You are on page 1of 93

UNIVERSITY OF MORATUWA

0 !
1

HAND BOOK

FOR

THE SRI LANKAN HOUSE BUILDER

By
W.F.S.E. Fernando

Supervised by
Dr. A.A.D.A.J.Perera
624^-5"

Department of Civil Engineering
University of Moratuwa
Sri Lanka

67981

The Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment

of

The requirement for the Degree of Master Engineering

in

The Faculty of Engineering

Department of Civil Engineering

Supervised by Dr. A.A.D.A.J. Perera

University of Moratuwa

September 1995

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
i

I wish to express m y grateful thanks to the department of Civil E n g i n e e r i n g for
permitting me to carry out this project, specially Dr. A.A.D.A.J. Perera, my project
supervisor for his valuable advice, guidance and generous support which e n a b l e a
successful completion of jthis report.

I would like to extend my appreciation to all the colleagues in Central E n g i n e e r i n g
Consultancy Bureau w h o helped m e to collect data and the C o m p u t e r Section and
Word Processing Section w h o devotedly completed the word processing.

My special thanks goes to the persons who fdled my Questionnaire and c o m m e n t e d
on it and the Bank Managers w h o helped me in lending the data that is available for
house builder.

5 2.1 Specialised Personal Involved in Building Practice 6 2.7.2.6 Summary of Results .0 Introduction to the Project 1 1. Estimating 21 2.3 Sub-Objectives.2.2.2.5 Work-done j 2 1..5. .2 Guidance for L a n d Selection 24 3. T i m e and I n v e s t m e n t 18 2. Planning and Documentadon 15 2.2.2.1 Consultation' of Professionals 26 3. i 14 2.1 . Table of Content Chapter 1 i 1 1.0 Literature Survey .2.1 The Place You Prefer to Live 24 3.3. 5 2. The Land Selection 13 2.2.2.7.2. .3 Conclusion 22 Chapter 3 23 3..2.3 The House Urgency 32 ..4. 3 1.2.2. C o s t financing and p r o p e r p l a n n i n g 17 2. ..3.1 Approach to Statutory Approvals 30 3.7 Guide to this Report 3 Chapter 2 ! 5 2.3 House builders' approach to house construction and planning personnel.6.j 1 1.2.3 Professionals in House Building 26 3.7.3.2 Documentation Prepared on the Project 31 3.7.2 Path of Contact to Construction Professionals 28 3.4. Building Morphology 20 2.0 Data Collection and Analysis 23 3.4 Planning and Documentation 30 3. Cost Modelling and Estimating 19 2.1 Introduction 23 3.1 Introduction .2.2 Objective \ 1 1. .1 Back Ground ! 1 1.4..4 Methodology \ 1 1.4.2 Land Selection 24 3.3 Priorities in Land Selection 25 3. M o n e y . Cost Modelling 19 2.2 Collection of Literature relevant to selected activities 6 2.

8 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n for the Questionnaire Survey 52 4.2 C o s t and E s t i m a t i n g M e t h o d s 38 3.7.4.1 Land Selection 50 4.3.6.4 Basic Home'Requirements 51 4.7 Project Management 52 4.1.2.1 Accuracy of Estimating 38 3. .4 S p a c e and ^Arrangement R e q u i r e m e n t 32 3.7 Project Management 50 4.1 Investment on Lands and Buildings 40 3.6.1. Selection of S p e c i a l i s e d P e r s o n n e l 49 4.5 Cost Estimating Methods 50 4.5.1.2.7.4.7.2.6 Fund Allocation 50 4.3 Bank Details! 42 3.1.1 Land Selection 49 4. 3.2.3 Planning and Documentation 51 4.4 Basic House Requirement 49 4.6 Fund Allocation and Money Handling 51 4.1.0 Conclusions.3 Future Researches 52 4.43 3.1 Conclusions j 49 4.2 Selection of Specialised Personal 50 4.1.2 The Project Ij4anagement Side of the House Building Industry .3. Recommendations and Future Researches 49 4.2 Methods of Funding 41 3.5 Costing and Estimating Methods 51 4.2.2.2 New Activities 52 .1 N e w Hand Books 52 4.4 Maintenance Prediction 47 i 3.5 C o s t and E s t i m a t i n g M e t h o d s 38 3. Material Availability and Cost 47 1 3.7.2 Recommendations 50 4.6 F u n d A l l o c a t i o n and F u n d h a n d l i n g 40 3.5 Satisfaction of the final product 48 Chapter 4 49 4.5 House finishes 35 3.7 Project Management 42 3.3 Planning and Documentation 49 4.2. standards and specification in practice 42 3.2.2.1 Quality.7.3 Requirements of Technical Advice.6.5.1.

17 C o m m o n House Requirements 34 3.35 Persons Involved in Plan Reading 45 3.1.9 Selection of Architect 30 3.37 Persons Taking off the Measurements 46 3.18 Floor Types 35 3.12 Documentation Prepared on the Project 31 3.27 Investment on Lands 40 3.26 Cost and Estimating Methods 39 3.3 House Urgency 32 3.24 Wall Finishes 37 3.11 Approach to Statutory Approvals 31 3.39 Information Required by the House Builders 47 3.7 Selection of Contractor 29 3.25 Accuracy of Estimating 38 3.14 The Floor Requirements 33 3.3 Basic Needs on the Selected Land 26 3.31 Quality of Finishes 43 3.34 Persons Involved in Labour Control 44 3.28 Investment on Building 41 3.33 Persons Involved in Quality Control 44 3. T a b l e s and F i g u r e s Tables 3.2 Guidance for Land Location 25 3.16 Toilet Requirements 34 3. 3.32 Standards of Practice 43 •6 3.40 Know-how the Maintenance Cost 48 3.1 Selection of the Land Location 24 3.30 Bank Details 42 3.36 Persons Involved in Setting-Out 45 3.8 Selection of Electrician 29 3.38 Persons Handling the Payments 46 3.22 D o o r ' W i n d o w Material 37 •y 3.5 Selection of Masons 28 3.41 Satisfaction Gained from Construction 48 r ill .29 Methods of Funding 41 3.19 Roof Material 35 3.10 Selection of Structural Engineer 30 3.4 Construction Professionals 27 3.15 Bedroom Requirements 33 3.23 Root Frame Material 37 3.6 Selection of Carpenters 29 4.

100. Traditional Model Type 20 2.1 67 3. . I 'ables from Maud Book Table (o Estimate tf 1 Land Value 59 Initial Loan Expenses Calculated lor Rs.000/= 61 Comparison oi'Monthly Loan Repayment Instalment 61 Services Required lor Building Industry 65 Preliminary Estimate per Square Foot 67 Estimating Method One 68 Estimating Method Two 72 Figures 1. Figure lor Table 6. Plan l o r Preliminary Estimating 71 r iv .

Hand Book for Sri Lankan House Builder

T h e house builder is defined here as the person who plans, invests, builds.(organises the
construction personal and material) owns and make use of the facility after completion of
construction.

I

I land Book lor H o u s e Builder
Summary

The theme "Hand Book for the Sri Lankan House Builder"' was selected due to the lack of
literature available lor the potential literate Sri Lankan house builder, with an aim to convex'
the knowledge of project management.

The house builder who is planning to build his unique home visualising a --[-goal, could lx
benefited by saving time and money finally achieving a satisfactory end-result.

A literature survey was canied out to identify the available books written for the house
builder. Out of these identified books, a set of activities (topics) were differentiated and
sorted out to be incorporated under the heading of literature survey.

A questionnaire was prepared foi the puipose of further identification of activities to be
ineoiporaied in the hand book. The questionnaire was revised twice to suit the human
sample. For future research, the questionnaire should be altered, specially to suit the widely
spreaded Sri Lankan income holders and answers should be weighted in the order of
priorities. (L-sing a preference method).

The house builders hand book was prepared with the help of these available literature, the
knowledge gathered from the post graduated construction management course and geared
for the activities selected according to the questionnaire.

The booklet was curtailed mainly to preliminary stage in order to limit the report bulkincss.
The technical data, cost saving alternative designs and standard practices, new cost saving
materials, formats etc. to be used for book keeping and account purposes were omitted and
left for future continuation of the hand book.

VI

I

Chapter 1
1.0 Introduction to the Project

i

T h e principal aim of this project is to publish a Hand B o o k for Sri L a n k a n h o u s e
b u i l d e r s in o r d e r to u p g r a d e the project m a n a g e m e n t by t h e m in housing
construction.
1.1 Back G r o u n d

Although Sri Lankans have a high level of literacy and thus can read and understand
books , the average Sri Lknkan house builder has little or no written g u i d a n c e in this
respect and is generally unaware of the many different activities i n v o l v e d in the
construction of a house.

1.2 Objective

The objective of this project is as follows;

* " T o make available the knowledge of project management among Sri Lankan house
builders in o r d e r to e n a b l e t h e m to identify the p r o b l e m areas in the p r o j e c t
management process and| to improve their capabilities and techniques in c o m p l e t i n g
house constructions economically and efficiently to their satisfaction. "

1.3 Sub-Objectives

* To conduct a literature survey of house construction activities.

* To identify the house builders' needs relating to construction activities.

* Transfer a knowledge of project management to the house builder through a manual
which he/she could refer from inception stage to completion. The manual will contain
that which is vital for him/her to build an economical house which would bring full
satisfaction at completion'.

1.4 Methodology

* Conducting a thorough literature survey to collect information, on the- f o l l o w i n g
selected activities and place them in order of importance.

(F). Land selectioni (B). Planning and scheduling of projects. 9 . standards and specifications (J). Identification of the construction activities relevant to the house builder's needs through the questionnaire!. (A). (H). T h e manual would contain information to monitor and control the design and construction stages while building an economical hpuse. Quality control. (E). Selecting the specialised personnel for the job and awareness of their role. Analysis and compilation of the data obtained from the questionnaire survey and the literature survey Transfer the project m a n a g e m e n t methods to the house builder through a manual. Work-done T h e literature that was available from a selection of books written to a d v a n c e the application of management in house building activities was selected and compiled in a suitable order. Funding. (G). H o u s e builders were interviewed to confirm the information collected from the questionnaire survey. Estimating for projects at preliminary stage and estimating by B O Q methods. Rate analysis Of construction items of work. Cost Investment and Instalment payments. Predicting maintenance costs before construction. from inception stage to completion. (C). (D). Cost control and accounts keeping (I). which he/she could refer. Collection of information from specialised personal regarding their role in house building industry. A questionnaire was prepared to obtain information from house builders regarding of their participation in house building and methods they adopted to i m p l e m e n t the construction activities.

G u i d e to this R e p o r t Chapter 1 . This contains information required for the house builders managerial involvement to construct an economical house to a pre-planned schedule. i T h e manual was written accordingly to guide the house builder from inception stage to the completion stage of a project. project managers. architects.Introduction. T h e irrelevant and incompdete questionnaires were discarded.Literature Survey T h e literature addressed directly to house builders. Chapter 2 . sub objectives. and builders were referred. j T h e book was written in an acceptable and easily readable format while including the essential collected literature pertaining to activities which w e r e m o s t c o m m o n l y encountered. Project aim. selected with the aim of obtaining an unbiased sample. T h e literature that w a s useful in improving project m a n a g e m e n t a m o n g h o u s e I builders was selected. > S u m m a r y of Results T h e collected literature which was mainly in respect of small scale projects are listed in Chapter 2 of this report. T h e questionnaires were distributed a m o n g h o u s e builders. i T h e data was compiled arid analysed. construction managers. and summary of results are covered in this chapter. methodology. 3 . back ground objectives. decision making and funding of projects. w o r k done. T h e results of the questionnaire indicate that the requirements of house builders were mainly in relation to management.

(1).Data collection and Analysis Having discarded the irrelevant and incomplete questionnaires. (3). Recommendations future researches 4 . (5). Literature available for land selection. (2). Conclusions. S e l e c t i o n of specialised p e r s o n n e l i n v o l v e d in the house construction industry and the roles played by them. Housle builders approach to house construction personnel (4). Results were extracted from the other questionnaires and tabulated the results and grouped into activities as given below. Methods of financing of the projects. Chapter 3 . (7) Cost modelling and estimating methods. Chapter 4 . T h e literature relevant to the Sri L a n k a n house builder's m a n a g e m e n t 4 activities was selected from the above and included in the chapter. Planning methods used in the building industry and documentation made for construction purposes. (6) Relationship between money time and investment.

i \ e a r 1962 to 1988) The best of these books is the one written by the Filipino architect Mechaud.Andy (year 1982) (7) "Home Planner" by H o m e Planners Inc. " Developers expert ideas to build your dream house" article. (year 1992) (3) "Home Maker" Volume one. Walikala (year 1990) (6) "10. (year 1993) (9) "1 Iomes and Plans" by Archway Press Inc. house cross sections. and the series. The advantages of the book is that the houses are for tropical countries. (year 1984) (4) "Home Ideas" by Patricia Mechaud (year 1989) (5) "Home Builders' Guide" by G. Wijedasa. (1) "Niwasa" by T h e Ministry of Housing and Construction. These working blue prints consists of frontal sheet. This book guides the house builder in obtaining bank loans. and the series.1 Selected Dream Houses" by Lang . The books written by the American firms are to sell complete working plans. appeared on Sunday m Island on 12 June 1994. detail lloor plan. foundation plan. interior and exterior elevations and material lists. (year H 8 6 to 1990) (8) "Home Improver Guides" by Australian Timber Association. The books that are available directly to the house builder are listed below. There was a scarcity of books written on project management methods wluch could be used by the house builders except the book "Cost Planning of Buildings" by (Ferry i 9 9 i) Fleming (Training Consultant to I C T A D ) has written the only article that has been for the Sri Lankan building industry. (year 1972) (2) "Building Construction and Astrology" by P. communication with the architects at conceptualisation and design stages. discourage the home builder and encourage the clients to . by Royle Senaratne.L i t e r a t u r e Survey Introduction The literature search was commenced before preparation of the questionnaire to trace the literature available for the house builder and to identity the house building activities that could be vital in the house building industry.

