.7300 Distributed: #1: #2: #3: #4: #5: #6: #7: #8: b a +P +wb E.0000 P (kN) 89.0 140.0 -20.000 Max.

I (cm^4) = Full Uniform: w (kN/m) = +M +wb +we +w Support #1 Support #3 MPa 1 Span #1 Span #2 2 2 Span 2 3 Span #3 4 Span #4 5 Span #5 6 E.I VL x L VR and Support Nomenclature Load Nomenclature Span #2 6. N = 2 Left End = Pinned Right End = Pinned Modulus.00 kN Right End Cantilever Moment = ----- 0.148 mm 2.00 -32. E = 200000 Span Data and Loadings: Span Data: Span.xls" Program (metric version) Version 1.250 m Span #3 FEM(L): +M(max) = 36.6000 Span #3 Summary of Results for Entire 2-Span Beam: CALCULATIONS: Support Moments: Support Reactions: 0.000 mSpan #3 FEM(R): (Span #1) Maximum Deflections in Beam: Span #4 FEM(L): -∆(max) = -3.000 m Span #5 FEM(L): @x= (Span #1) ∆(ratio) = L/1906 Span #5 FEM(R): W44x248 Span #1 6."BEAMANAL.0000 16274.70 kN-m R2 = 109.85 0. Spans.65 14.520 mSpan #4 FEM(R): @x= (Span #1) +∆(max) = 0.00 M3 = R3 = 32.00 kN-m M3 = M4 = --- M5 = M6 = 6 of 6 09/27/2010 02:03:29 .96 kN-m @x= (Span #1) -M(max) = -65.6000 Start End Start Span #4 Span #5 FEM's ML: MR: Moment Matrix: Dummy Span a1 End Start End Start End Start End Ln/In: Distributed: #1: #2: #3: #4: #5: #6: #7: #8: b (m) wb (kN/m) e (m) we (kN/m) b (m) wb (kN/m) e (m) we (kN/m) b (m) wb (kN/m) e (ft.) we (kN/m) b (m) wb (kN/m) e (m) we (kN/m) b (m) wb (kN/m) e (m) we (kN/m) b1 Load Vector: b1R 2*(Ln/In+L(n+1)/I(n+1)) MnL+2*MnR.00 M1 = R1 = 32.85 kN For Full Uniform Load.70 kN-m @x= 6.50Loading Functions Evaluated at x = L kN 0. L (m) = Inertia.75 0. 2*MnL+MnR: c1 ### W40x362 For 2 Spans: ### Point Loads: #1: #2: #3: #4: #5: #6: #7: #8: #9: #10: #11: #12: #13: #14: #15: a (m) P (kN) a (m) P (kN) a (m) P (kN) a (m) P (kN) a (m) P (kN) ### ### For 2 Spans: ### ### ### 3x3 Matrix Inverse: 1: 2: 3: 2: M1 = M2 = M3 = M1 = M2 = Results of 3x3 Solut Moments: #1: #2: #3: #4: c (m) M (kN-m) c (m) M (kN-m) c (m) M (kN-m) c (m) M (kN-m) c (m) M (kN-m) M3 = M4 = M2 = M3 = M4 = M5 = Left End Cantilever Shear = Results: End Shears (kN): 32. w kN-m M2 = -65.85 kN-m Right End Cantilever Shear = ------- 0.000 mm 0.0 CONTINUOUS-SPAN BEAM ANALYSIS Job Name: Job Number: Input Data: b For Two (2) through Five (5) Span Beams (Metric Units Version) Subject: Originator: Checker: c e a +P Beam Data: No.75 54.65 14.0000 16274.85 kN kN-m Points: M4 = --R4 = --kN-m kN Span #1 FEM(L): ----M5 = R5 = kN-m kN Span #1 FEM(R): ----M6 = R6 = kN-m kN Span #2 FEM(L): Maximum Moments in Beam: Span #2 FEM(R): 2.00 kN Left End Cantilever Moment = -54.

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