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You are on page 1of 38

Analysis

Lecture 4

14th October 2015

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 1

Autumn 2016

Model Answers to

Week 3

Shear

Gk = 10 kN/m, Qk = 6.5 kN/m (Use EC0 eq. 6.10)

8m

fck = 30MPa

450

Design the beam in flexure and shear

300

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 2

Autumn 2016

Aide memoire

Exp (6.10)

Remember

this from the

first week?

Or

Concise

Table 15.5

Area,

mm mm2

8 50

10 78.5

12 113

16 201

20 314

25 491

32 804

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 3

Autumn 2016

Solution - Flexure

Mult = 23.25 x 82/8 = 186 kNm

d = 450 - 35 - 10 – 32/2 = 389 mm

M 186 10 6

K 0.137 K’ = 0.208

bd f ck 300 3892 30

2

z

d

2

1 1 3.53 K

389

2

1 1 3.53 x 0.137 0.86 x 389 334 0.95d

M 186 x 10 6

As 1280 mm2 Provide 3 H25 (1470 mm2)

f yd z 435 x 334

Solution - Shear

Shear force, VEd = 23.25 x 8 /2 = 93 kN

Shear stress:

vEd = VEd/(bw 0.9d) = 93 x 103/(300 x 0.9 x 389)

= 0.89 MPa

vRd = 3.64 MPa

vRd > vEd cot = 2.5

Asw/s = vEd bw/(fywd cot )

Asw/s = 0.89 x 300 /(435 x 2.5)

Asw/s = 0.24 mm

Try H8 links with 2 legs, Asw = 101 mm2

s < 101 /0.24 = 420 mm

Maximum spacing = 0.75 d = 0.75 x 389 = 292 mm

provide H8 links at 275 mm spacing

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 4

Autumn 2016

Analysis

Lecture 4

12th October 2016

Summary: Lecture 4

• Section 5.1 General

• Section 5.2 Geometric Imperfections

• Section 5.3 Idealisation

• Sections 5.4 & 5.5 Linear Elastic Analysis

• Section 5.6 Plastic Analysis

• Section 5.6.4 Strut & Tie

• Worked Example Using Strut & Tie

• Sections 5.7 to 5.11 - outline

• Exercises

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 5

Autumn 2016

Structural Analysis

(5.1.1)

• Common idealisations used:

– linear elastic behaviour

– linear elastic behaviour with limited redistribution

– plastic behaviour

– non-linear behaviour

valid:

– In the vicinity of supports

– Local to concentrated loads

– In beam/column intersections

– In anchorage zones

– At changes in cross section

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 6

Autumn 2016

Soil/Structure Interaction

(5.1.2)

affect on the structure use EN 1997-1

– flexible superstructure

– rigid superstructure; settlements lie in a plane

– foundation system or supporting ground assumed to

be rigid

• Relative stiffness between the structural system and

the ground > 0.5 indicate rigid structural system

(5.1.4)

are less than 10% of the corresponding 1st order effects.

(But of course you first need to know how big they are!)

(

alternative methods of analysis are permitted:

– Method A based on nominal stiffnesses (5.8.7)

– Method B based on nominal curvature (5.8.8)

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 7

Autumn 2016

Imperfections

where

i = 0 h m

where 0 = 1/200

h = 2/l; 2/3 h 1

m = (0,5(1+1/m)

l is the height of member (m)

m is the number of vert. members

account in the material factors and should not be included in

structural analysis

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 8

Autumn 2016

accounted for in one of two different ways: either:

a) as an eccentricity, ei, where

ei = i l0/2

So for walls and isolated columns ei = l0/400,

or

b) as a transverse force, Hi, where

Hi = iN for unbraced members

Hi = 2iN for braced members

a) & b) (cont)

ei and Hi in isolated members (e.g.columns)

Unbraced Braced

Most usual

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 9

Autumn 2016

b) (cont)

Hi in structural systems

i Na

Hi

Nb

l i /2 i

Na

Hi

Nb

i /2

Hi = i (Nb-Na) Hi = i (Nb+Na)/2 Hi = i Na

b) (cont)

Partial factors for Hi

It is not clear how the notional force Hi

should be regarded, i.e. as a

permanent action, a variable action,

an accidental action.

However by inference if should be the

same as for the constituent axial loads

N, NEd, Na and/or Nb.

i.e. Hi = (1.35Gk + 1.5Qk )/(Gk + Qk)

But TCC’s Worked Examples says “As Hi

derives mainly from permanent actions

its resulting effects are considered as

being a permanent action too.” and Hi

= G = 1.35 was used.