Relationship of Money lime and investment. ( 7 ) . The architect. Search of relevant literature and group them systematically to iaeiiilaie the reader. Planning methods used in building industry and documentation made lot « construction purposes. The activities that were selected from literature suivey are as loilow. Construction of Houses nowadays involve a host of different professionals and specialists.v (1). . Cos! modelling and estimating methods. quantity suiveyor. It point out the weaknesses and lack ol'know ledge of h o m e builders in Sri Lanka. engineer. (f) Electrician. Methods offmancing ol the projects.2 Collection of L i t e r a t u r e relevant to selected activities. (b) Architect Role played/Useful in what way/Guide to fee structure. Mouse builders approach to house construction personal (4).2. (3). (d) Quantity Surveyor. 2. (e) "Mason" . co-ordination and the resulting decision making process are fundamental to effective project management.1 Specialised Personal Involved in Building Practice The following specialised personnel were selected from the house building industry for the puiposc of literature collection. 2. (2). it was identified that there was a need for a book. (g) Decoration and Landscaping Architect. estates surveyor and specialist sub contractors as well as the main contractor. (5). I buy built houses. (a) Project Manager Role Played' Useful in what way/ Guide to lee stmcture. (6). Their integration. Prom tlie research and suivey of books in these areas of services in house construction. which explain the above services in House construction. ••Carpenter" and the gangs. Literature available lor land selection. Selection of specialised personal involved in house construction industry and the roles played by them. (c) Structural Engineer and foundation Engineer.

and the evaluation and selection of alternatives in pursuit of the client's satisfaction with the project out come are fundamental aspects of construction project management. (Halpin 1^90) T h e p e o p l e over the a g e s h a v e concentrated upon the buildings t h e m s e l v e s . The manager's j o b is to increase the group effectiveness and efficiency in producing the kind of results desired." (Ferry 11991) It is concerned with the identification of the client's objectives in terms of utility.(Wadell 1973) It is obvious that any group of talented people place in work situation will p r o d u c e something. (Wadell 1973) T h e definition of construction project management is. time and cost and the establishment of relationships b e t w e e n resources. It is revealing that historical and contemporary accounts of construction work pay little attention to how people worked together and m a n a g e d i their activities. function. particularly on aesthetics! the use of new materials. T h e minds of many are also conditioned by it's ironical use.(Walker 1984) . monitoring and control of the contributors to the project and their output. H o w people were o r g a n i s e d and managed has received scant attention. however. quality. all of tijem incorporate in one way or another the simple definition that m a n a g e m e n t has t o ' d o with getting other people to produce results. (Ferry 1991) The management of a house construction has been carried out since the man first co­ operated to erect buildings yet there is little documented knowledge of h o w p e o p l e interact in this process. which the dictionary quotes as "to be so unskilful or unlucky as to something".(a) Project Manager T h e Dictionary lists ten m e a n i n g s of "to m a n a g e " ranging from "Training a h o r s e " and "wielding a w e a p o n " to controlling the course of affairs by one's o w n action. ( Ferry 1991) T h e r e are probably as m a n y definitions of m a n a g e m e n t as there are m a n a g e m e n t experts. "The planning control and c o ­ ordination of a project from conception to completion (including commissioning) on behalf of a client. The integration. technological developments and the impact of building On their environment.

Which contain brief information to be provided by the client. (SLIA 1989) A .(b) Architect Dictionary meaning is one who design buildings or one who creates T h e Sri Lankan architects have had developed their own styles of involvement prior to 1977. This was revised in D e c . came out with a architects role and fee structure. Outline Proposals. Analyse the clients requirements with other consultants. design work by specialist firms. 8 . Inception. T h e fees range from 5% to 8%. 1983. approvals under building acts or regulations. M o s t of it is very close with Royal Institute of British Architects' methods and fees. (Flemming 19$4) T h e first circular to guide the Architects role and fees was issued by the Treasury circular 850 which c a m e into action in M a y 1983. site appraisal advice on other consultants services.H o w e v e r with the time n u m b e r of professional b o d i e s e m e r g e d and formulated standards forms of contract and methods of measuring work for specific use by their respective m e m b e r s . time table and fee basis. A b r e a k d o w n of the services provided by the architect as per the Institute of Architect are given below. C. prepare outline proposals and a p p r o x i m a t i o n of the p r o b a b l e c o n s t r u c t i o n cost for the client's p r i m a r y approval. based on current area. which is also very similar to what was in practice. Carry out investigation. s t a t u t o r y requirements. This is prepared for architectural services. review with the client alternative design and construction approaches and cost implications.1993) Institute of Architects of Sri Lanka. B . site staff. advice on the need to obtain planning permissions. Feasibility. (Treasury circular 850. volume or other unit costs.

taking into account amendments. Detail Design. L. 9 . quality of material and standard of workmanship. Visit the site as appropriate to inspect generally the progress and quality of the work Produce financial request to client. H. Administer the terms of the building contract during the operations on site. appraise and advice on tenders submitted. Production information including drawings schedules and specifications of materials and workmanship provide information for B O Q preparation. Completion. Provide the client a set of drawings showing the building and drawing etc. good builders and managers. F and G. A d m i n i s t r a t e the terms of the building contract relating to the c o m p l e t i o n of the works. Advice on and obtain the client's approval to a list of tenders. Tender action. Operations in Site. K.D. requested by the clientjrevise cost estimates. E. Production Information and Bills of Quantities. S c h e m e Design. indication of possible start and completion. statuary approval for building . D e v e l o p a s c h e m e design from the o u t l i n e p r o p o s a l s . invite tenders from approved contractors. Give guidance on maintenance. Develop the scheme design obtain the client's approval of the type of construction. ( ^ J J <\. U p to now engineers have not defined the role of the engineer and the consultancy fee structure. jogO) (c) Structural Engineer and Foundation Engineer T h e Engineers are mathematical minded.co-ordinate design work.

However. (1) W h o is responsible for his appointment? If he has been appointed on the recommendation of the client's architect his relations with the client will tend to be conducted through the architect. (]iiiclic. There wasn't arise a necessity for the Engineer to build a fee structure. prior to 1977 there was no control in Sri L a n k a and e a c h architect. For example.1981) W h e n the quantity surveyor is appointed. he would play no part in things until this stage was reached and he could start work on the Bill of Quantities. Referring to the statement made by Fleming on the publication "Construction N e w s " F e b 1994. a client who decides to appoint a quanfajsurveyor directly will probably have an above average interest in costs. (Fleming 1994) Therefore.T h e large design and construction works were carried out by Engineers. 10 . and now the quantity surveyor is sometimes appointed before any other professional advisor and takes over total responsibility for the client's financial interests in the house building. codes of practice and specifications. which will therefore play a predominant part in the scheme design. by the designers before the design calculation c o m m e n c e for the client to give approval for design intent and a payment for the intent. Things have changed since those days. engineers have to develop the method and definition of the role in each engineering work and a fee structure. and which needs to be answered. engineer or the clients themselves prescribed their o w n forms of contract. It is natural to suppose that substantial disparity occurred between individuals. . Apart from any other factor. there are a number of questions which will have a bearing on his concern with the budget. makes cost control better. (d). or if he were appointed earlier. most appointments fall between these two extremes. whereas if his appointment has been m a d e by the c l i e n t as a result of p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e or outside recommendation his relationship will usually be more direct. under a government organisation. The role of the Quantity Surveyors M a n y years ago a quantity surveyor was often not appointed until the architect had prepared his working drawings of the final building. preparation of design intent.

building schedule of rales and to judge the work carried out by the w o r k m e n . W'hal is his role lo be? This may well be established by (he nature of the appointment. 1. works. and this would obviously be of assistance in the context of total cost control. Controlling or handling labour is the most difficult job. With the total budgeting of the project or whether he will be limited to particular areas. equality control of works 3.(2) . ()rganising labour ai site 4.anka "Mason and Carpenter" are the gang leaders who supervise. or building and furnishing costs. In my literature search i could not lind literature defining the masons or carpenters role. ( N A V F A C 1988) 11 . Role of Mason and Carpenter hi Sri I. as above. carpenter and barbender could carry out per day are written in books with a time studies. which usually a gang leader carries out. Setting out 2. In Sri 1 ankan building industry Mason carries out most of the work in building construction. The norms are used to prepare. Although it is shown in the book "Managing people at Work" (Thomas 1979) that 1/3 of the cost of construction goes for labour. or indeed whether he will be expected lo do anything more than merely prepare a hi]] of Quantities. such as capital expenditure. (3) Who else has been appointed? If other appointments have not been made. (Birdie 1981) (e). Decide steel lor beam and lintels. bui it is important to establish whether the quantity surveyor will be concerned. (hganising material at site 5. The quantity surveyor could assist the cost-oriented client in setting up his team of advisers. in Sri Lanka the labour cost represents 1/4 of the cost of consturction (derived from the I C T A D cost formulae) if the labour is controlled properly the savings are considerable. at the same time he works with them and controls the quality of the building. These books are called "Norms". or net building costs. Quantity calculation of materia! needed for site 6. The quantum of work that a mason.

(Turner i 992) (g). These and other tasks are a part of landscaping. Decorating Architects and Landscaping Architects Role T h e s e fields are new to Sri Lanka. Electric ians A s ' e x p l a i n e d in the dictionary electrician is an Engineer specialising in electrical appliances and installations. works 12 . as a luxury for wealthy. landscaping will be presented in three categorise. It states in preface. O n e of the most useful b o o k s on this subjects is written by Ingels and Reiley in 1978 "Landscaping Principles and Practices". They could be widely recommended to all house builders. Others see l a n d s c a p e s sitting before large drawing boards planning beautiful gardens. with full attention given to e l e c t r i c a l safety requirements. . design. For learning purposes. while ensuring full compliance with the wiring regulation and test methods. Good electrical ideas are given in the book Turner 1992 which explains the electrical installation projects for domestic purpose in a competitive manner. S o m e picture a business that grows and installs plants.could wire a house to switch on and off the lights. T h e book progress from the basic principles of landscape design. (Ingles 1978) Griffiths landscape and Garden price book contains unit rates for landscape. Still other see landscapes as those who m o w lawns. attractive landscape in harmony with its surroundings. installation and maintenance. eg. There are very few specialised interior and exterior decorating architects and the landscaping architects in Sri Lanka. The term landscaping has many different meanings to different people. T h e s e b o o k s are s i m p l i f i e d and easily understandable. The individual pursuing a landscaping career is primarily a service person whose major goal is to satisfy the needs of those who use and enjoy landscapes. build patios and erect fences. "In the past landscaping w a s c o m m o n l y regarded in one of two w a y s . prune shrubs. The reader learns exactly what constitutes a well-balanced. and how such a landscape is developed. installation.CO. choosing enrichment items for the landscaping and developing cost estimates. W o r k e d examples are designed to reduce wiring costs. or as a cosmetic for masking mediocre architecture. T o determine exactly what these needs are and how they can be satisfied without harming the lives of others or the environment is the challenge of the trained landscapes" (Ingles 1978) It also feeds an educational need for those who wish to enter the landscaping field as trained professionals.

we can d o a simple cost benefit analysis showing the cost effect of a family house in an inner London suburb c o m p a r e d to a similar house in the outer c o m m u t e r area. once used. This is a specialised work of a valuation surveyor. from the point of view of somebody employed in London. However. B u t anybody w h o is involved in cost planning of building needs to have some knowledge of the factors affecting the costs of land for house building. Annual Cost £ •( Sterling Pounds) London house. 2. will no longer be available for any other development. This means that. (Ferry 1991) Building development of any kind requires a plot of land on which it can take place and which.2. (Ferry 1991) T o illustrate how the value may be determined by position. even though similar land m a y still be c h e a p fifty mile away. T h e L a n d Selection Advising for the land selection is carried out mainly by the land valuers. T h e "development value" of a price of land is the difference between the cost of erecting or conferring building on it and the market price of the finished development. the amount of land available in any o n e area is finite and cannot be increased at times of high d e m a n d by manufacturing at a higher rate. land values are effected by the laws of supply and demand. or bringing some in from outside. plant. unlike a commodity eg. T h e s e are called " N o r m s " in landscaping works. if there is a high demand in a particular area the prices of land in the locality will rise very steeply. building society repayments 3500 Annual season ticket to city 20 Travelling time say 1 1/2 hrs per day 2 0 0 days per annum = 3 0 0 hrs at £ 5 1500 5250 13 . sugar.( Ferry 1991) Like the prices of other commodities. town and country planners and architects. material. unless the first one is either demolished or converted. profit and o v e r h e a d s . I broken d o w n into labour.2. (including the land).

annum = 600 hrs at £ 5 3000 5000 Annual saving 5. at a higher price. The architect appreciate a natural rock propped up from the ground and the large trees in surrounding or lakes. Environmental Impact 14 . Circulation and traffic flow 7. 2 . Similarly outer area house. Construction 5: Distinct separation of public and private areas i 6. ! 2 . So that buyers are compelled to buy the land.250 . Site description 2. with cost calculations.5. T h e land valuers. Property developers also increase the land prices by advertising and creating a land scarcity. Ventilation and lighting 9. Ferry 1991.000 250 This b o o k covers. T h e land selection is presently handled by the architects and land v a l u e r s . Client description 3. water falls etc. Accessibility. ease of Access 8. The architect values the land specially for the view. building society payments 1500 Annual season ticket to city 500 Travelling time 3 hrs per day 2 0 0 days per. W h i c h is not the reality. by the name H O M E I D E A S gives a guidance to approach the architect and to communicate with the architect. m a n y methods how a location for the house. Factors Influencing the design 1. value the land to suit the d e m a n d and supply. 3 House b u i l d e r s ' a p p r o a c h to house construction and p l a n n i n g p e r s o n n e l T h e b o o k published by Mechand 1987. Concept 4. could b e decided.

Weather forecaster on television can be said to be forecasting the weather. multitude of friends. Interior perspective ( M e c h a u d \9Sl) These factors should be given by the client to the architect. is not the same thing as planning the cost.2. until the early nineteenth century rough and ready forecasting satisfied the need fairy adequately.4. and it was not at all unknown for prospective owners of building to suffer the faith of the man in the Bible. while another set to a another group of H o u s e Builders. three children in their teens. (Mechaud 1987) T h e r e f o r e it is important to k n o w h o w h o u s e b u i l d e r a p p r o a c h e d to h o u s e construction personnel. 10. P l a n n i n g and Documentation F r o m the earliest times people needed some idea of what a new building was going to cost before they started work on it. (Ferry 1991) 15 . maintain low profile. T h e building process itself comprised a series of dos and don'ts of which the costs had b e c o m e established and k n o w n over a lengthy period of time. Well to do Spanish family of a conservative nature. Even so miscalculations occurred the building of Blenheim palace almost bankrupted the Duke of Marlboroug. Justification of spaces 12. Forecasting the cost of a building. For example client's description should be as follows. i (Mechaud 1987) Similarly it is very clear that a good understanding should be develop between the H o u s e construction personnel and the House Builder. p h o t o g r a p h y .love for privacy. In both cases things may turn out very differently from what was expected for reasons quite outside the forecaster's control Nevertheless. Most major building was undertaken either as an act of religious faith or by the very rich for their own pleasure and gratification and in both c a s e s the necessary resources were likely to be forth coming in the end. gardens. love food. very close knit family. one girl and t w o boys. however. 2. mother loves to bake and provide several shop and snack c o n c e s s i o n a i r e s . . values privacy. veiy clearly. A question was incorporated in the questionnaire to find out how the house builder approach the house construction and planning personnel. outdoor life and nature. Orientation of the building 11. One architect or mason could match one group of H o u s e Builders.

answers your questions on everything from the ideas behind construction management of evaluations of its effectiveness. However.an increasing technological complexity. Thirdly. (Cushman 1990) 16 . (Cushman 1990) After reading this book it gives the idea of how to write a standard forms and tailor it to our special needs. something better was clearly needed for three reasons. or joint stock companies concerned with both. the price-in-advance system was developed. Secondly. These could be used to provide better quality and cost controls and at the same time monitor the performance of construction personnel. and then guides you step by step (with all the appropriate form) through the complete construction process. complete drawings and specification of the work had to be prepared before prices could be sought. the people commissioning large building projects were increasingly cost conscious. (Ferry 1991) In order to deal with this new situation. where responsibility for the execution of the whole project was handed over to a "general contractor" a! a previously agreed price. (Ferry 1991) Author Cushman 1990. (Ferry 1991) For over a century this system worked veiy well indeed. government bodies concerned with accountability. the traditional settled economic and social order was turning into something more sophisticated and dynamic. being either industrialists concerned with profitability. it did place one additional burden upon the architect. explains just what types of seivices should and should not be provided. Firstly. for in agreements. however. the projects themselves were of.With the advent of the Industrial Revolution. and it is still in widespread use today although much of the simplicity of the original concept has been lost in recent years. brings all the latest and most successful construction management forms used in the industry to-day.

