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Instrument Transformers Tutorial

Problem 1:
The distance between the CTs and the protection relay is 15 metres, 4 mm2
Cu conductors in 4-wire connection are used. The burden of the relay input
is less than 20 mΩ (5 A input). Calculate the actual burden of the CT at
75°C:
Solution:
ρ = 0.0216 µΩm (75°C)
R = 0.0216 µΩm x (1.2 x 15 m) / 4 mm = 0.097 Ω
2

Burden of CT = 0.097 Ω + 0.020 Ω = 0.117 Ω

Problem 2:
The actual accuracy limit factor (Fa) is calculated from the following equation

[𝑉𝐴𝑖𝑛+𝑉𝐴𝑟]
ALFa=ALFr*
[𝑉𝐴𝑖𝑛+𝑉𝐴𝑎]
Where :
 ALFr = rated accuracy limit factor
 VAin = internal burden of the CT secondary coil
 VAr = rated burden of the CT
 VAa= actual burden of the CT

Now the internal secondary coil resistance of the CT is 0.07 Ω, the secondary
burden (including wires and relay) is 0.117 Ω and the CT is rated 300/5, 5P20, 10
VA. Calculate the actual accuracy limit factor Fa.
Solution:
ALFr = 20 (CT data 5P20), Sin = (5A)^2 × 0.07 Ω =1.75 VA,
VAr = 10 VA (from CT data),
VAa = (5A)^2 × 0.117 Ω = 2.925 VA;
Fn = 50.3

Problem 3:
Consider CT: 600/1 5P20 15 VA, Rct = 4 Ω
CT Leads: 6 mm2, 50 m long , ρ= 0.0175
Numerical relays have low burdens, typically 0.1 Ω
Short circuit current, Iscc max = 30 kA
Find Actual ALF ?
Solution:
Rleads = 2 ρ l /A
l is the connection lead length in m
ρ is the resistivity in Ω mm2 m-1 (=0.0179 for copper)
A is the cross sectional area in mm2
= 2 x 0.0175 x 50 / 6 = 0.3 Ω
Ra = Rleads + Rrelay = 0.3 + 0.1 = 0.4 Ω
AVa = (1)^2*Ra=0.4 VA
AVin = (1)^2*Rct= 4 VA
ALFr= 20
ALFa = 20 (4 + 15 )/ (4 + 0.4) = 86.4

Problem 4:
A1200/5 , C400 CT with excitation curves shown on fig 1, is connected to a
2.0 Ω burden. Based on the accuracy classification, what is the maximum
symmetrical fault current that may be applied to this CT without exceeding a
10% ratio error?

Problem 5:
A 1200/5 , C400 CT is connected on the 1000/5 tap. What is the maximum
secondary burden that can be used and we can maintain rated accuracy at
20 times rated symmetrical secondary current?
Problem 6:
Assume that secondary burden of a 300:5 class C CT is 5 Ω. The relay
setting is 2A and the CT ratio is 300/5 .
. Using fig 1, calculate the primary current required to operate the relay?

Problem 7:
A relay is expected to operate for 7000A primary current. The class C CT
ratio is 600/5 (see fig 1).
Secondary burden is 3.5 Ω.
Will the CT saturate at this burden? Also, comment on the ratio error.

Problem 8:
What will be the approximate % error if a 500:5 class C CT is connected to a
secondary burden of 2.5 Ω and the secondary current is 68A.
Problem 9:
If a 300:5 class C CT (fig 2) is connected to a meter with resistance R1=1 Ω
and secondary current in the CT is 4.5A.
Find out the primary current, voltage developed across the meter and %
ratio error. Lead wire resistance RL=0.02 Ω .secondary resistance Rsof a
300:5 CT=0.15 Ω

Fig.2