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 10

Autumn 2016

As week 2

– One-way spanning

elements provided that:

• rib spacing 1500mm

• rib depth below flange 4b

• flange depth 1/10 clear distance between ribs or 50mm

- transverse ribs are provided with a clear spacing 10 h

considered as a wall

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 11

Autumn 2016

(5.3.2.1) As week 2

beff = beff,i + bw b

beff

where

beff,1 beff,2

beff,i = 0,2bi + 0,1l0 0,2l0

bw

and beff,i bi

bw

b1 b1 b2 b2

b

l0, is the distance between points of zero moment , viz:

l0 =

l0 = 0,85 l1 0,15(l1 + l2 ) l0 = 0,7 l2 l0 = 0,15 l2 + l3

l1 l2 l3

(5.3.2.2) As week 2

h leff

ln

ai ln

leff

t

leff = ln + a1 + a2

support should generally be taken as the greater of

the elastic and redistributed values

• Critical design moment usually at face of support.

( 0,65 the full fixed moment).

• Permitted reduction, MEd = FEd.supt/8

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 12

Autumn 2016

Linear Elastic Analysis

(5.4)

• Linear elastic analysis may be used for both ULS and SLS

– uncracked sections (concrete section only)

– linear stress-strain relationships

– mean value of the modulus of elasticity

effects at ULS a reduced stiffness corresponding to

cracked sections may be assumed.

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 13

Autumn 2016

Limited Redistribution (5.5)

• In continuous beams or slabs which are mainly subject to

flexure and for which the ratio of adjacent spans is

between 0,5 and 2

0,4 + (0,6 + 0,0014/cu2)xu/d

0,7 for Class B and C reinforcement

0,8 for Class A reinforcement

where:

is (redistributed moment)/(elastic moment)

xu is the neutral axis depth after redistribution

analysis should be used (not the redistributed values).

Redistribution Limits

35

30

25 25

20 20

% r e d is t

15 15

% redist

10 10

5 5

0 0

0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60

x /d

x /d

fck =70 fck =60 fck =50

fck =70 fck =60 fck =50

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 14

Autumn 2016

As week 5

The division of Flat Slabs lx (> ly)

into Column strips and

Middle strips is dealt with ly/4 ly/4 B = lx - ly/2

in Annex I, under ly/4

Equivalent Frame Analysis

ly/4

B = ly/2 ly

B – Middle strip

Note: Total negative and positive moments to be resisted by the column and

middle strips together should always add up to 100%.

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 15

Autumn 2016

Plastic Analysis

(5.6)

– xu/d ≤ 0.25 for ≤ C50/60

(or xu/d ≤ 0.15 for ≤ C55/67) (≡ K ≈ 0.10)

and

– Class B or C reinforcement used

and

– 0.5 < Msppt / Mspan < 2.0)

• For higher strengths – check rotation capacity to 5.6.3.

Based on the ‘work method’

m’

External energy Expended

by the displacement of

loads

=

Internal energy

m’

Dissipated by the m’

yield lines rotating

m’

m’ m’

mxy

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 16

Autumn 2016

Flat Slabs

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 17

Autumn 2016

Strut-and-tie models (STM) are

trusses consisting of struts, ties

and nodes.

a) Modelling

Imagine or draw stress

paths which show the

elastic flow of forces

through the structure

b) STM A deep beam

Replace stress paths with

polygons of forces to

provide equilibrium.

as dashed lines, ties as full lines

and nodes numbered.

36

c) Design members

• Design ties

• Check nodes and struts

(may be)

Minimise strain energy

(minimise length of ties)

37

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 18

Autumn 2016

Strut and tie models are based on the lower bound

theorem of plasticity which states that any

distribution of stresses resisting an applied load is

safe providing:

Equilibrium is maintained

and

Stresses do not exceed “yield”

In strut and tie models trusses are used with the following components:

• Struts (concrete)

• Ties (reinforcement)

• Nodes (intersections of struts and ties)

Eurocode 2 gives guidance for each of these.

In principle - where non-linear strain distribution exists, strut and tie models

may be used. e.g

• Supports

• Concentrated loads

• Openings

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 19

Autumn 2016

A structure can be divided into:

• B (or beam or Bernoulli) regions in which plane sections remain plane and

design is based on ‘normal’ beam theory,

and

• D (or disturbed) regions in which plane sections do not remain plane; so

‘normal’ beam theory may be considered inappropriate and Strut & Tie

may be used.

D

regions

40

P1

Please answer:

a) P2 ≈ 0.5 P1

b) P2 ≈ 0.66 P1

c) P2 ≈ 0.75 P1

d) P2 ≈ P1

e) P2 ≈ 1.33 P1

P2 f) P2 ≈ 2.0 P1

Concept by R

Whittle, drawn by

I Feltham. Used

with permission

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 20

Autumn 2016

Struts

by dimensions of the nodes and assumptions made

there.