(Macaffer 1984) 17 . It is c o m m o n sight in Sri L a n k a that house o w n e r s do not design their houses through any resemblance of the houses in their area or outside. This is the intangible c o m p o n e n t of total building cost. The means of Access. Hence house builder in Sri Lanka spends quite lot of time searching. M c C a f f e r (1984) and B a l d w i n s b o o k . Any traffic restrictions and conditions affecting delivery. When interest rates are high this financing cost can be considerable. stage. For e x a m p l e the b o o k written by ¥ Welikala "Perspective Views" 2. T h e r e f o r e .there own houses. creating ideas to m a k e his a speciality. The likely delivery p r o g r a m m e including both the period for which supplies would be needed and the daily or weekly requirements. T h e period for which the quotation is required to remain either open for acceptance or firm. So they don't like to repeat a s a m e house. so that the project should be planned to avoid unnecessary early e x p e n d i t u r e at any . Cost financing and p r o p e r planning. They are as follows. however. As soon as this tangible expenditure starts. the quantity of the material. T h e n a m e of the person within the contractors' organisation to w h o m any reference concerning the enquiry should be made. the builder will be laying out his money. i P e o p l e in Sri Lanka arejused to build. Therefore introducing the above list to the Hand book is useful with few changes. and these will be nothing to show for it in terms of i n c o m e (or use) until the building is ready for occupation. (Senaratne 1983) A h o u s e builder's b o o k is s o m e t h i n g for his confidence. when the necessity arises. . Specification of die material. The date by which the quotation is to be submitted.5. to one's own design.2. gives list of q u e s t i o n s to follow before V purchasing material from suppliers. This kind of series of questions are very useful to the house builder to remind before ordering material. The address of the site. a b o o k of variable front elevation will q u e n c h their thirst.

Even if you were not going to need the m o n e y ^ for five years you would still do better to have it now and place it in a savings bank where it could accumulate interest. the man w h o w a s going to pay you might have died. or g o n e bankrupt. each year and in the earlyj years in particular this would be quite a lot of m o n e y . 10. (In fact if interest rates werei as high as 10% the Rs. riot j u s t for ten years). b e c a u s e the u n e x p e n d e d balance of the sum would be e a r n i n g interest. a m o u n t Of m o n e y today and the difference will d e p e n d upon the length of time involved and the probable interest rate. 1000 a year for ten years the amount required would be m u c h less than Rs. Yet even the 18 year old. of prices in the rich countries rising by more than 10% a year and halving the value of m o n e y in less than seven years.for 10 years is an a m o u n t w h i c h . (Ferry 1991) Just as a future l u m p sum is worth less than its equivalent today so are future recurrent e x p e n s e s or receipts. with all its interest earnings would b e exactly used up at the end of the years w h e n the last R s . you might be dead in five year's time. or there might be a revolution or world war before you had the opportunity to collect.000. or d i s a p p e a r e d .000 would p r o v i d e R s . less than the s a m e . 1 0 0 0 a i year for e v e r and ever. Alternatively. 2.6. 1st August 1987 Inflation's return article first para states "Nobody over the age of 25 should need to watch horror films about inflation. 1 0 0 0 had been paid out. T h e actual s u m w h i c h w o u l d be needed to provide R s . (Ferry 1991) T h e economist newspaper. or forgotten hi$ promise. Its actual worth would depend upon c u r r e n t interest rates. particularly if inflation w a s r a m p a n t .18 67981 . In doing the calculation one might a s s u m e an interest rate that would reflect likely inflation and any special risks rather than a rate which might actually be obtainable at the dme. but even if you w e r e living in time of zero inflation you would still prefer to h a v e the money right away. 1 0 0 0 a year . (not yet teenagers when the last p e a k of inflation was reached) must now be sensing that something sinister is stirring in their pay packets and their small savings. Money. T i m e a n d Investment V If you w e r e asked "Would you rather be given Rs. 1000 now. (Ferry 1991) W e can therefore see that a s u m of money in the future will always b e worth. If you had to put a sum of m o n e y aside to pay somebody Rs. They can hardly fail to r e m e m b e r the gruesomeness of the real thing. 10. Afterjall. (Economist 1987) •r . or in five years time?" you w o u l d almost certainly say "Now".2.

because the money is either being borrowed. an apparently low total cost may not be m u c h of a bargain if it involves a l o n g . Under these circumstances it is necessary to consider the phasing of the project finance very carefully. (Ferry 1991 > i Traditional cost models . it seems likely that interest rates will continue to be high for s o m e years. In another words.2. (and attracting interest charges). and w h e n interest rates were only 2 or 3 % and construction t i m e s w e r e quick. (Ferry 1991) It may b e asked "Does ithis apply to all D e v e l o p m e n t . the model attempts to represent the significant cost items of a cash flow.1 Cost Modelling Cost m o d e l l i n g may b e defined as t h e s y m b o l i c representation of a s y s t e m . or only w h e r e profit is involved?" Basically' it applies to all development. §dODSS)(§C3 Until m i d nineteenth century it was c o m m o n practice for quantity s u r v e y o r s to consider the cost of the building as a l u m p s u m of m o n e y . that w a s possibly g o o d enough. (especially during expansion periods w h e n large p r o g r a m m e s of building work are being undertaken). In their measuremjent for Bill of Quantities they have been representing the building in a form suitable for the contractor's estimator.2. However. from the start of e x p e n d i t u r e on the project to the time of income. building or component in a form which will allow analysis and prediction of cost to b e undertaken according to c h a n g e in such factors as the design variables. (The Economist 1987) 2. which being spent on the development is not available for investing elsewhere (and is not accumulating interest). timing of events etc. and when prices are applied to the measured quantities! the Bill becomes a representation (or model) of the cost of the building by altering the quantity of the measured items or c h a n g i n g the price 19 67981 .. Cost Modelling and Estimating 2. and with the increasing complexity of large buildings it is not u n c o m m o n for s o m e years to elapse.7.o u t contract with high early expenditure on which interest charges accumulating.7. construction methods.jlf the above definition is understood it b e c o m e s clear that quantity surveyor have been using a form of modelling technique for a n u m b e r of years. expressing the content of that system in terms of the factors which influence its cost. or else it is the developer's own money.d r a w n . In terms of quantity surveying practice this usually means estimating the cost of a building design at an early stage to establish its feasibility.

--m2.sork operation) (cost of labour.1. cost/seat) Brief Stage (cost. If we change the shape of height of the building it may not be just the extra quality .m. For example. items) (B. a very great depth of knowledge gained by builders which provides us with some general "rules of thumb". Whilst we can probably rely on this kind of simple wisdom for small brick buildings. Traditional Model Type (cost/bed. dictionary definition of morphology is "The science of form" and the derivation comes from Morpheus" the Greek god of dreams. In some cases we can be quite specific about how cost varies. (Ferry 1991) Unfortunately. all other things being equal the wall cost will probably have increased in direct proportion to the increased areas.m.according to variations in specification manipulating certain design variables. insufficient research has been under taken to date to give clear indications of the degree to which changes in the parameters of the building (or by implication its model) will have on the cost of that building. then we can be reasonably sure that. Floor area) (cost of functional element) Detail Design (cost of grouped s.Q) Working Drawings (cost per nei'. Similarly. then the wall cost will have increased by the extra material cost of providing the better appearance. (Ferry 1991) Figure . if the standard of facing brick is increased and the shape of the building is fixed. it may not be adequate for dealing with more complex multi-stoiy concrete clad structures. This suggest that the origin of the shape or form lies in the imagination and the word therefore appears appropriate for the source of building form. There is however. plant.O. if we change the shape of a single story building so that the area of external brick cavity. material. supervision) Building M o r p h o l o g y Building morphology. wall is increased.

There are various techniques in common use to assist him in this task. Bar chart is simple and easy lo follow. Estimating. this chart a horizontal time scale is used. it is.2. Some very useful studies have been undertaken in areas such as these. The estimator. improved fixings (o deal with increased exposure. lor example.) On building sites for the purpose of monitoring progress and forward ordering. I and quantity that we have to pay for.982). which tends to rely in the first instance upon graphic methods. and the first lloor cannot be placed until the ground lloor walls and columns have been built. but anyone who has attempted research in the field of cost will tell you that every. often divided into weeks. the wall and columns cannot be built until the foundations are completed. 21 . (2) The inescapable sequence of building. (1) The need to use labour and plant effectively so that neither men nor machines stand idle for long periods between tasks.3. research project opens up a whole series of new research proposals! Cost research is still in its infancy and it may be many years. The timing and duration of each operation is then indicated by a horizontal bar spanning the relevant period of weeks and shown on the same line as the operation it refers to. ( W o o d 1. (This method may In­ applicable for Sri Lankan house builders also.7. in respect of each different estimate will need to decide the principal operations lo be undertaken and their methodology and duration. and the various operations comprising the project are listed vertically down the left-hand side. but indirect costs such as different lifting equipment. On. access and manoeuvrability and dispersal of plant on site etc. before we reach the scientific knowledge on which to base our judgements. so that. ( W o o d 1982) The traditional American method is the "bar chart". (Ferry 1991) 2. It gives quite to good picture of the way in which the various operations fit into the lolal contract period and is very popular. The operations cannot be considered in isolation since they will be inter-related by iwo factors. nor are they required lo be working in two different places at one time or spend too much lime moving from one pari of the site to another.

"Estimators use a variety of techniques when preparing estimates. to the notice of the planner. it is proposed to develop a similar system. spot rate estimating and contractor quotations and computer aided. Some highly experience Quantity Surveyors give a break down of labour required per each day and material to be al site on particular dales. Therefore its a good practice to consult a quantity surveyor in house building. For Sri Lankan house builder. number of stores. unit rate estimating. are taken as variables.Analysis" as an estimating tool shows cost model. Therefore the questionnaire is filled with question of quantity surveyor involvement and estimating needed in what accuracy and a question to find out whether unit rale. elemental. Estimating methods such I N T E R E S T h a w sought to provide all these techniques that the estimator uses manually and to support the estimating methods with data wherever possible and helpful to do so. The model contains variables such as single and double units. * The books published in Sri Lanka does not cater for the Sri Lankan house builders' needs * The books published for house builders in foreign countries are oriented for their needs and backed by different motives. Nor does it bring then interdependence. the main ones being operational estimating. that a estimate could be made quickly from the cost model. Ii does not help in - determining the duration oi' operations. or otherwise. fhe books available in project management are highly advanced for house builder to understand * Estimating methods available in the books are easily understood by the house builders 22 . Macaffer 1984 book by the name Estimating and Tendering explains. feature and B O Q pricing is needed or not. a good Quantity suiveyor could give all the cost break down with his experience. (Macaffer 1984) For a house. c o m m o n room area. etc. Conclusion?. however a heller communication tool than a planning tool. ( Wood 1982) McCalTer's paper "Some examples of the use of Regression .

out of which approximately 9 9 % of the Sri Lankan house builders are not aware. T h e literature w a s read and information collected relevant to building construction.3 incomplete . cultural practices^ climate conditions and environmental conditions. (2) middle and (3) high. 23 . with various approaches. Technical literature of house construction.1 Introduction T h e task was to develop ia questionnaire that should be understood by the a v e r a g e house builder at the same time very useful information should b e collected from the house builder. guidance. construction m a n a g e m e n t .0 Data Collection and Analysis 3. project m a n a g e m e n t . (1) Planning to build (2) On construction (3) Complete c6nstruction At the same time three income levels were selected (1) low. T h e s e books h a v e a wide range of opinions in h o u s e construction.6 unsatisfactorily answered T h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e w a s distributed to t h o s e in the f o l l o w i n g s t a g e of h o u s e construction. T h e books w e r e written. technical k n o w . .h o w and scattered valuable information. h o u s e m a i n t e n a n c e . architectural guide books. It is understood that questionnaires prepared from these literature could be meaningless to the house builder unless it is explained. by authors from various countries of varying per capital income. to be incorporated in the manual. statutory circulars.Chapter 3 3.

2 Land Selection 3. people prefer to live. Colombo City 20% 6 The suburb was selected as the highest priority area for home builders.1 Selection of the Land Location Land Location Number. 24 . who did not have a choice. Table 3 .2 G u i d a n c e for Land Selection This question was developed for the house builder to identify. with topics such as cost oHiving.2. inherited the land. Pollution. Therefore the manual could cover in these areas with lesser weight. The results are tabulated as follows. The manual could contain more information relevant to the suburb House builders. Nine persons of the above sample. T o w n and city have almost equal weights.of As a Persons agreed Percentage out of 30 1 Suburbs of Colombo 10 33% -7 ! Village 23% / ! Town 23% 7 . 3.3. A discussion and comparison of living in these areas might be useful for house builder.1 The Place You Prefer lo Live The Questionnaire raise the question to find out the land location. The Village.2. neighbourhood. further information he was willing to have in related to land selection. to there own requirements.

there was no c h o i c e for them. T h e r e f o r e w e have d e p e n d on the next question. the n u m b e r of persons w h o wants to know about land valuation and guidance. it was equal to 9. Q u e s t i o n N o . -4 . that gives a breakdown of the land selection requirements.2 Guidance for Land Selection 4 Land Selection Guidance Number of As a Persons agreed Percentage out of 30 Persons who' . And w h o do not want were equal. So that high priorities in land selection could be identified. W h e n 9 was deducted from 18. The results are as follows. 3 . Table 3. than to m a r k "no". 2 . 7. want's 9 30% to k n o w ? Persons w h o . 3 Priorities in L a n d Selection T h e basic requirements that were considered for land selection were raised in the questionnaire. 9 persons inherited the land. do not 18 60% want Persons who have 3 10% not answered B e c a u s e .

11.Land value escalation 9 30% 11 . 1 C o n s u l t a t i o n of Professionals This queries. The place they are born 11 37% 8.Recreation areas 3 10% T h e above needs were divided into two categories by taking 3 0 % as the cut-off point.Communication facdities 6 o 20% 12. N o . 1.3 Basic need on the Selected Land 4 Basic need on the Selection of Land N u m b e r of Persons As a agreed Percentage out of 30 1. Good neighbourhood 16 53% 5. 3 0 % and above category was to be included in the manual. whom the house builders have consulted for professional services. 3 . Landscape at the location 9 30% lO. 3.3 Professionals in House B u i l d i n g 3 . Access/Distance to work 43 6. Availability of Buses and 10 33 % Trains at Walking Distance 9. Development of the area 13 43% 7. 26 .2. Table 3. Security 21 70% 3.Electricity/Water supply/Sewerage 21 70% 2. 13 and 14 items will be rejected.Business Place 6 20% 13.Religions Place 4 13% 14. Children schooling 20 67% 4.

