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Cold Rolling of Steel :

Fundamentals and Applications

Deepak Deshpande
19.12.2012
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Content

1. Cold Rolling Facility at Jamshedpur

2. Cold Rolled Grades and Applications

3. Trend in Auto Industry

4. Tata Steel current capability and Plan

5. Next Challenge

FPTG, 2
Tata Steel : Process Flow

LD-3 TSCR
Cold Rolling Mill Complex

Commissioned in year 2000


FPTG, 4
COLD ROLLING MILL
Salient Features

CAPACITY : 1.2 MTPA FINISHED PRODUCT

PRODUCTS : LOW CARBON AND ULTRA LOW CARBON / IF SHEET


0.8 MTPA COLD ROLLED AND ANNEALED
0.4 MTPA GALVANISED

GRADES : O/D, DD, EDD , IF, HIF, HSQ

THICKNESS : 0.25 MM - 3.2 MM

WIDTH : 800 MM - 1560 MM

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COLD ROLLING MILL

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CRM – Process Flow
Overview of CRCA Route

Major Revamp
Year of Commissioning Dec 2006
June 2001

Description Material Equipment Make

Capacity (ton/year) 1,000,000 Pickling Line Mitsubishi, Japan

Thickness (mm) 0.4 ~ 2.0 Tandem Cold Mill Hitachi, Japan

Width (mm) 900 ~ 1540 Electrolytic Cleaning Line SMS, Germany

Steel Grades CQ, DQ, DDQ, IF, HIF, HSQ, HSLA Batch Annealing Furnace LOI, Germany

Skin Pass Mill IHI, Japan


Usage Automotive, Appliances,
Construction, General Engineering Recoiling and Inspection Bronx, UK
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Pickling

 To remove the oxide layer on the strip surface that


forms during hot rolling.
 4 tanks for pickling
 Uses HCL acid

FPTG, 9
HR Scale

Haematite (Fe2O3)

Magnetite (Fe3O4)
Wustite (FeO)

Steel ~850-900°C
and above

Cracks

Hae
After tension leveling Ma
W

Steel
Pickling time

Clean Surface Stage 2


(Tank 3)

Stage 1 Stage 3
(Tanks 1 and 2) (Tank 3(end) and 4))

Acid working its way rapid scale Acid removes


down cracks to the removing as final pieces of
steel surface acid undercuts attached scale
oxide

Scaled Surface

Pickling Time
Rate of Pickling

1. Speed
2. Temp
3. Acid Conc

Rate of
Pickling

T1
T2

Speed
Cold Rolling of Steel
 Rolling below recrystallization
temperature

Key Features
 Fine control on target gauge
 Superior surface and shape
 Ready to use for finished product

Thickness control – within + / - 5 microns Shape – within 20 I units 13


Cold Rolling & Microstructural changes

Full Hard CR Coil


Hot Rolled Coil

Cold Rolling

As Rolled Microstructure
HR Microstructure
Full Hard Cold Rolled Product – Key Features
 Too hard to use for any industrial application
 Extremely low ductility 14
Pickling and Tandem Cold mill
5 Stand 6 Hi Tandem Mill: The input Hot
Rolled coils get pickled and rolled to
Cold Rolled Steel of the desired
thickness in a single continuous
automatic operation.

Features
• Supplied by Hitachi, Japan
• Tandem mill
• 6-Hi
• Automated gauge & shape control
• Thickness tolerance ± 0.5% in 98.5% of coil length

FPTG, 15
ECL ( Electrolytic Cleaning Line )
 To remove rolling lubricant, grease, etc from strip surface

precleaning electrolytic rinse Strip Direction


spraying brushes cleaning brushes spraying

cascade rinse

cleaner cleaner
solution solution

max. LIC
HL

LI

circulation tanks LA
Q

horizontal cleaning line


premix tank resp.
storage tank for liquid cleaners 16
Strip cleanliness and Carbon soot
Carbon Soot :
Presence of carbide residue of the
burnt out rolling oil on the strip surface
after annealing is called Carbon Soot.