Usually its thickness x dimension ‘a’ (– see Figures}

The stress in struts is rarely critical but the stress where

struts abut nodes is (see later).

However . . . . .

6.5.2 Struts

Where there is no transverse tension

Rd,max = fcd

= 0.85 fck /1.5

= 0.57 fck

Rd,max = 0.6 ’fcd

Where:

’ = 1-fck/250

Rd,max = 0.6 x (1-fck/250) x 1.0 x fck /1.5

= 0.4 (1-fck/250) fck

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 21

Autumn 2016

Axial stress x

fcc

Transverse tension

Loss in axial

strength due

Compression

to transverse

tension

fct fcc

Compression

Tension

Transverse

stress, y, or z

fct

Tension

Areas of non-linear strain distribution are referred to as

“discontinuities”

Partial discontinuity Full discontinuity

Curved

compression

trajectories lead

to tensile forces

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 22

Autumn 2016

Partial discontinuity

When b ≤ H/2

T = ¼ [(b – a )/b] F

the transverse force T may be T

over the length of tension zone

arising from the compression

stress trajectories

Full discontinuity

T = ¼ (1 – 0.7a /h) F

T

Reinforcement ties to resist the

transverse force T may be

“discrete” or can be “smeared”

over the length of tension zone

arising from the compression

stress trajectories

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 23

Autumn 2016

6.5.4 Nodes

CCC nodes

node:

Rd,max = k1 ’fcd

Where:

k1 = 1.0

’ = 1-fck/250

= 0.57 (1-fck/250) fck

Rd,1 Rd,2 & Rd,2 etc are all the same.

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 24

Autumn 2016

CCT nodes

Rd,max = k2 ’fcd

Where:

k2 = 0.85

’ = 1-fck/250

Rd,max = 0.85 (1-fck/250) x 0.85 x fck /1.5

= 0.48 (1-fck/250) fck

(stresses in the two struts should be equal)

CTT nodes

The maximum compressive stress is:

Rd,max = k3 ’fcd

Where:

k3 = 0.75

’ = 1-fck/250

= 0.43 (1-fck/250) fck

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 25

Autumn 2016

Ties

Design strength, fyd = fyk/1.15

The anchorage may start as the bar enters the strut

beam using the load path method

Usually taken

as a maximum

63o of 1:2

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 26

Autumn 2016

Worked Example

Pile-Cap Using S&T

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 27

Autumn 2016

Pile-cap example

Using a strut and tie model, what tension reinforcement is required

for a pile cap supporting a 500 mm square column carrying 2500 kN

(ULS), and itself supported by two-piles of 600 mm diameter.

fck = 30 MPa

2 500 kN (ULS)

Breadth = 900 mm

1400

150

2700

Pile-cap example

STM

Angle of strut = tan-1(900/1300) 2 500 kN (ULS)

= 34.7°

Width of strut* = 250/cos 34.7°

= 304* mm

1400

34.7o 34.7o

= 1520 kN

Force in tie = 1250 tan 34.7°

100

= 866 kN 1800

500/2 = 250

1 250 kN 1 250 kN

(ULS) (ULS)

Strut angle

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 28

Autumn 2016

Pile-cap example

As ≥ 866 x 103/435

≥ 1991 mm2

Use 5 H25s (2455 mm2) 5H25

as you would go. But for the

sake of completeness and the

exercise you will be

undertaking we will

continue:

Pile-cap example

Check forces in truss

Stress in strut (top – under half of column)

=1520 x 103/(304 x 500)

Ed =10.0 MPa

866 kN

Strength of strut:

Rd,max = 0.4 (1-fck/250) fck

= 10.6 MPa

OK

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 29

Autumn 2016

Pile-cap example

2500 kN

(Elevation)

Nodes: top

Ed,2 = 10.0 MPa (from above)

Ed,3 = 10.0 MPa (as above) 1520 kN 1520 kN

= 10.0 MPa Ed,3

Ed,2

Ed,1

Rd,max (for CCC node) (Upside down

elevation!)

= 0.57 (1-fck/250) fck

2500 kN

= 15.0 MPa

61

Pile-cap example

Nodes: bottom (as a check)

Strut above

Width of strut* = 600/cos 34.7°

= 730 mm

Stress in strut (bottom as an ellipse) Ed,2

1038 kN

= 4.4 MPa Ed,1

Ed,1 = 1250 x 103/( x 3002)

= 1250 kN

= 4.4 MPa

Rd,max (for CCT node)

= 0.48 (1-fck/250) fck

= 12.7 MPa OK

* Conventional but simplistic - see later

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 30

Autumn 2016

Pile-cap example

Detailing

Detailed checks are also required for the following:

• Small piles

• Determine local tie steel across struts (if req’d)

• Detailing of reinforcement anchorage (large radius bends may

be required)

starts from here

(100%)

Strut dimensions

Re * previous statement that calculated strut dimension

as 304 mm were “Conventional but simplistic - see later”

For the CCT node: Not used in previous calcs.