Lawyer 4 13% 7 23% 7.S.s and estimating methods could be discussed in the manual. Q.Water Supply 1' 3% 4 13% i Engineer T h e Draftsman was selected by the 7 0 % and Architect w a s by 3 7 % . i T h e land valuer w a s selected by 17%. Therefore the manual could be written with the cost saving benefit of Structural Engineer's designs of the house components. prepared B.Draughtsman 21 70% 23 77% 1 I 2. i Construction firms are selected by 1 3 % . T a b l e 3.4 Consultation of Professionals i T h e Professionals Persons As a Persons w h o As a Consulted Percentage were aware of Percentage the role 1.Land Valuer 5 17% 7 23% 6.Construction 4 13% 4 13% firm. Structural Engineers services w e r e useful for two storey builders.Architect ii 37% 13 43 % 3. i i Quantity Surveyor w a s selected by 2 3 % . T h e same percentage were a w a r e of the role. .S. T h e manual could give a guidance H o w to consult a land valuer and copies of standard reports the house builder should receive in services for comparison.Quantity Surveyor 7 23% 8 27% 5. services w e r e useful for b a n k loan a p p l i c a n t s a n d w h o need a accurate e s t i m a t e s .O.Q. 8. T h e r e f o r e the manual could give further e x p l a n a t i o n of the role of the construction firm and explanation of the firms profit margin with the rendered services could be useful t|o the house builder. Therefore the b o o k should discuss the advantages and the role of the Architect. T h e house builder w a s forced to c o n s u l t a land valuer for bank loans.Consultancy firm 2 7% 3 10% 9.Structural 8 27% 11 37% Engineer 4. so that h o u s e builder could identify thejadvantages of selecting the Architect. 27 . Structural Engineer was selected by 2 7 % . Q.

Therefore. where c o m p a r e d with other methods. 3 . interviewed the person. m e t h o d s of collecting price rates and n o r m s and h o w to measure the previous work quality so that. Architect. 2 P a t h of Contact to C o n s t r u c t i o n Professionals i This was to find out the p a t h of contact house builder used to contact the m a s o n s . Table 3. I Water supply Engineer is selected by only 3 % . A n y h o w the standard method of selecting the consultancy firms and the services the H o u s e builder receives and the advantages and disadvantages. ( 3 0 % to 7 % ) . There is no need to include h i m in the manual. Carpenter. 28 . w e r e hardly used. 3 . the manual could give a guide. Consultancy firms w e r e selected by 7 % . h o w to interview the people. cheapest prevailing rates. T h e r e is no need to give the details. Contractor.5 Selection of M a s o n s M o d e of Approach N u m b e r of Persons As a i agreed Percentage i I out of 30 ! Someone recommended 13 43% Known for a long time 12 40% Inspected previous work 9 30% Cheapest prevailing rates 2 7 % By other means 2 7% It w a s clearly seen the m a s o n w a s selected by 4 3 % of the house builders from "someone was r e c o m m e n d e d " method and 4 0 % of them used the "know for a long time" method. Electrician and Structural Engineer. might be useful to the House builder. the house builder could use these methods to select the masons. Inspected previous work.

29 . similarity to m a s o n s . of Persons Percentage agreed out of 30 from sample K n o w n for a long time 15 50% Someone recommended 6 20 % Inspected Previous woijk 5 17% 5 0 % of the house builder have selected the electrician from know for a long t i m e method. T h e y have-been selected by 10% of the s a m p l e by "some one recommended" method. specially by interview m e t h o d s and collecting piece rates and norms and how to judge the previous work quality etc. Therefore the m a n u a l should introduce other methods of selecting them.8 Selection of Electrician M o d e of Approach No. Table 3.Table 3.7 Selection of Contractor i I I 1 M o d e of Approach N o .6 Selection of Carpenter M o d e of Approach No. of Persons Percentage agreed out of 30 from sample K n o w n for a long time j 14 47% Someone recommended 10 33% Inspected previous w o r k 8 26% Interviewed the person 2 7 % Selection of a carpenter also shows. T h e other c o m m o n i m e t h o d such as I C T A D [grading could be introduced in the m a n u a l to u s e by the H o u s e builders. should be introduced in the manual to select the electricians. This shows that a simplified interviewing methods. of Persons Percentage i agreed out of 30 from sample S o m e o n e recommended 3 10% K n o w n for a long time 2 7% Inspected previous work 2 7% T h e contractor was selected by very few House builders. Table3.

of Persons As a 1 agreed Percentage Known for a long time • 8 26% Someone recommended 1 3 % Those who have not used services 21 71% The majority of house builder w h o m have selected the structural engineer was m a d e by known for a long time approach. defining the role and advantages of selecting the architect. of Persons Percentage agreed out of 30 from sample Known for a long time 12 4% Someone recommended 3 10% Architect was selected by 4 0 % using known for a long time method.4 P l a n n i n g and Documentation 3 .10 Selection of Structural Engineer 1 M o d e of Approach No. T h e other m e t h o d s (Interview etc. Table 3. 1 A p p r o a c h to S t a t u t o r y Approvals This checks the person who appeared to the Authority to get statutory approvals. T h e results were as follows. Importance structural engineering services should be introduced to the house builder. 3. Table 3. 30 . 7 1 % have not used structural services. 4 .) of selecting the Architect could be useful to the house builder. Therefore the other methods of selecting the structural e n g i n e e r could b e useful for the h o u s e builder. T h e manual should introduce the architect to the house builder.9 Selection of Architect M o d e of Approach N o .

produced 19 63% Estimate produced 19 63% Detail plan produced 17 57% Legal document to bind with contractor 4 13% Legal document to bind [with architect 1 3% T h i s shows the layout plans were produced by 24 persons i.e. of Persons Percentage i agreed out of 30 from sample i 18 60% H o u s e Builder himself Architect 1 3% Engineer 1 3% Friend 4 13% T h e house builder was personally involved in statutory a p p r o v a l s .O.Q. Q .Q. ! 31 . W h o ever produced the B. 22 persons out 30.O. and h o w to fill standard applications forms and a easy guide for Gazette notifications that gives the requirements and limitations in house construction. O . 3 person who have completed constructions and on-construction have not produced the B. T h a t w a s those w h o h a v e c o m p l e t e d c o n s t r u c t i o n and w h o w e r e on construction.Q.O. Therefore the b o o k should guide the. 3 . had prepared a estimate. 2 Documentation P r e p a r e d on the Project T h e documentation that were m a d e for the project and the legal documents prepared were surveyed and the results were as follows: Table 3.12 Documentation Prepared on the Project Documents Prepared N o . T a b l e 3.'s were produced by 19 persons.O.'s. B. house builder h o w to get these approvals.Q.11 Approach to statutory approval W h o appeared for statutory approvals N o . This s h o w s that part of the house builders were not Concern about the B. Totalling to. 4 . of Persons Percentage agreed out of 30 from sample Lay out plan produced 24 80% B . 8 0 % from the sample of 3 0 .

Detailed plans were produced only by 17 persons. Therefore the Hook should guide
the house builder to produce detailed Drawings.

The legal documents were hardly signed. Only 4 persons have signed a agreement
with the contractor and only one person had signed a agreement with the architect.
Although question No. 5 showed that 11 persons have consulted an architect. This
shows that people were not aware of the legal side of the Architectural service.

Therefore the hand book may contain the standard agreement* the client's should
have with the contractor and client. A brief guidance how this agreement should be
signed, and how house builder could consult a Project Manager and gel his services
to prepare contracts may useful in the manual. Stamp duties and cost of preparation
of Documents taxes may also useful in the manual. Further to above, the risks and
problems the house builder face, when the house construction carried out without
proper contract may be discussed in the manual, written for high income groups.

3.4.3 T h e House Urgency

The question was raised to find out whether the house builder willing to live in a
partially built house. The answers were as follows:

fable 3.1 3 House l.'ruencv

.Agreeable to live in partially • No. of Persons Percentage
agreed out of_30 from sample
12 40%
i "No" 14 47%
t 4 13 %
[_Nojinswers

Majority, 4 7 % do not like to live in a partially built, incomplete houses. In future
research, questionnaire should include a question to find out at what stage of die
construction the house builder accept to move in. From such results the hand book
could guide on the best stage for the house builder to move into a partially built
house, with sally precautions.

3.4.4 Space and A r r a n g e m e n t R e q u i r e m e n t

Questionnaire was to find out what sort floor space, number of rooms, number of
toilets the house builder prefer to have.

32
4r

Table 3.14 T h e floor requirements

T h e Floor requirements No. of Persons agreed Percentage
out of 30 from sample
Floor area 1000 sqft to 2000 sqft • 15 50%
500 sqft to 1000 sqft 6 20%
1000 sqft and above 6 20%
Not given any answer 3 10%
Upto 500 sqft 1 0

T h e answer for less than 500 sqft houses were zero in the survey. Therefore there is
no need to give information to the house builder of house floor area less than 5 0 0
sqft.

Highest d e m a n d was for the floor area of 1000 to 2 0 0 0 ( 5 0 % ) . T h e manual could
accommodate the plans and data that may useful for this range of house builder.
i
i
I

T h e number of bed r o o m i required for house builder was answered as follows.

Table 3.15 Bedroom Requirements

Bed room requirements N o . of Persons Percentage
agreed out of 30 from sample
3 bed rooms 12 40%
4 bed rooms and above, 8 26%
N o answers 7 23%
2 bed rooms 3 10%
Single bed room 0 0%

Therefore m o r e house plans should be incorporated with 3 bed r o o m requirement.
T h e 4 bed r o o m and 2 bed room houses have a "demand of 2 6 % and 2 3 % . T h e s e
could be considered at a lesser extent.

N o one went for single bejd room. T h e single bed room requirement could be deleted
in the manual. \
i

The number of toilets required for house builder was answered as follows.
' 3 3

Table 3.16 Toilet Requirements

Toilets requirements Nos. of Persons Percentage
agreed out of 30 from sample
T h e number of persons not answered 14 46%
2 toilets 5 17%
4 toilets 4 13%
1 toilet 4 13%
3 toilets 3 10%

Table 3.17 C o m m o n House Requirements

House requirements : Answered "Yes" Answered "No" N o t Answered

No Percentage No Percentage No Per.
Inside Appearance 22 73% • 0 0% 8 27%
i
Ventilation 22 73% • 0 0% 8 27%

i
Security of the house 20 67% 1 3% 9 30%
Natural lighting is 60% 1 3% 11 36%
Outside appearance 13 43% 4 14% 13 43%
Annex with separate 19 30% 11 36% 10 34%
entrance
!
Mosquito free house 8 27% 9 30% 13 43%
Servant Quarters 7 23% 8 27% 15 50%
Drivers Quarters 3 10% 9 30% 18 60%
Annex built into |2 7% 12 40% 16 54%

H o u s e builders w e r e highly c o n c e r n about inside a p p e a r a n c e and v e n t i l a t i o n .
Therefore details of inside appearances could be provided in the book.

Security for the house w a s wanted by 67% of the sample. T h e methods available to
i m p r o v e the h o u s e security, c o u l d be given in the m a n u a l , specially the theft
preventive s y s t e m s . T h e next on the priority were natural lighting and o u t s i d e
appearance.

34

3 0 % is taken as the cut off point. 35 . 3 . a description of fixing methods could be useful in the manual. Servant Quarters. could be taken as 2 3 % . Wooden 1 3 % Cut off point. 17% 5. Driver's Quarters and A n n e x built into comes in the range of 2 7 % to 7%. from the suppliers. Therefore colour laying m e t h o d . Ceramic Tiles 5 . Terrazzo 7 23% 4. Ordinary cement 7 23% 3. A m a n o steel sheets and asbestos covered with clay tiles h a v e very low d e m a n d . could b e a c c o m m o d a t e d in house plans. of Persons Percentage agreed out of 30 from sample 1.18 Floor types Floor types N o . of Persons Percentage agreed out of 30 from sample 1. but with less priority. Asbestos 8 27% 3. Therefore these could be deleted from the manual.19 Roof material Roof Material N o . Colour 12 40% 2. Therefore a similar to tiles. 4 . quality control. 5 H o u s e finishes Table 3. A n n e x e s with separate entrances 3 0 % wanted to have. Asbestos covered with tiles 2 7% 4. A m a n o steel sheets and others 0 0% Clay tiles have a demand of 4 7 % . Therefore data such as clay tile selection. Specially Driver's Quarters and annex built into have the least demand. ordinary cement laying method and terrazzo laying methods could be explained in the manual. Clay tiles 14 47% 2. reaper spacing and roof slopes could b e useful information for clay tile layers. M o s q u i t o free houses. Therefore no need to have on the manual. Table 3. Asbestos comes next with 2 7 % demand.

W h o have not answered 5 16% T h e s a m p l e w a s satisfied with the local ceramic shapes. Local and Imported mixed 3 10% 4. C h e a p Imported 2 16% (Indian and Malaysian makes) 5. those w h o have. Table 3.of Persons Percentage agreed out of 30 from sample 1. Local ceramic 11 37% 2.of Persons Percentage agreed out of 30 from sample 1. \ T h e book should guide the house builder. Out of 14. Bricks standards i 6 20% 3. not build the house and only 2 comes from the category of on construction. and Prices. the way of how to select the best bricks. because the standard bricks were not available freely and also it's comparatively expensive.21 Toilet fitdngs Toilet fittings No. B l o c k w o r k 4 " 1 3% 5. Not answered 10 33 % Total n u m b e r of bricks preferred persons were 14. Table3.20 Wall Material Wall material No. Bricks available in the market 8 27% 1 2. T h e r e f o r e a guide of selecting the local ceramic and Technical know how to install t h e m should be incorporated in the hand book. Out of the 10 persons who have not answered. 8 prefer to b u y w h a t was in the market. Imported ceramic 9 30% 3. 6 persons w e r e preferred block work. 8 c o m e s to the category. 5 for 6" w i d e and o n e for 4 " blocks. 36 . B l o c k w o r k 6" 5 17% 4.

Coconut rafters c o m e s second with 3 0 % . Door/Window Material Door/Window material No. Grade I T i m b e r (Local) 23 77% 2. Therefore. Table 3. Lime 4 13% 3. Imported Timber 1 3% 3. Imported T i m b e r 1 ' 3 % 4. Snowcem 0 0% E m u l s i o n h a v e a high d e m a n d . 37 . by 4 p e r s o n s . strength characteristic could be useful for house builder.22. Coconut rafters 9 30% 3. 2 0 persons. A l u m i n u m 1 3% 5. Grade II T i m b e r 1 3% 4. 0 0% T h e demand was for the traditional material timber grade I. Emulsion 20 67% 2.of Persons Percentage agreed out of 30 from sample 1.24 Wall paint i What is the wall pkint i No. they may have not decided yet. No answer 6 20% 4. \ Table 3. T h e r e f o r e the b o o k should be c o n t a i n the technical information of emulsion. Steel 1 3 % 5. Coconut rafters . a knowledge of timber.23 Roof j Frame What material for robf frame No.follows next. Grade I timber 19 63 % 2. T h e a d v a n t a g e s and disadvantages comparing: with others. Grade II T i m b e r 0 0% Roof frame also shows alhigh percentage of Grade I timber. Lime. T a b l e 3. 6 persons have not answered.of Persons Percentage agreed out of 30 from sample 1.of Persons Percentage agreed out of 30 from sample 1.

prefer ± 5 % accuracy in estimating. Therefore primary estimating method should be included to estimate at feasibility stage.3.5 Cost and Estimating Methods 3 . 38 . 9 persons. 10% and 2 0 % accuracy were expected by 7 and 3 persons. 1 Accuracy of Estimating This clarifies the estimating accuracy the house builder expects. 5 .25 Accuracy of Estimating Accuracy of estimating No. Q method should be explained in the manual. 5 . O .of Persons Percentage agreed out of 30 from sample 5 % accuracy is expected by 9 30% 10% accuracy is expected by 7 23% 2 0 % accuracy is expected by 3 10% T h e "number of persons who don't want estimate 4 13% I Majority. T h e results of the questionnaire was as follows T a b l e 3. Question was put forward as given on the table. therefore B . 2 Cost and Estimating Methods This was to survey the house builders requirements in estimating. J j 3 .