Reasons
 No / Inadequate cleaning at the
cleaning line.
 High mill plate out
 Tight winding at the mill
 Low annealing cycles
 Inadequate purging

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Carbon soot and Customer concerns

 Poor phosphatability
 Pick up of carbon soot on welding
electrode
 Pick up of soot from strip to the punch /
die leading to frequent die cleaning
 Due to poor cleanliness of surface, rust
preventive oils forms puddle on the strip
surface leading to non uniform oiling

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Why Annealing ?

 To soften the full hard cold rolled steel


 To make it suitable to different end applications such as Auto, furniture, etc
 To extract the best of steel properties for most stringent applications such as
deep drawing, etc

Annealing Process
 Cold rolled steel is heated to the recrystallization temperature in an
inert and reducing atmosphere.
 Soaking at this temperature to facilitate adequate grain growth of
newly recrystallised grains
 Cooling at predetermined rate.
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Hydrogen Batch Annealing

1. Very high Thermal conductivity.


2. Small molecular size.
3. High reducing potential.
4. Decarburizing power.
5. Bright Surface Finish
6. Reduced variation in Mechanical
Properties

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BAF - Annealing Cycle

• It Includes heating to the recrystallisation temperature, soaking for


few hours at constant temperature and then controlled slow
cooling.
nnealing Recrystallisation

cle 800°C & Grain Growth

600°C
Temperature
400°C

200°C

1 2 3

Time (Days)

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Design of Annealing Cycle

Customer • YS , UTS , % EL
Spec • n and r Value

• Al Killed
• IF
Annealing Cycle Chemistry
• HSQ
• Microalloy element

HR & CR • FRT , CT
Parameter • % Cold Reduction

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Metallurgical changes during Annealing
Recovery, Recrystallisation, Grain Growth and
Property Changes
Recovery Recrystallisation Grain Growth

St
re
ng
ize
Property

In

nS

th
te

ai
rn

Gr
al
St
ra
in

ity
til
uc
D

Temperature

Annealing

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Before Annealing After Annealing
Why Skin passing?

1. Remove yield point phenomenon


2. Improve Strip Flatness
3. Impart surface roughness,
4. Apply Rust Preventive Oil

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Recoiling and Inspection lines

 To inspect the coils for surface, shape and dimensional aspects.


 To part the coil as per customer requirement, when required.
 To improve the shape by using tension leveller, when required.
 To apply rust preventive oil
 To trim the coil as per customer
Steelium Pathshala
2009 requirement
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Packaging

FPTG, 26
Cold Rolled Grades and
Applications

FPTG, 27
CQ Grade
Chemistry Applications
C 0.10 % max
Mn 0.50 % max
S , Si 0.05 % max
P 0.04 % max
Ti/Nb -
Al 0.02 % min

Mechanical Property
YS -
UTS -
El -
HRB 55 – 65
R bar - Critical Success Factor
n - Hardness and Shape
FPTG, 28
DQ Grade
Chemistry Applications
C 0.08 % max
Mn 0.40 % max
S , Si 0.03 % max
P 0.03 % max
Ti/Nb -
Al 0.02 % min

Mechanical Property
YS 230 Mpa max
UTS 270 Mpa min
El 35 % min
HRB 55 max
R bar - Critical Success Factor
n - Mechanical Property, Shape
FPTG, 29
EDD Grade
Chemistry Applications
C 0.05 % max
Mn 0.20 % max
S , Si 0.02 % max
P 0.02 % max
Ti/Nb -
Al 0.02 % min

Mechanical Property
YS 180 Mpa max
UTS 270 Mpa min
El 40 % min
HRB
R bar 1.60 min Critical Success Factor
n 0.20 min Good Mechanical Property
FPTG, 30
IF Grade
Chemistry Applications
C 0.0035 % max
Mn 0.15 % max
S , Si 0.015 % max
P 0.02 % max
Ti/Nb 0.04/0.02
Al 0.02 % min

