You are on page 1of 1

e same vein as some other such we have previously described .

It resulted in some
observations that seemed interesting to us. Some are perhaps trivial but some seem
puzzling to us probably on account of our very meager mathematics.

Consider the triangle of squares T_s. The j^{th} row of T_s is comprised of squares
of all integers 1:j; illustrated below is the tip of this triangle.

\begin{tabular}{|*{15}{r|}} \cline{1-1} 1 \\ \cline{1-2} 1 & 4 \\ \cline{1-3} 1 & 4

& 9 \\ \cline{1-4} 1 & 4 & 9 & 16 \\ \cline{1-5} 1 & 4 & 9 & 16 & 25 \\ \cline{1-6}
1 & 4 & 9 & 16 & 25 & 36 \\ \cline{1-7} 1 & 4 & 9 & 16 & 25 & 36 & 49 \\ \cline{1-
8} 1 & 4 & 9 & 16 & 25 & 36 & 49 & 64\\ \cline{1-9} 1 & 4 & 9 & 16 & 25 & 36 & 49 &
64 & 81 \\ \cline{1-10} 1 & 4 & 9 & 16 & 25 & 36 & 49 & 64 & 81 & 100 \\ \cline{1-
11} 1 & 4 & 9 & 16 & 25 & 36 & 49 & 64 & 81 & 100 & 121 \\ \cline{1-12} 1 & 4 & 9 &
16 & 25 & 36 & 49 & 64 & 81 & 100 & 121 & 144 \\ \cline{1-13} 1 & 4 & 9 & 16 & 25 &
36 & 49 & 64 & 81 & 100 & 121 & 144 & 169 \\ \cline{1-14} 1 & 4 & 9 & 16 & 25 & 36
& 49 & 64 & 81 & 100 & 121 & 144 & 169 & 196 \\ \cline{1-15} 1 & 4 & 9 & 16 & 25 &
36 & 49 & 64 & 81 & 100 & 121 & 144 & 169 & 196 & 225 \\ \cline{1-15} \end{tabular}

We then obtain the square residue triangle T_{sr} from it by following operation,
T_{sr}[j,k]= T_{s}[j,k] \mod j. The first 15 rows of this triangle are shown below.

\begin{tabular}{|*{15}{r|}} \cline{1-1} 0 \\ \cline{1-2} 1 & 0 \\ \cline{1-3} 1 & 1

& 0 \\ \cline{1-4} 1 & 0 & 1 & 0 \\ \cline{1-5} 1 & 4 & 4 & 1 & 0 \\ \cline{1-6} 1
& 4 & 3 & 4 & 1 & 0 \\ \cline{1-7} 1 & 4 & 2 & 2 & 4 & 1 & 0 \\ \cline{1-8} 1 & 4 &
1 & 0 & 1 & 4 & 1 & 0 \\ \cline{1-9} 1 & 4 & 0 & 7 & 7 & 0 & 4 & 1 & 0 \\ \cline{1-
10} 1 & 4 & 9 & 6 & 5 & 6 & 9 & 4 & 1 & 0 \\ \cline{1-11} 1 & 4 & 9 & 5 & 3 & 3 & 5
& 9 & 4 & 1 & 0 \\ \cline{1-12} 1 & 4 & 9 & 4 & 1 & 0 & 1 & 4 & 9 & 4 & 1 & 0 \\
\cline{1-13} 1 & 4 & 9 & 3 & 12 & 10 & 10 & 12 & 3 & 9 & 4 & 1 & 0 \\ \cline{1-14}
1 & 4 & 9 & 2 & 11 & 8 & 7 & 8 & 11 & 2 & 9 & 4 & 1 & 0 \\ \cline{1-15} 1 & 4 & 9 &
1 & 10 & 6 & 4 & 4 & 6 & 10 & 1 & 9 & 4 & 1 & 0 \\ \cline{1-15} \end{tabular}

The rows of T_{sr}

If we look at each row of T_{sr}, we see a mirror symmetry upon excluding the last
term which is always 0. Leaving out the final 0, the first and the last n elements
of the j^{th} row are the squares 1^2:n^2<j. Thus, the same squares 1^2:n^2 are
found at the beginning of each row from j=n^2+1 to j=(n+1)^2. After that a new
square (n+1)^2 gets added to this run of squares at the beginning and end of the
row. The reason for this is rather obvious: All 1^2:n^2<j will leave themselves
behind as residues of the modulo operation with j. j^2 will result in a residue in
the form of the terminal 0 of that row. Then (j-1)^2, (j-2)^2 ... (j-n)^2 for n^2<j
will leave residues n^2:1^2, i.e., in the reverse order as the starting run. The
middle part of each row between these square terms may or may not be square terms
but will also symmetrically expand. The pattern of residues is unique for each row
of T_{sr} but the basic symmetry of the parabolic ascent and descent is common to
all. This is illustrated in Figure 1

square_mod_Fig1