5 3 % likes to k n o w the. Roof square foot 18 61 7 24 5 17 9. B r e a k d o w n or Analysis of 13 43 10 33 7 24 labour material in B O Q items. Square foot of low cost 13 43 12 40 5 17 building 3. Bed room also showed 5 3 % demand. which could be incorporated on the above chart or can be a v o i d e d . Square foot of a 20 67 9 30 1 3 single storey/two storey Building 2. This could be easily provided in the manual. 12. Labour rate per unit work 17 57 9 30 4 14 6. P r o b l e m is the changing of rates with the time. 10. bed r o o m .26 Cost.e. This could be a c c o m m o d a t e d the manual. Timber prices 15 50 9 30 6 20 6 7 % of the s a m p l e wish to k n o w the square foot rate of a house. 4 Labour rate per unit work. B e d room only 16 53 9 30 5 17 5. toilets. c o s t ' o f e a c h user areas i. Table 3. lobby of standard sizes. D o o r / W i n d o w per 19 64 6 20 5 17 square ft. B r e a k d o w n or Analysis of 12 40 11 37 7 20 labour/material in other item 11. material cost per unit work had 5 7 % dem 39 . 8.and Estimating Methods Estimating Methods N o of "yes" % N o of "no" % N o of % persons out persons out persons of 30 of 30 "not" answered Do you like to know the cost of 1. Completed toilet/Bed room or 16 53 9 30 5 17 Lobby of standard sizes 4. C u b e of concrete Rubble 15 50 9 30 6 20 masonry etc. Material cost per unit work 17 57 5 17 5 17 7. Only 4 3 % wants the square fopt of low cost buildings.

Therefore it is better lo give these rates. 40 .27 Investment on Lands Investment on 1 . material in highly used item such as concrete. but the high variation of timber prices brings the problem of changing rale.1 Investment on Lands and Buildings This will shows how people allocate the funds for the land and Building.6. Brick work needed by only 4 0 % and 4 3 % of the sample respectively. These can be given. fable 3.5 million j 27% 6 Expenditure made between 0.25 to 0. limber prices had a demand of 50%.6 Fund Allocation and Fund handling 3.1 lo 0.0 million ! 20% 2 Expenditure made between 1.5 lo 1.0 lo 2. list of material with rale and work norms could be accommodated in the manual.of Persons As a agreed out of 30 i . N o of persons inherited land j Percentage 10 1 Expenditure made between 0. 2 0 % have not answered. 4. Break down Analysis of labour. 3.0 million 7% 2 Expenditure 2 million and above 7% 1 3% Similarly funds they spend on building. Rate for cube of concrete. Therefore this could be neglected in the manual.25 million | 30% X i Expenditure made between 0. The Door/window square foot and roof square fool 6 4 % and 6 1 % demand. Rubble masonry.ands No.

3. 250. 500. 7% ! Expenditure 2 million and above 1 ! 3% F r o m the above results. 0 0 0 / " The lands of Rs.25 to 0. Therefore the book should contain the relevant data to cater for buildings. Therefore in land selection in area that conies lo this category could be explained.000/-.of Persons | As a ' (need revision every year) agreed out of 30 I Expenditure made between 0. 100. 20% ' Expenditure made between 0.5 to 1.1 to 0.29 Methods of Funding Methods of Funding No. Because the date of purchased was not given in the questionnaire and due to very high land value escalation it was difficult the comment on it. Therefore the new questionnaire should have the date of purchased. 2 5 0 . Table 3.000 to buy a land and they spend Rs.0 to 2. what could be gathered was that the people spend more on building than for the land.5 million T 8 I 27% I Expenditure made between 0. for his house.6.000 to build the house on it. the method house builders used to get funds. fable 3. 5 0 0 .000 to Rs.to Rs.have the highest demand with 2 7 % have purchased it.000A= to Rs. 250.000 to Rs.0 million ? . 100.1 36% Savings from income 10 33% Selling Assets 7 23% Employed abroad 6 20% 41 .0 million 6 . 0 0 0 / . in the range of Rs. 250.28 Investment on Building j Investment on Buildings as in 1992 and 1993 No.of Persons As a agreed out of 30 Percentage Bank loans 16 53% Cash in hand 12 40% Salary 1.2 M e t h o d s of F u n d i n g This queries. Maximum number of persons (8 persons) spend on Rs.25 million 5 ' 17% j Expenditure made between 1.

s t a n d a r d in practice was needed by 5 3 % . Therefore technical details and methods of application and quality control finishes is useful tb the house builder. Therefore a chapter identifying the standard the practices should be incorporated in the book. 43 . A guide to use standards could be incorporated in the book for house builders reference similar to year book. T h e answers were 'No' by 3 10% 3. 3 have answered "No". whether the house builders like to know about the standard in practice. "Yes" answer 16 53% 2. 3 . T h e answers were 'Yes' by 23 77% 2. Table 3. of Persons As a agreed out of 30 Percentage 1.32 Standards in Practice Standard in practice No. N o answer for "Yes" or "No" 10 33% T h i s show that. 7 . the answers were as follows. (b) When the question raised.31 Quality of Finishes Quality of Finishes N o . "No" answer 4 13% 3. (a) Table 3. N o answers given 4 13% Comparatively large s a m p l e keen to have the quality of finishes ( 7 7 % ) . 2 T h e Project M a n a g e m e n t Side of the House Building I n d u s t r y (a) Quality Control w a s carried out by the persons as given on the table.of Persons As a agreed out of 30 Percentage 1.

34 Persons involved in labour control. Head M a s o n 19 63% 2. Architects and Engineers involved in quality c o n t r o l is less. Engineer 3 10% 5. Contractor 3 10% T h i s s h o w s that. H o u s e builder himself 18 60% 2. In that case of the house builder should have a idea about the quantity of work a average labourer or skilled person should do per unit time.of Persons As a agreed out of 30 Percentage 1. (b) Labour control Table 3. Table 3. H e a d Bass 10 33% 3. House Builder himself 5 17% 4. Architect 1 3% T h e direct labour control' the most difficult part of construction w a s always handed over to head mason or the contractor. Therefore the b o o k should include a list of labour i n v o l v e m e n t in h o u s e construction. Therefore introducing quality control literature is important to house builder. In another method of handling labour was to pay per unit of work after agreeing per unit. the h o u s e builder himself get fully involved in controlling the quality and also d e p e n d s on bass. Contractor 6 20% 3. T h e h o u s e builder's final product c o u l d easily get effected. Friend 3 10% 6. 44 .33 Persons involved in quality control W h o did the quality control No. Architect 5 17% 4. price rate and sample of labour a g r e e m e n t form and s a m p l e contract document. W h o controlled the labour No.of Persons As a i out of 30 Percentage 1.

or small w a s not bothered. Head M a s o n 12 40% 2.of Persons As a ! agreed out of 30 Percentage House builder himself 19 63% Head Mason 12 40% Engineer 3 11% Friend 2 7% Architect 1 3% 6 3 % of house b u i l d e r s d o the setting o u t therefore setting out details s h o u l d b e provided. 2 7% This shows that plan reading was done by a combination of two. T h e r e f o r e the results shows house builder himself had done the setting out with his k n o w l e d g e . T h e r o o m getting few inches large .of Persons As a i agreed out of 30 Percentage 1. by the house builder. 45 . A basic knowledge of setting out should be transferred by the hand book to the house builder and bass w h o m were mainly involved in setting out.(c) Plan Reading Table 3. T h e size of the r o o m s arid the building w a s important for house builder.36 Persons involved in setting-out W h o set-out the building No. Friend 3 10% 6.35 Persons involved in plan reading W h o read the plan No. Architect 3 10% 5. Literature that could i help the h o u s e b u i l d e r and mason which makes the plan reading e a s y for t h e m . (d) Setting out the building Table 3. House Builder himself 12 40% 1 3. should be incorporated in the book. Contractor 5 17% 4. also should b e t h o u g h t how to do the setting out [more accurately. Majority of cases Head mason and house b|uilder get-to-gather and read the plan. Engineer.

of Persons As a agreed out of 30 Percentage 1. Friend 1 3% Payments was the most important thing followed alter measurements. he himself involved in getting it. ! 3.) 46 . Maximum involvement of the house builder comes here with 24 persons out of 30(80%).(e) Measurements Table 3. ledgers methods etc. (0 Pavmenls fable 3. (These annexes were kept away to avoid bulkiness of the hand book. Therefore ii is advieeble to annex Standard Payment Certificates. Friend 10% 5. Therefore it is advisable to have a guidance of the method of measurements to the house builder. Only house builder himself can rely on his own money. Basic Book Keeping. House builder himself 21 70% 2. Head Mason 11 37 % 3. Architect 7% 4Engineer 1 3% i - 'j5. Contractor 5 17% 4. Architect 7 7% Engineer 3% Measurements for payments was so important to the house builder.of Persons A .a 1 1 agreed out of 30 Percentage fT House builder himself 24 80% 1 Contractor 5 2 17%.37 Persons taking oil" the measurements Who did (he measurements No.38 Persons handling the payments Who handled the payments No.

the foundation were two element of a house where technical problems were concerned. to new material that don't have enough past data to judge the quality. 4 47 . Only the sophisticated. Anyhow 9 persons have not answered the question. to makes the house builder himself to decide on what alternative method or material should be used in his house. Cost of alternative methods. latest invented material were not known to house builder.3 R e q u i r e m e n t s o l ' T e c h n i c a l Advice. 3. 53 l 10 • 33 4 13 2 . basic material for house construction was known to c o m m o n man for a long lime. Cost of Alternative Methods 13 . The knowledge of material availability. 3. Further investigation suggested.of "ves" ! % I No. with 13 perions supporting with "Yes".of I °o I persons out i from i persons out' from i person | from \ of 30. Therefore the manual should contain information of alternative method cost. samplc| of30 !sample| "not" 'sample i answered i il. There were seines of Books in technical literature. Sometime these newly invented or introduced material were expensive for a average middle class house builder.4 M a i n t e n a n c e Prediction This was a suivey to find out whether the house builders wish lo know about annual cost of maintenance of the house after construction. The traditional. The technical problems were very c o m m o n in house building. covered by several specialised books.7.e. ''Study of information needed in . Technical Advice 16 . 16 persons) supported "Yes" for technical advises. Appropriate advises were needed depending on the case. was rejected by majority (11 persons).7. was at interest of the house builder. Therefore there was no necessity to introduce a new material to the book. Therefore giving of full technical detail was out of this book. A brief simple. No. The roof. 43 10 ' 33 ' 7 24 More than 5 0 % (i.Availability and C o s t Table 3. These two elements needs specialised technical advice.of " n o " ' % No. basic technical problems that comes day lo day house building industry could be entertained discussed on this house builders book.39 Information required by the house builders. 'This shows the house builder was not interested to get introduced. Material . Mateiial Availability 10 33 i 11 36 : 9 ! 30 ! 3.

. a Engineer to identify t h ^ ^ l & t s .) 3 . water leaks. The answers were T a b l e 3. (4) H o w h e should consult a lawyer to take legal action a n d ^ l kjfto. o n e person b l a m e d the Architect and Contractor both. ' ^ ^ . T a b l e 3.41 Satisfaction gained from the construction. (3) The ways and means of consulting. c o l o u r w a s h i n g .wledg^pf Agreements that could protect from trouble.h o w of maintenance cost. for inferior quality in construction. K n o w l e d g e of annual maintenance cost No. majority were satisfied with what they have built from the m o n e y they have. polishing.40 K n o w . A n y w a y 3 persons were not satisfied.of P e r s o n s As a agreed out of 30 Percentage "Yes" 21 70% "No" 7 23% N o answers 2 7% T h e m a n u a l should contain the cost of m a i n t e n a n c e (painting. roof leaks etc. out of 11 p e r s o n s w h o h a v e c o m p l e t e d the construction. Satisfaction from what was built No. T h e manual should contain (1) T h e remedial measures the house builder should adopt to rectify the minor defects. S w e e p i n g . rectifying. 48 . 5 Satisfaction of the final p r o d u c t t T h e final Question was to find out the house builder's satisfaction to the house that he has built. 7 . This h o u s e o w n e r w a s clueless in house building] Therefore a house builders manual must guide them.of P e r s o n s As a | agreed out of 30 Percentage "Yes" answered 22 73% " N o " answered 3 10% No answer 5 16% This shows that. (2) Variation and alteration that could cover the defects. Out of the 3 persons.

v 4. then was the Architect with 4 3 % . were given to security of the area. T h e most acceptable functional r e q u i r e m e n t s of a house were 3 bedrooms and 2 toilets. ft. T h e finishes that were in d e m a n d were coloured cement for floors. e m u l s i o n for w a l l s . Thirty percent of the sample were interested in learning the methods and factors of land selection. 49 . Chapter 4 4.0 Conclusions. G r . than the village. Path of contact of these specialised p e r s o n n e l w e r e d o n e by the Sri Lankan house b u i l d e r s w i t h "recommendation from another person" or "known the person for a long time of his -*. ft. ^ b r i c k s for w a l l . 1 L a n d Selection T h e suburbs had the highest d e m a n d . T h e legal documents (Contract D o c u m e n t ) have been prepared only by 1 3 % of t h e m with the contractors. Selection of Specialised Personnel T h e Draughtsman in the most popular highly demanded person among the Sri Lankan house builders with percentage of 7 7 % . electricity.1 Conclusions 4 .4 Basic House R e q u i r e m e n t Highest demand was for the floor area of 1000 to 2000 sq.1. town and city r e s p e c t i v e l y . Priorities in land selection. 4. I t i m b e r for d o o r s / w i n d o w s and roof. water supply and seweragei availability in the area and children schooling." 4. Bill of Quantities and Estimates have been prepared by 6 3 % . Recreation ^ areas and religious places had the|least demand with respective land selection priority list. R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a n d F u t u r e Researches 4. ( 5 0 % of the sample) and lowest was for 500 sq.3 Planning a n d D o c u m e n t a t i o n T h e basic layout plans haveibeen prepared by 8 0 % of the samples. and 3 % w i t h t h e Architect. talent on the job.2. house builders. House-builders were highly concerned about of inside appearance and ventilation. 1 .1. clay tiles for roof.1.