Mechanical Property
YS 170 Mpa max
UTS 270 Mpa min
El 45 % min
HRB -
R bar 1.75 min Critical Success Factor
n 0.22 min Good Mechanical & Surface Property
FPTG, 31
IFHS Grade
Chemistry Applications
C 0.004 % max
Mn 0.3 – 0.5%
S , Si 0.02 % max
P 0.04 – 0.07%
Ti/Nb 0.05
B 10 ppm

Mechanical Property
YS 180 - 240 Mpa
UTS 350 Mpa min
El 35 % min
HRB -
R bar 1.40 min Critical Success Factor
n - Good Mechanical Property and Surface
FPTG, 32
HSQ Grade
Chemistry Applications
C 0.1 %
Mn 1.50 %
S , Si 0.04 %
P 0.04 %
Ti/Nb 0.02 – 0.04 %
Al 0.02 % min

Mechanical Property
YS 350 Mpa
UTS 440 Mpa min
El 29 % min
HRB -
R bar - Critical Success Factor
n - Good Mechanical Property
FPTG, 33
Trend in Auto Industry
And Tata Steel Plan

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Trend in Steel Application

BIW
Trunk LID Parts Strength (MPa)
HOOD Roof PNL
Floor PNL
Present 2015

Outer
270~340 340~490
PNL

Inner PNL 270~340 340~440

Side outer PNL


Front Side Member/
Door PNL 340~590 440~1180
MBR Fender Center Pillar Pillar
PNL

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Trend in Steel Application

Parts Strength (MPa)

Present 2015

Chassis
Bumper
Back 780~1180 980~1470
Beam

Lower
370 540~780
Arm

Sub-Frames Lower Arm


Sub-
370 440~590
Frames

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Tata Steel Current Capability & Plan
FY 13 - 17
Trunk LID
HOOD Roof PNL
Part Trend Tata Steel Plan
Floor PNL

Skin Panel • IF >> IFHS • Upgrade Cold


>> BH Rolling Mill
• Thk : 0.75 • IFHS 340
>> 0.65 mm Established
Side outer PNL • BH 340 – Trials
Front Side
MBR Fender Center Pillar
Door PNL “On”
PNL

Inner • 340 >> • CAPL


Panel 440 >> 590 • GA Skin Panel
• Coated • GA 440, 590
Steel • KPO
Structural • 440 >> 590 • CAPL
& >> 780 • TSCR
Chassis • KPO

12/19/2012 37
Tata Steel Current Capability & Plan
FY 13 - 17

12/19/2012 38
Post PLTCM Upgrade

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Next Challenges
Narrow &
Consistent
YS

Upper Limit
200

190

180

170

160
Lower Limit
Nano Skin panel
Yield Strength

Upper Limit
180

JFE Steel
160

150

145
Lower Limit
Where are we ?
TE05 – Ra

AU12 – % El
Skin panel : Ra
Campaign
1.4

02-09-11_17-53

1.2 03-09-11_9-39
04-09-11_12-58
05-09-11_11-24
05-09-11_13-04
1
05-09-11_15-09
Ra

09-09-11_10-17
10-09-11_8-04
0.8
10-09-11_10-53
13-09-11_8-51
13-09-11_10-53
0.6

Current 0.4
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Coil position
Trend
Competitor Move :DP 590 for Skin Panel
Product offering :
Width 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1225 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500
Thk
3.00
2.50
2.00
1.50
1.25
1.00
0.90
0.80
0.78
0.75
0.70
0.65
0.60

High Strength Skinpanel


HS04
Hood : 1160 : within range
Doors : 1290 : Out of range
Facts : SOB

30 %

15 %
SOB 10 %

8%

Time
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