Hence struts themselves

rarely critical.

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 31

Autumn 2016

cap using bending theory

MEd =2500 x 1.800/4 = 1125 kNm

Assume:

25 mm for tension reinforcement

12 mm link

d = h – cnom - link - 0.5

= 1400 – 75 - 12 – 13

= 1300 mm

K ' 0.208 K’

M Ed 1.00 0.208

K

bd 2f ck 0.95 0.195

1125 10 6 0.90 0.182

900 13002 30 0.85 0.168

0.025 K ' 0.80 0.153

0.75 0.137

z

2

d

1 1 3.53K 0.70 0.120

1300

2

1 1 3.53 0.025 1270 mm

As = 1125 x 106 / (435 x 1270) = 2036 mm2

Use 5 H25 (2454 mm2)

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 32

Autumn 2016

5.7 Non-linear analysis

May be used for ULS and SLS provided equilibrium

and compatibility are satisfied and sections can

withstand inelastic deformations.

5.8 Analysis of second order effects with

axial load.

Slenderness and 2nd order moments –– dealt with in Columns lecture, viz:

5.9 Lateral instability of slender beams

Limits on h/b in slender rectangular beams

5.10 Prestressed members and structures.

Max stressing forces, max concrete stresses,

prestress force, losses, effects of prestressing

5.11 Particular structural members

Flat slabs are flat slabs and shear walls are shear

walls (!!)

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 33

Autumn 2016

Design Methods

Elastic methods – e.g. moment

distribution, continuous beam, sub-

frame, plane frame, etc – all

acceptable.

Plastic methods – yield line,

Hillerborg - acceptable

Finite Element Methods - elastic,

elasto-plastic, non-linear etc -

acceptable

Common pitfalls:

◦ Using long term E-values (typically 1/2 to 1/3

short term value)

◦ Not using cracked section properties (typically

1/2 gross properties) by adjusting E-value to suit

◦ Therefore appropriate E-values are usually 4 to

8 kN/mm2

◦ Mtmax (and column transfer moments)

TCC Guidance available

◦ Check punching

Exercises

Lecture 4

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 34

Autumn 2016

Design Execise:

Pile Cap Using S&T

Using a strut and tie model, what tension reinforcement is required

for a pile cap supporting a 650 mm square column carrying 4 000 kN

(ULS), and itself supported by two-piles of 750 mm diameter?

Are the Node stresses OK?

fck = 30 MPa

4 000 kN (ULS)

Breadth = 1050 mm

1800

If there is time:

Design Asreq’d

using beam

150

theory

3300

Design Execise:

Pile Cap Using S&T (pro forma)

= _____°

Width of strut (?)= _____/cos _____°

1800

= _____ mm

Force per strut = ______/cos _____°

= ______ kN

100

= ______ kN 2000 kN 2000 kN

(ULS) (ULS)

325 2250

(?) Strut angle

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 35

Autumn 2016

Design Execise:

Pile Cap Using S&T (pro forma)

Stress in strut (top) = ______ x 103/(_____x 650)

Ed = ______ MPa

Strength of strut:

Rd,max = 0.4 (1-fck/250) fck

= ______ MPa

Area of steel required:

As ≥ _______ x 103/435

≥ _______ mm2

Use ______ H ________

Design Execise:

Pile Cap Using S&T (pro forma)

Nodes: bottom

Above pile

Ed,1 = 2000 x 103/(____2 π)

= _____ MPa ______ kN

Ed,2 = ______ MPa (say as above)

2000 kN

Rd,max = 0.48 (1-fck/250) fck

= _____ MPa

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 36

Autumn 2016

Design Execise:

Pile Cap Using S&T (pro forma)

2398 kN 2398 kN

Nodes: top

From above

Ed,1 = 4000 x 103/(6502)

= ______ MPa

4000 kN

Ed,2 = _____ MPa

Ed,3 = _____ MPa

Rd,max

= 0.57 (1-fck/250) fck

= ______ MPa

Working space

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 37

Autumn 2016

End of Lecture 4

EN 1992-1-1: Section 5 Structural Analysis:

• Section 5.1 General

• Section 5.2 Geometric Imperfections

• Section 5.3 Idealisation

• Sections 5.4 & 5.5 Linear Elastic Analysis

• Section 5.6 Plastic Analysis

• Section 5.6.4 Strut & Tie

• Worked Example Using Strut & Tie

• Sections 5.7 to 5.11 - outline

• Exercises

TCC's Eurocode 2 Webinar course: lecture 4 38

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