25 million. 4. Therefore these activities could be incorporated in planning and estimating. ! 4.6 Fund Allocation Majority of house-builders invested.5 million.25 to 0. (d) Natural disaster areas.1 million to 0. for land in the r a n g e of 0. (f) T h e role of the land valuer and fees. 2 . electricity.1 million to 0. 4. 6 0 % of the house builders w e r e w i l l i n g to learn m a n a g e m e n t methods. such as: (a) T h e role of each specialised personnel and fee structure. 2 . (b) Security of the area.1. 2 Selection of Specialised Personal T h e manual should cover the areas.5 millions. 1 L a n d Selection T h e manual should cover the areas of house builders interests such as (a) Availability of schools. T h e b a n k loan have been taken by 5 3 % of the house-builders.7 Project M a n a g e m e n t F r o m the s a m p l e . 5 Cost E s t i m a t i n g M e t h o d s Majority of houses-builders prefer to have 5 % accuracy in estimating. T h e h o u s e cost per square foot of a average) house was also demanded. 50 . sewerage and drainage availability of the area. 4 . 1 .1. (c) Water.2 Recommendations 4 . For construction of the building they spend 0. (e) T h e government land development areas. Therefore the manual should g i v e a g u i d e for bank loan p r o c e d u r e s advantaged and d i s a d v a n t a g e s of taking loans and c o m p a r i s o n of lending institutions in relation to interests for loans in the range of 0. . 4 .

(b) T h e m e t h o d s of p r e p a r a t i o n and s a m p l e s of s i m p l e legal a g r e e m e n t s a n d documents. This could guide the house builder in estimating.25 million to 0. 2 . Specially in bank loans. ft.1 million to 0. houses less than 5 0 0 sq. floor area houses. Therefore he could plan the project from the initial stages to the completion. 5 Costing and Estimating M e t h o d s As questionnaire weighted. other estimating m e t h o d s also should be incorporated. 4 Basic H o m e R e q u i r e m e n t s The manual should contain housed with floor plans and details mainly consists of (a) Three bedrooms and two toilet arrangements. (c) Techniques of giving high appearances to house interiors. and more than 2 0 0 0 sq. 4 . 2 . (d) T h e ways of providing good ventilation with security to houses. unknown to house builders such as project management etc. in the range of 0. 4 . ft. ft. 6 F u n d Allocation and M o n e y H a n d l i n g T h e priority should be given to expenditure on land. (c) T h e role of engineering planners and engineering lawyers and fees for their services.25 million. In addition. 51 . ft.5 million range should b e given priority on every aspect. 2 . 3 Planning and Documentation T h e house builders should be educated with (a) T h e importance in u$e of B O Q . 4 . should c o m e under l o w cost housing manual. 4 . etc. For e x a m p l e . 5 % accurate estimating m e t h o d s should b e briefed. should be covered under different hand books. cash flow diagrams. 2 . T h e houses of less than 500 sq. (b) Introduction of specialised fields. Similarly for house construction 0. project scheduling. estimate and legal documents. (b) 1000 to 2 0 0 0 sq.

w h i c h act as a guide in answering the questionnaire. Therefore the project manager's definition. 4. 2 New Activities Further literature survey should b e carried out to identify the new construction activities that is use full for the house) builders. (2) H a n d b o o k for luxury house builders. (c) Identify the samples that effect the generality of the results. 4 .4 . 3 . 1 New H a n d Books Produce questionnaire to find out the necessity of hand b o o k s in different areas of interests such as: J i (1) H a n d book for low cost house builders. i 4 . 3 . 2 . 2 . 7 Project Management i Introduction of the project manager was the most important part of the book. 52 .3 F u t u r e Researches 4 . role and fee structure should b e given with a brief i n t r o d u c t i o n of his i n v o l v e m e n t and the a d v a n t a g e s in a p p l i c a t i o n of project m a n a g e m e n t in house building in Sri Lanka. 8 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n for th|e Questionnaire Survey (a) Limit the survey among newly constructed house owners. (b) P r e p a r e a h a n d b o o k to be distributed with the questionnaire.

"Home and Plans" etc. publication sense. "223 Vacation H o m e s and Chalets" etc. 8 books. Parmer. "Cost Planning of Buildings" Collins Professional and Technical Books 1991. " M o d e m Methods of Valuation" Keith Daves and Tony Johnson 1980 Pub: As above (7th Edition) Cushan 1981 Cushan R.J.S. 1986 to 1990.C. "Popular Homes". "Text book of Estimating and Costing" t h J. "Construction Management Form Book".F. Construction Management (published in 1990) H o m e Planners 1986 H o m e Planners Inc. "Spon International Construction Cost Hand Book" Belfield B and Evert (published London 1 9 S 7 . 6 books. . !P. Hatpin and Ronald \V.C. ""Best H o m e Plans".References Archwav 1962 Archway Press Inc. K a p u r of Dhanpat Pai and Sons ( 1981 first publication. McGraw-Hill Publication (1981) Dahangdon 1987 Dahangd'on. "Illustrated House Plans"... publications series. Sneed. "250 Onb Story Homes All Under 2000 Square Foot". "Construction News" February 1994 Flalpin 1990 Daniel W. Fleming 1994 Fleming. Stoves. "Electrical Installation Designs" London 1992. Atkinson 1992 Atkinson A. 1 9 9 0 ) Ferry 1991 F e n y D. 53 .. 1988 4 edition) Britton 1980 Britton W. Birdie 1981 Birdie G. "House Plan Favourites".1962 to 1988. and Brandon P. Woodhead..

"Estimating and Tendering" Granda Technical Books. "Project Management' 1968. 1977. "Project Cost Control in . London . "Land Scaping Principals and Practice". 1983 reprinted) Langs 1982 Langs A. .. "Managing People at London 1979. Riely E.P.L.American Society of Civil Engineers "Construction ( \ * \ Control" Howard 1951 Chairman: Howard P.. Williams L i ' . Published in 1978 by Van Xostrand Reinoid C o m p a n \ Kharband 1980 Kharbanda O. Lock .1968 Lock D. USA.. VVardour Street. " /An Introduction to Property Valuation" (2nd Edition) 1975.E. ( 1980 first publication.. 1979 third edition>. Stall worthy.F.. 151. Paxton.A. ( 1951 fust edition. 54 . 1982. Quick 1979 Quick T. "101 Select Dream Houses' Hammond Inc. N A V F A C 1988 Naval Facility Publications. London WTV4B\" M of H & C 1972 M'inistiy of Housing and Construction "Xiwasa" Volume 1 and 2 Government Printers 1972. and Andrew K.Action". N A V F A C 1988 : Department of DerFenoe. 1984 McCaffer 1984 McCaffer R. Ingrals 1978 Ingrals J. Gower Publishing Company Ltd. 1979 and 1982 Pub: The Estates Gazette Ltd.. "Home Ideas" Millington 1975 Millington A. and Consulting Editor.1984 Mechand 1989 Mechaud P.

4 Senaratne 1984 Senaratne R.A. 1 and 2 Published by U. "Principles of Estimating" t h The Estates Gazette Ltd. "Home Builder Guide 1 and 2" The Quality Printers.1975. and Scadden B.. The Economist 1987 The Economist st News Paper L Aug. 19S7 Turner 1992 Coker A. "Electrical Wiring Domestic- London 1992. "Home Maker" S U A 1975 "Condition of Engagement and Mandatory of Professional Fess and Charges" S U A PP . "Effective Project Management Techniques' London 1973.D. Nov. "Building Construction and Astrology'' Srimalee' Printers. Nugegoda 1990.B.D.... ( 6 edition 1982) 4 55 .. U D A 1985 City of Colombo Development Plan Vol. Wijedasa . "Project Management in Construction" B S P Professional books 1984/1989 Welikala 1990 Welikala G. Turner W. Kaluthara North 1992. Wood 1982 Wood R. 1985 Wadell 1973 Wadell R!P. Walker 1984 Walker A.1992 Wijedasa P.

Interest on money 5. Estimating methods and Cost Data 7. Project Planning and Cost Control 8. How to search for funds to build the house 4. How to Select Your Land 3. Standards and Specifications 10. APPENDIX A Hand Book lor House Builder 1. Cost of Maintaining Your Home 4 56 . Introduction 2. Quality Control. Selecting the Specialized Personnel Services 6.

The word "value" of a land means the market value. cheapest house. Therefore. such as sun. In both cases things may turn out very differently from what was expected. why not pay to a Estimator/Engineer who can forecast the cost of a Building and also he can help to cut clown cost to the requirements. Scarcity give rise to value. such as animals. wind. There are professionals w h o can do this for you. itemised a list of components of the Building and price each item of material and labour required for it. errors that you m a k e could be rectified. rain and fire etc. Forecasting the cost of a Builder. How to Select Your L a n d T h e buyer buys the land and Seller sells the land to the value. and generally speaking when scarcity increases. it is usually undertaken to achieve planned results within a time limit and a cost budget Because each H o u s e is a unique. select the material form the available resources and place t h e m in the appropriate order to create a structure to the users/or his o w n requirements. All mistakes. (Dennis Lock 1968) T h e house Builder have to m a n a g e the men. Builder is a person w h o collect.. T h e most important requirement for a house builder is " m o n e y " . Total all the item cost to see whether he could afford to finish it. . M o n e y can buy all most everything. material and money to create the Best. also from living competitors.Introduction H o u s e is a shelter for all. People get specialized in section and these role in defined specially. if he has laid its foundation and he is not able to complete it. A H o u s e is a single. non-iepetitive enterprise. so will value increase. all the on lookers will laugh at him. its outcome can never be predicted with absolute confidence. Otherwise.V. however is not the same thing as weather forecasting on T. for unforeseen reasons quite out side the forecasting control. W o u l d any of you think of Building a house first sit down and Draw a plan. seeking for protection from the climatic and w e a t h e r conditions. parasites possibly humans.

Economical and Political stability 8.As there are many factors which can effect property values and w h i c h should be considered by property inve$tors. Bank lending interest rates 12. Mixed Residential Zones c. S h o p p i n g c e n t r e s . General Industrial Zones f. Infrastructure Development (Roads. Agricultural Zones h. Commercial Zones d. Security of the area. Special Industrial Zones g. Foreign Investment add Job availability in area) 5. Hospitals. S c h o o l . Parking space. Conveniences: Eg. State legal requirements (Limiting the Number of houses per person) . Parks. Currency depreciation/appreciation 13. 9. i 1. Geological factors (Land slides. Public and Semi Public Zones e. Deferred Zones i. if is essential for valuers to study the property market at considerable length. Primary Residential Zones b. street lights) 3 Communication. [(Police petrol the area. O p e n spaces. Purchasing or buying power of people 11. and Radio Reception) 4. Religious P l a c e s . rainwater disposal syjstems) 2. and also the underlying factors which effect it. pipe bone water. (Telephone. Play g r o u n d s .V. 10. Land values are determined by the factors such as. They are [vulnerable to open up dangerous material manufacturing places such as explosives chemical factories and Air and water pollution are very c o m m o n in industrial zones. Railways. T. Visual view 7. C i n e m a s . Electrification. Zoning the land areas by the Government (UDA 1985) Zones are as divided as follows a. Ground water datum earth quakes) 6. Special Development areas It is always better to avoid Industrial Zones and Commercial Zones for house building.

000/= 350.000/= Malambe 20000/= 50.000/= 70.000/= Battaramulla 40.000/= 700.8.000/= Polonnaruwa .7 250.000/= Kelaniya 25000/= 50.000/= Suburbs Nawala 80.000/= Mt.14 and 15 70. A .000/= C o l o m b o 6. 10000/= 25.000/= Jaela 25000/= 45.000/= 150.4.000/= 100.000/= 100.000/= 100.5.000/= Main Kandy 50000/= 100. F e r n a n d o consultant to Ceylineo Lands.3.000/= Matale 25000/= 60. Location Minimum Maximum City C o l o m b o 2.000/= N'Eliya 30000/= 70.000/= 4 59 .000/= Chilaw 20000/= 50.000/= Piliyandala ! 30.and 10 150.000/= Anuradhapura 15000/= 30.000/= Negembo 30000/= 70.000/= C o l o m b o 9.000/= 70.000/= K'galla 30000/= 50. Lavenia 70.000/= 50.000/= Rajagiriya 60.000/= Ratmalana 50.000/= 80.000/= 150.000/= Towns Galle 40000/= 80.000/= Wattala 50.000/= Dehiwela 60. Table to Estimate the Land values for Residential purposes (Year 1993) from the valuer R .000/= Moratuwa 30000/= 60.

Any change in the proportion of married people to unmarried people ( C o l o m b o fnake population is 3 0 % more than female population in 1987) 4. The Central Finance Ltd. The services available in area and the distance. Peoples Bank 3.. change in technology 7. 3. The Finance Ltd. Applicable to the whole country are. Haton National Bank 6. 1. Increase or decrease in population 2. State Mortgage and Investment Bank 2. Change in the age distribution 3. Flood effect! 6. View at the location (scenery) 2. Access to the land (Road width. 1. standards of living How to search for funds to build the house The Bankers and lending institutions available are . Change in the type of society 6. (Power lines. water supply line etc. Turning provision) 5. Buying powjer i T h e site conditions that have to be looked into I i i 1. Bank of Ceylon 4. Ground bearing conditions 8. 60 . Ceylinco Housing and Real Estate 8. Change in Building methods. Wind effect! 7. Changes in fashion and Taste 5. Sampath Bank 5.Factors which causes change in the value of property. depth of water datum) The shape ojf the land 4. 7. 8. Neighbours.

1717 . 18% 24000/= range of 2 0 0 . 0 0 0 / = . fire etc.T. B. 1994 State Mortgage National Savings Other Lending Institutions Deed Transfer . C e y Real Estate . 0 0 0 / = to 5 0 0 .ditto - 1.000/= on Oct. Biggest disadvantage of private institutions are that land should be transferred to the institution. . Most of the private institutions and all government institutions calculate loan repayment instalments on reducing balance. . . 4 % of property value Mortgage Bond 1 % of lpan 1 % of loan - Deed clearance l%of 1 %of 850/= Land valuation property value property value 750/= Legal fees N/A N/A 1 % of loan T a x . It is a risk and transfer fee is 4 % of the land value. Insurance of N/A 492/= per annum 492/= per theft. annum Loan protection N/A N/A 3750/= for Insurance 15 years Processing fee 500/= 500/= 1 of loan% Table 3 Comparison of Monthly Loan Repayment Installment for Rs.T. 61 . . fire etc. 20. 100.an 1 % of loan - theft.50% 4000/= Reasonable Title insurance and National Savings 2539 1802 1610 1543 18% 10000/= house insurance Bank needed Advisable in trie Ceyhomes .000/= Lending Recovery Period Interest Initial Expences Remarks Institution i> years 10 years | 15 years 2 0 years Rate Approximately i Stale M o r t a g e B a n k 2 6 77 1966 1793 . 5 % Installment Derence Levy 3 % Installment Title Insurance of 1% of lo. 2334 2056 18% 24000 26% Varies N o t specially for S a m p a t h Bank 2999 housing Bank of C e y l o n 2877 23% Varies . Table 2 Initial Expenses Calculated for Rs. 2. 100.

one with the other unless we modify them in some way in order to put them on a c o m m o n basis.4 0 % of the monthly salary should be more than the monthly instalment. therefore large loans c o u l d be h a n d l e d at l o w e r management levels by private banks. specially in a country as Sri Lanka. There are two basic methods. where the depreciation of currency in very high. a. rents) W e could not compare these. Bank securities are much relaxed. 2. Any how private B a n k s have a speedy way of getting all clearances. under consideration. quick return money private Banks are preferred. (wages. Cash you get end of the year and the cash you have in your pocket have a different value. Annual equivalent Cash handling to-day is a expertise j o b . but (1+i. Therefore for bigger loans. Present day value. K . L u m p sum in the future c. In considering d e v e l o p m e n t financing we have. and as usual they are just different ways of expressing the same thing. The exact annual equivalent of a monthly interest rate i is not 12i. we ignore the monthly compounding. three kinds of e x p e n d i t u r e / i n c o m e which we need to compare with each other. L u m p sum tp-day b. S u m of money occurring at regular intervals during the period. long term loans. (common to all institutions.) Loan is limited to 5 0 % to 7 5 % of the land value. All the b a n k s and lending institutions have to follow the Central B a n k rules and regulations. The Bank m a n a g e r s have more p o w e r s . Interest on Money "The House Builders" do n6t recognise the benefit from optimizing payment in relation to time. 1. For smaller loans. State Mortgage b a n k is preferred.

total m o n e y spend on the Building or deposited on the bank would c o m p r i s e all investment plus the c o m p o u n d interest earned on them. Say Rs.20) = 2.48832 = 1.e.23 63 .l ] / i 60 = 1000 x [ ( 1 + 0 . Say to value your house that you have built at the end of 5 years. C o m p o u n d interest assured that the earned money reinvested on the some terms. 60 months Formula = [ ( l + i ) " . 1. 11000/= invested at regular intervals Instead of a single lump s u m being invested we might put away at regular monthly a m o u n t s . say monthly instalment paid to b a n k s .015 x 96. 1/= at 2 0 % interest for 5 years 5 Formula (1+i) n= (1. 500.0% annual Compound interest If a s u m of money invested for a number of years.Example 1 % per month = 12. $00.23 Total will be = Rs. 9 4 8 8 8 % per month = 12. 0 1 5 ) . At the end.000/= x 2.658. it will have earned s o m e interest at the end of the first year. 1000/= paid every month or invested every month (take annual interest rate 18% i. 96215 + 1443.160/= Future value of Rs.244.e.5% of = 0. 1443.68% annual 0 . that is 1. 97. Say Rs.23 = Rs.215/= = Rs. T h e value of fund at the end of 5 years i.5% monthly) for 5 consecutive years.000/= what you get for 20 years Rs.1]1/0.015 = 96215/= If the saving in made at the beginning part of the month then whole months interest would have been added.48832 Say for Rs.

due to the scarcity of high build able land. Architect c a m e in to the practice. Present value of Rs .1 24 = Rs. 1000/= in 20 years time.08 This mean of you have 26 in your pocket its worth Rs. present value of Rs. 1000 is 20 1000 x l / ( l + 0 . his monthly instalment could be calculated as follows. This is very useful in calculating the monthly loan repayment instalments Ex. 100. 1000.015 n = 20 x 12 = 240 2 4 0 So monthly instalment = 1 0 0 0 0 0 x 0. 1543.015(1 + 0 . Assuming a| house builder borrowing Rs. 26. The foundation Engineers necessity aroused. i In early 1940's. 2 ) =Rs. For e x a m p l e . If the interes't rate prevail at 2 0 % this 20 year period. 0 1 5 ) (1+0.015) 0 .000/= i = 18%/12 = 0. discounted i at 2 0 % per annum?i By using the formula.h o o d houses. 100. 1000 at the end of 20 years. D. T h e latest innovative world specialized fields propped up. w h o did all the specialities in a building and the Village mason or a small scale contractor did the building. T h e village mason built the h o u s e to the House Builders requirements. ! 3 c . Present Value = monthly instalments x q+nfl-1 i(l+i)n Present Value = Rs. Example: What is (he present value of Rs. l / d + i r This is the compound interest formula item (1). 64 .00 Selecting the Specialized Personnel Services T h e early times layout of t h e Building was decided by the owner of the H o u s e after inspecting the other n e i g h i o u r . the marshy land development was c o m m e n c e d .000/= for a period of 20 years fromj National Savings Bank at a annual rate of interest of 1 8 % .

If expenses are more than what was estimated. a n y b o d y w h o achieves satisfactoiy results in practice will have done quite well. to know where the m o n e y is going. T h e p r e l i m i n a r y function of the Cost E n g i n e e r in to have a k n o w l e d g e of the Construction operations. Architect 2 Civil Engineer 2. T o .d a y Cost Engineer therefore needs to be able to do much m o r e than merely use techniques to obtain an acceptable price. Estimating/Cost Engineer 3. This is a modern concept where the house Builder have a idea of the cost of the Building and his Budget limitations. Therefore the cost overrun could be judged on time. (or even earlier in the devising of an investment or development programme of which the project may one day form part) to the time when the scheme is eventually completed and handed over. Water Supply Engineer 7. even where the j o b is in early stages of construction. long before. Without much thought what is required is a thorough understanding of the issues involved and the solutions available. Electrician 3. it must be know what items cost more than expected and why. Structural Engineer 4. Foundation Engineer 5. Contractor Consulting a Estimating Engineer at the inception saves times and money.the client will need to k n o w the best way of going about the project in the particular Socio-economic situation that exists at the time and in the place concerned. . and what the total probable cost of the project will be. H e needs to work with his client from the very inception of a scheme. what operations are costing more than estimated. Cost-wise. the j o b is completed and all the m o n e y spent for partially built house.Services required for Building industry Recent years services used The latest development in service 1. T o do this a flexibility of approach is essential . Architect 1. Quantity Surveyor 8. It is tended to avoid using the terms "optimum" or "optimization" in this b o o k . There is this no single tailor-made set of standard procedures that can be learnt and applied. important through this task may often be. where possible savings can be m a d e . at all times. Electrical Engineer 6. Mason 4.

In specifying rate per square foot basis there are several assumptions to be made. Intelligent comparison can be made between "The estimate" and the actual cost of operations. from a another person who had built a similar house. such as. E s t i m a t i n g Methods. His concern should be value rather than m i n i m u m cost. they must be considered together. T h e relationship of construction estimates to construction costs is so intimate that to m a k e reports successfullyTor cost control and final recording purpose. Parapet wall/fence availability 5. H e should be able to understand the needs and points of view of the House Builder and the Architect. Water supply availability 3. Access road availability 66 . and the c o m m u n i t y in relation to the project and balance them as far as is possible within his brief. Sewerage and drainage availability 4. in addition to c o m m o n sense and a feeling for practical probabilities. and value often goes far beyond those things that can be easily quantified in money terms. Electricity availability 2. It is of first importance. and there is no r e m e d y for a poorly prepared estimate. P r e l i m i n a r y Estimating T h e "Thumb-rule" method presently in use for preliminary estimating is a rate for a square foot. 1.T h e role of the Cost Engineer is now so important that he must be prepared to take his full share of social responsibility in the advice which he gives and the work whilst there may be occasions where trae image of the ruthless cost cutting should be avoided. Cost Data and Analysis Estimating a j o b c o m e s first. A broad education and a wide range of social and cultural interests are necessary for him to do his j o b really well.

E x a m p l e : If the area of the building is 1000 square foot for middle income group. the cost of house will be 1 0 0 0 x 550 = Rs. 550.) Low income 120 200 Middle income 400 550 Luxury 800 1000 Data based on C E C B tenders 1991 Multiply the above per square foot rate by the house area.) 1994 (Rs.Preliminary Estimate per square foot THole 5 1993 (Rs.000/= i In addition allow for basic requirements as given on the above 67 .

6. plaster of both side of Outside w a l l . T h e breakdown of the above four items are given below for reference and updating the above Table 6.M. Doors and w i n d o w areas are included M 2. included for this rate. P .00 both side narrow foundation D .M.1 Item Description Unit Rate (Rs. Internal walls (4 1/2" wide) plaster M 1. 2. 1 Estimating Method one Estimating through features or grouped S.) 1.C. Z 3.760. wide foundation length gutters length.00 included for this irate.00 high. C . 2. . valance ijoard length.915.00 i for this rate.2 M e t h o d s for further closer estimates 6 . Pick from the plan the outside wall (9" width) length(x) and inside wall(4 1/2") i length(y) and door and window areas and floor area Table 6.1. O u t s i d e wall length (9" wide) 3 m M 3. R o o f Ceiling and Floor rates are is M 912. length outer eaves ceiling and Roof length ( 3 ' w i d e ) Rain w a t e r drain length are included to this rate.322. D.P. 4. 2 . items wise.

Cost of outer wall per meter (3 m height is taken) 1.35 x 0.00 = 240.3 =0.20 x 77.35 =0.00 = 48.25 = 0.00 14.C.0 x 80.00 = 15.6 =0. 225 m m thick wall = 1 x 0.00 17.00 8. = 1 x 0.35 x 0. Item 1 .105 x 1673.4 x 98.45 x 0.3 =0.P.27 x 77. Excavation = 1 x 0.45 x 0.20 10.0 x 40.0 x 70.0 x 120 = 120.402.0 = 1.30 2.25 4 69 .00 = 142.0 =3.00 7.00 = 188. Excavation = 1 x 0. Internal Plastering • =1 x 3.00 = 175.00 = 246.105 x 1673.60 3. 0 0 = 436.0 x 142.35 x 136.9 =0. Roof = 1.0 =6.00 Item 2 Cost of internal wall 112 m m thick (3 m height is taken) 1.60 6.00 3.00 = 46. Painting walls = = 6.0 x 70.3 x 161.45 =0.27 x 1673.0 x 46. = 1 x 0.0 =0.67 5.00 = 451.00 9. D. = 1 x 0. Rubble above G.0 x 0.00 6.60 5. D.9 =0.00 1760.45 = 0 .L = 1 x 0. Wall plate = 1.00 = 39. Painting walls =6x = 6.675 x 1556 = 1050.0 x 0.00 = 210.L. Rubble upto G.66 4. Plinth plaster = 1 x 0.30 15.79 3. External Plastering = 1 x 3.50 16. R u b b l e work above G. 2 0 x 1673. Gutters = 1.0 =3.0 x 40.3 =0. Brick work = 1 x 3. Skirting =1 = 1.9 x 209.45 x 0.L = 1 x 0. Skirting = 1/1 = 1.0 x 229 = 229.00 = 20. Rubble work upto G.00 =480. Down pipes =0. Wall Plastering =2/1 x 3.6 =0.00 = 46.0 x 46.0 =3.C.00 12.35 x 136.4 =0.0 = 1.00 = 261.00 13.225 x 3. Pavement = 1 x 0.45 x 0.9 x 4 8 5 .71 4.0 x 87.10 11.P.00 i 7.00 = 240.00 = 210.951.35 =0.00 = 175.00 = 334.L.00 = 47. Drain = 1.00 = 47. Valance board = 1.00 8. = 1 x 0.25 x 984.0 = 1.

15 x 77.0 x 0.00 3.225 0. Brick work = 1. Roof = 1.636.0 x 46.0 = 485.0 x 2693.00 = 111. Doors and windows = 1. Ceiling = 1.00 6.0 = 1.0 = 1.0 = 1. Floating coat = 1.0 x 10. Ridge = 0.0 x 0.0 x 40.0 x 209.0 x 1.0 2.00 3.25 m = 0.00 350.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 x 111. Lock and 3 hinges 500.00 Item 4 Cost of roof ceiling floors etc.0 x 1.00 Less 1.00 = 50.0 x 1.7 x 170. Plastering = 2/1.65 3.0 2.20 70 .0 x 1.00 = 209.00 119.25 x 200. Painting = 2/1.00 126.00 912.0 80. Reveals = 2.00 = 11.7 = 0.00 = 34.0 1.00 2.00 5.00 7. Paving and rendering ' = 1.0 x 485.0 x 11.00 3458.45 x 77.0 x 1.0 20. Painting doors = 2.0 x 1.00 5.45 = 0.25 x 56.0 x 80.00 . 1.55 2. I Item 3 Cost of Doors and windows 1.0 = 1.0 = 2.0 x 1.0 x 1. Filling = 1. Skirting = 1.225 x 1556.00 4.00 160.00 46.00 4. Excavation 1 = 1.15 = 0.25 = 2.10 2.00 = 11.00 2693. Lintel 6" x 9" = 0.00 4.0 = 1.0 x 0.

Calculations Unit Rate(Rs) Length Amount(Rs) Item(l) 6+6+6+3+3+3 M 3951 27 19517 Item(2) 3 M 1760 3 5280 Item(3) 2(2xl)+2(2xl.5) 2822 10 28220 Item(4) 6x6+3x3 912 45 41040 Total as per 94.057 table 1 71 . ZOOOx/SGo faan for Ayeliminayy estfmcdmy Calculate lengths and areas using figure 2. Grn SQ / gtfbsi 2000 x /t?oo <2 Nos. I 3 m f •t 3^ so.

000/= Total = Rs. T&dle 2. available in Engineering Consultancy Organisations such as Building . Square foot rate Low income Middle income Luxury i Toilet 250/= 800/= 1200/= Bed R o o m 200/= 400/= 800/= Living Room 200/= 600/= 900/= i Open Varrendah 120/= 200/= 350/= Multiply each type of area With the above factor and add up. In the B.S.000/= 2 Nos of Bed rooms (10'xl2') =2 x 120 x 400/= = Rs. T h e item have to be listed in appropriate order.6 .000/= 1 Nos of Varrendah (10'xl4') =1x 140x200/= = Rs. each item needs pricing. 2 Estimating Method two Estimating through functional element wise. living/dining area of 12' x| 14' and Open Varrendah of 10' x 14'.R.00.000/= 6.Q. 2 .). so that you will not miss any item. For example: Middle income person built a house with 2 bedroom of 10' x 12' one toilet of 4' x 5'. 2. 28.3 A c c u r a t e Estimating T h e accurate method of estimating is to prepare a bill of quantities.O. 96.56. Pricing each item could be done by picking up the rate given in the Building Schedule 1 of Rate (B. T h e house will cost him 2 Nos of Toilets (4'x5') = 2 x 2 0 x 800/= = Rs. 1.000/= 1 Nos of Dinning and living (12'xl4') =1 x 168 x 600/= = Rs. 32.

material and tools. Electrical Wiring and fittings 6. 6. T h e labour absorbs approximately 3 0 % of the total cost of the project. Septic tank and soakage pit 2. material and personal for greater e c o n o m y . available in BSR. D e p a r t m e n t . Barbed wire! fencing 4. storing charges are also play a c o n s i d e r a b l e part in material purchasing. T h e work out put of a average person in a relevant j o b is also important. careful consideration should be m a d e for the problem as access available for transport of materials. The cost of other services also available in the B. W h e n materials are m o v e d by labour the cost goes up. 7 Project Planning and Cost Control 7.R. Arrangements for Financing are as important to the continuing success of a Builder as the correct assembly of men. handling. *. Parapet walls (Cheapest is unplastered block work) 3. (Paxton 1951). Electrical Distribution Board and Power Supply to House.4 Cost Data Cost of each item should bfe from a market survey. Man hole 5.S. House builders. This type of survey is done by the Engineering Consultancy jOrganization and G o v e r n m e n t Organization involved in construction industry and contractors with the discount rates from suppliers. (semi skilled and skilled labour) for house building industry are given in norms such as N A V F A C 1973. L a b o u r data.1 Project Planning Properly analyzed operations enable the builder to adjust his m e t h o d s . T r a n s p o r t . walked to a Hardware or two and decide the price of the material. 73 . 1. such as. W h e n using these rates. Prevailing labour rates are given in appendix.

(Kharbanda 1980). cost. (Paxton 1951). quality. The official Estimate of cost ( original estimate plus or minus change in scope). how.are w e on time? Are w e doing work in the order iplanned. * W o r k i n g out labours. W e control again. Estimate to Complete 3. we re-plan to remedy deviations form the plan. when and which order work will proceed. W e prepare plans. * Preparing instructions and charts to describe what. we control by checking progress. W e re-plan gain and so on until the j o b e n d s . H o w does planning and cost control fit together. shows: 1. * Updating the above at regular intervals. What is Planning * Deciding what will take place. Expenditure ito Data 2. Cost statement and official Estimate up to a certain period deserves special consideration. order. (Kharbanda 1980).Early reports are valuable. Control Means * Having targets to measure progress against-time. Forecast of Final Cost 4. The form when completely ifilled out. Are we k e e p i n g within the p l a n n e d a l l o w e d expenditure. * C h e c k i n g progress against planned results . * Taking action to remedy deviations from the plan. when how and in w h i c h order the work will take place and then communicating that information to those 1 involved. plant and material requirements to suit the timing and order of work. 74 .

or other elements. and into controllable items of cost such as labour. Estimating in the first phase of the construction cycle and is followed by construction ^ accounting and cost keeping. limited k n o w l e d g e of costs or a combination of any of these. Establishment of the brief. (Kharbanda 1980). The essential cost data for cost control 1. Cost Control at Design Stage i The complete system of co$t control at design stage would comprise. 7. This is obtained by breaking down work into measurable units. 2. M o s t i such unit have element of control. T h u s . follow the same pattern originally set up in the Estimating. It is due to lack of k n o w l e d g e . improper financing. Daily payroll and force report 3. 75 . poor planning. Progress schedule (Paxton 1951). Investigation of a satisfactory solution i 3. in general.2 T h e Control of Costs T h e control of costs is the life time of any competitive business. Cost control of the Development of the design. material. The accounts must be set up to coincide with the estimate and will in turn be used for n e w estimating. T o o l s . no business can i survive without a k n o w l e d g e of costs and an intelligent control of costs. as to detail. That is excavation. T h i s b r e a k d o w n of cost accounts will be determined. at the beginning of construction and must. foundation. e s t i m a t i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n accounting is a continuous [cycle for a cost Engineer. concrete steel etc. In house building cost over runs are c o m m o n . e q u i p m e n t etc. The structure should be broken down into structural elements. Cost Control at Construction Stage In b u i l d i n g industry it is necessary to k n o w the cost of individual e l e m e n t s of construction. 1. Procurement schedule 2.

cement products were standardized. T h e likely'delivery p r o g r a m m e including both the period for which supplies would be needed and the daily or weekly requirements. the m a s o n . Before Enquiries m a d e with supplies normally the B u i l d e r should be a w a r e of the quantities required and imwhat probable dates and the standard or the quality of the material supplied. 2. chasing suppliers w h o are slow to respond and collecting the quotations lies with the House Builder. At the same time mason used the traditional methods and standards without any consideration of the quality. who had build up a reputation. Very recent time. Engineers follow the British system and use British s t a n d a r d s and specifications in construction industry. Any traffic restrictions and conditions affecting delivery. . S t a n d a r d s and Specifications T h e r e would seem to b e j a m p l e need not only a m o n g . 6. the objectives and the means of achieving those objectives. W h e r e people rely on Brand name. T h e r e f o r e sending out enquiries. The specification of the material. but a m o n g all individuals in the House Building. U s e of such standard would create a better u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the p r o b l e m s . 3. The Address of the site 5. still Bricks are not standardized. 1. There can be always a short supply specially in a country like Sri Lanka. T h e high quality. competitively priced item have a good demand.Quality Control. Therefore before the material orders are placed it's better to follow the following steps 1 to 8. In Sri L a n k a . Recently Sri Lanka Bureau of standards prepared the Local standards. industry and the Engineering profession to control the Quality of work by a standard specification. The means bf Access. Similar to our practice British standards* Gradually the Local standards are c h a n g i n g to suit our requirements. 4. The quantity of the material.

. M c Caffer and A. (Halpin 1990) T h e progress of the project should be well controlled according to the predetermined planning. Project planning and control has its broad and overall objective. The period for which the quotation is required to remain either open for acceptance or firm. 8. 7. the objectives and the m e a n s of achieving those objectives. Housing and Construction. (Halpin 1990) T h e above expression says. . Colombo 7. Project period is vital important. Hence p r o g r a m m e control methods has to be adopted for the completion of the project within the period scheduled. W h y is planning and control necessary Failing to plan is planning to fail. So decided the project period and Cost. • S t a n d a r d specification a v a i l a b l e to use in Sri L a n k a is from the Institute for C o n s t r u c t i o n T r a i n i n g and D e v e l o p m e n t ( I C T A D ) under the ministry of L o c a l Government. Proper Planning is essential. U s e of such standards would create a better understanding of the problems. if we do not plan we will almost certainly fail. O t h e r w i s e it will be i m p o s s i b l e to reach the e x p e c t e d target. These set of Book could be purchased from "Sethsiripaya" Wijerama Mawatha. factor and it should be properly planned. (Halpin 1990) T h e construction projects are designed usually by a team of e n g i n e e r s / m a n a g e r s or sometimes by a single person. T h e G o v e r n m e n t has a p p r o v e d I C T A D d o c u m e n t s (specifications) to b e used in Building works as a National guidelines. Boldwin 1984 Specifications T h e r e would s e e m to be a m p l e need not only a m o n g contractors but a m o n g all individuals in the H o u s e construction for basic standards. T h e n a m e of the person to be contacted at site and the n a m e of the House Builder himself to who any enquiry should be made. to achieve the target of any construction project. B u t if w e plan we will almost certainly succeed.

1000. electricity. cheap construction of a simple building might well last m u c h longer than a e x p e n s i v e c o m p l i c a t e d work.000/= T h e annual maintain request will be Rs. Cost of Maintaining Your Home Be-aware.S.A. Builder should think of the maintaining cost of the building. Builder should allow at lea$t 1/50 of the Building cost for maintenance of the Building in Sri Lanka per annum. Major expenditure on repairs is normally caused by failure of d e t a i l i n g . per hour. water etc. Say for example that you have build a house for Rs.filled attainment. These overall project planning and control affords establish the sequence. Basic method to calculate the electricity bill is to use the figure 20-30 watts/sq. T h u s the construction planning and control framework is influence by decisions at the owner. entiy of water at a badly designed joints. Determine . contract administrator and contractor levels. 2. say. ' . It's effectless Building a Mansion and finding difficult to maintain. 1000.m.Within which construction activity is constrained. Cost of maintenance is a pure guess. A well designed. to action. repairing. or b a d w o r k m a n s h i p . . rather than by overall ageing. What must be done i Where How and in what order (What sequence) Therefore forecast and foresee the activities or operations what have to be performed. This figure is 1/20 in U. faulty material specially low quality t i m b e r . the completion of the project to required facilities.000/= This is for cleaning. painting. within budget and time.000/= x 1/50 = Rs. because of.000/= per year Monthly expenditure = Rs. time and cost framework. 20.

floor area building monthly power consumption = 30 x 100 sq.Your 100 sq. 21= The monthly water bill will be = Rs.e. 18/= i 79 . per day is 4 0 litres Say 5 persons in a family.m. 21= The monthly bill will be = Rs. x '30 days/month x 6 hrs/day = 540000 watts i.m. 1080/= Similarly monthly water bill could be estimated by the following method Daily water consumption per person. for 30 days water requirement will be 3 4 0 x 5 x 30 = 6000 litres/per month = 6 m Cost of 1000 litres of water in Colombo is Rs. = 540 units Assume cost per unit as Rs. 2/= x 540 = Rs.

Name: (Option) Date : 02. House under construction CD 37% C. Present Status of your Home: A. Where you prefer to live : City ^3 Town L3-I Suburb Village LU a o % ^3% 337. Completed construction LTD 37% 05. HOUSE BUILDERS' INFORMATION QUESTIONNAIRE 01. Consultancy Firm m CD Architect nn m [13 Draftman m Water Supply & Drainage Engineer m \ n Foundation Engineer' |o| m Structural Engineer 181 LZl LTD Lawyer [31 m Quantity Surveyor m d3 ca Construction Firm Kl to] 1 1 1 1 Do you need guidance for land selection : Yes — No — 3o% £c£ IO% 80 . c53»% 04. Occupancy: (Option) 03. Have you consulted or are prepared to consult the following personnel: Consu­ Payments Prefer to lted made Consult to pay the ro3 Land valuer UlJ m m Eng. Planning to commence raj B.

Q. drainage. tommunication facility 4. Religious places 7. Neighbours 9. Electricity. Development of the area |13| 13. Good for Business m Security of the area IG The place born 2. View at the location |9| 14.What were considered in Land Selection : i 1.Str\ittu ra enter actor rician tect Engineer 2 Known for a long time 1 1 mi OH IS Interviewed the persons 141 1*1 1 ° 1 \o\ fol Someone recommended l'3| |io| 1 3 | m M1 Inspected previous work |9| 181 1-2-1 i/1 |o| Listen to history of work 1/ 1 1' 1 1 ' 1 h i M Tender procedure 1 LU 1 ' I 1 ' 1 i < i m 1/| Responded to Paper Ad. How you selected theifollowing catagories of persons: Mason Carp­ Contr­ Elect­ Archi. SL\ 8. 3. | o | M 1° 1 |e>| | o | Cheapest prevailing rates U l 1' 1 LLJ Led Lo| Seen on Advertisement M |o| M I2J Have you prepaired : Yes No Legal Documents to bind with Contractor m PI Legal Documents to bind with Architect Layout plan m Detail plans \s 1 B. ascalation as rq-| 12. Schools Ud 10.O. Access to Workplace 11. Land value. Bus & Trains availability a investment i 13 1 at walking distance 6. Recreation areas 5. Water Sewerage. m 19 Estimate 81 .

5 . Saving from income [~g] AO* Employed abroad Salary LTD . 0 . How did you fund the Building 151 ^ / Cash inhand [TO] 'ii'/.2 .Water Sewerage Plan Number Plan ricity Supply 6 3 1 Yourself oa * m 0 0 2 m ^ .^S^ll. Do you like to get a accurate estimate of the House before you build : No yes. Do you wish to know the bank details: Yes No Banks that gives Housing Loans -57/ P7l 3 5 >.0 & a b o f LTD Building 0 . ±0% 7% 3 x 11. 5% accurate ^2 Yes. 5 ^ 0 . 0 ^ 2 . Bank Security for the' loan & other co: 4-3/ Ell 30* [ 9 ] Upper limit of the loan Interest rates '3/. 0 & above^ n v . E ] 0 * [ T ] [11 12. 2 5 ^ 0 1 2 5 .10. Monthly installments Payback period 5 ? * Oil 23*1 ^1 2e£ . Who obtained the Statutory approvals Survey Assesement Building Elect. 20% accurate. (75] 3v/.S 13. How much you prepairedito spend on (in Million of Rupees) Land OA^^o\2^^0. 10% accurate Lll Yes. 0 ^ 1 . 1 .3 ^ Bank Loan Bank over draft Selling your Assets 14.0 . \ m ^ l t d m & i Architect L7]3* {J^fX fT]V [T} 3X [TJ3/ linear E ^ [D 3 * Q ] ^ LI]3'< [ 7 ] ^ Friend L±]/3/ ' d ] lo/. XV/.0 .1 .O-i!&Si2.

ft. 1 Yes No 16. Do you like to know the relationship of present money value.15. Payback period of the cash you borrow. Yes No 47/ 14 What are your HOME requirements Floor Area (Scj. 2 > x Number of Toilets one S two Three Four & above Yes No Annex with separate entrance 3^LHI Annex built into Outside Appearence >2>£LiD Mosguitose free *l_s] Inside appearence ED Ventilation L£j Natural Lighting 6o*L7I] 3. Do you like to know the relationships of the Interest rates.) upto 500 ^ 500 to 1000 l=J 1000 to 2000 ^ 2000 & above Number of Rooms one ^ two Three Four & above nvfl I—I . future value c cash in hand related t!o interest rates. LI] Security Servent Quarters ^LU Drivers Quarters 3o/iyi . Monthl Installments.

-. cement tiles 3 3A Roof Asbestos^ Clay ^ Asbestos Amano _ Any 1 Material i <^ tiles ' covered ^° Sheets ° Other ^ Wall Block 1 Block i r . Cement w Colour jo Terazzo —j Wooden ( Ceramic types 23Z . Quality of finishes T\'A L H / C C S I 2. IG O O l 2 S id H 3 l 5 Setting out the building II / 3 5 Measurements Payments O / 2 / 5 ./fCU i3^LS Who carried out the following work On your Head Engi­ Archi­ Friend Contr­ own Bass neer tect actor (8 IO 3 5 3 2> Quality Control 5 O l O Q Labour Control l 2 1 2.Bricks x-^ Bricks <g Material Work 4 ' ) Work. Specifications in practice 52.-. Steel | Grade II Coconut. Yes No 1. Standards in practice 3. ^ 3 5" Plan reading Material purchassing . Windows .What are your finishing requirements Floor. Timber Timber timber Timber Roof Grade l i Imported. Frame Timber i'" Timber ' Timber Rafters-^ 3 0 % Wall Lime Snowcem Emulsion^Q Paint Do you like to know the.6 /y 3 standard ^ available Toilet Local 11 Imported Q Local & 3 fittings ceramici Ceramic Imported mix c i Doors/ Grade I « o Imported f Aluminium j Grade II i Coconut.

Timber Are you planning to build your house in stages & live in a partly complete House Yes No 4cv.^-j^^p\ Square foot of Low cost building i—r-i Complete Toilet/Bed room/Lobby of standard sizes r . Y2 4^> >1 Do you Need Yes No Technical Advice IC |/o| Material Availability m Cost of Alternatives Methods Do you like to know the cost of maintenance of your home per year Yes No 3. Rubble masonary etc.1 7 Are you satisfied with the HOME you have built Yes No 3 .7 .Do you like to know the cost of Yes No Square foot of a single story/two storys bld.1 room ** QU 3o/ <3 Labour rate per unit Material cost per unit £0* 9 Door/window per squae foot Roof square foot Breakdown of Labour/Material in concrete/Brick work Breakdown of Labour/Material in other Items 4o IRQ Cube of Concrete.