INTRODUCTION:A furnace is an equipment to melt metals for casting or heat materials for change of shape (rolling, forging etc.) or change of properties (heat treatment).

Types and Classification of Different Furnaces
Based on the method of generating heat, furnaces are broadly classified into two types namely combustion type (using fuels) and electric type. In case of combustion type furnace, depending upon the kind of combustion, it can be broadly classified as oil fired, coal fired or gas fired. y Based on the mode of charging of material furnaces can be classified as (i) Intermittent or Batch type furnace or Periodical furnace and (ii) Continuous furnace. y Based on mode of waste heat recovery as recuperative and regenerative furnaces. y Another type of furnace classification is made based on mode of heat transfer, mode of charging and mode of heat recovery as shown in the Figure 4.1 below.

Performance Evaluation of a Typical Furnace
Thermal efficiency of process heating equipment, such as furnaces, ovens, heaters, and kilns is the ratio of heat delivered to a material and heat supplied to the heating equipment. The purpose of a heating process is to introduce a certain amount of thermal energy into a product, raising it to a certain temperature to prepare it for additional processing or change its properties. To carry this out, the product is heated in a furnace. This results in energy losses in different areas and forms as shown in sankey diagram figure 4.10. For most heating equipment, a large amount of the heat supplied is wasted in the form of exhaust gases. These furnace losses include: y Heat storage in the furnace structure y Losses from the furnace outside walls or structure y Heat transported out of the furnace by the load conveyors, fixtures, trays, etc. y Radiation losses from openings, hot exposed parts, etc.

y y

Heat carried by the cold air infiltration into the furnace Heat carried by the excess air used in the burners.

Purpose of the Performance Test

y To find out the efficiency of the furnace
y To find out the Specific energy consumption The purpose of the performance test is to determine efficiency of the furnace and specific energy consumption for comparing with design values or best practice norms There are . many factors affecting furnace performance such as capacity utilization of furnaces, excess air ratio, final heating temperature etc. It is the key for assessing current level of performances and finding the scope for improvements and productiv ity. Heat Balance of a Furnace Heat balance helps us to numerically understand the present heat loss and efficiency and improve the furnace operation using these data. Thus, preparation of heat balance is a pre requirement for assessing energy conservati n potential. o

Performance Terms and Definitions

Furnace Efficiency The efficiency of a furnace is the ratio of useful output to heat input. The furnace efficiency can be determined by both direct and indirect method. Direct Method Testing The efficiency of the furnace can be computed by measuring the amount of fuel consumed per unit weight of material produced from the furnace. 

The quantity of heat to be imparted (Q) to the stock can be found from the formula:

Where Q = Quantity of heat in kCal m = Weight of the material in kg

C = Mean specific heat, kCal/kg C
p o o

t = Final temperature desired, C



Initial temperature of the charge before it enters the furnace, C

Indirect Method Testing Similar to the method of evaluating boiler efficiency by indirect method, furnace efficiency can also be calculated by indirect method. Furnace efficiency is calculated after subtracting sensible heat loss in flue gas, loss due to moisture in flue gas, heat loss due to openings in furnace, heat loss through furnace skin and other unaccounted losses from the input to the furnace. In order to find out furnace efficiency using indirect method, various parameters that are required are hourly furnace oil consumption, material output, excess air quantity, temperature of flue gas, temperature of furnace at various zones, skin temperature and hot combustion air temperature. Efficiency is determined by subtracting all the heat losses from 100. Measurement Parameters The following measurements are to be made for doing the energy balance in oil fired reheating furnaces (e.g. Heating Furnace) I. II. III. IV. V. Weight of stock / Number of billets heated Temperature of furnace walls, roof etc. Flue gas temperature Flue gas analysis Fuel Oil consumption

Instruments like infrared thermometer, fuel consumption monitor, surface thermocouple and other measuring devices are required to measure the above parameters. Reference manual should be referred for data like specific heat, humidity etc.

Factors Affecting Furnace erformance t t fact which affect the efficiency, are li ted bel w for critical analysis. The i
y y y y y y y y y

Under loading due to poor hearth loading and i proper production scheduling Improper Design Use of inefficient burner Insufficient draft/chimney Absence of Waste heat recovery Absence of Instruments/Controls Improper operation/Maintenance High stack loss Improper insulation /Refractories

Data Coll ction Format for Furnac Performance Assessment Stock
Charge amount in furnace Tons/hr Charging temperature Discharging temperature




Discharge Material Burning loss temperature kg/ton

Fu l An l sis
Fuel Type Consumption Components of Heavy Oil rate C H2 O2 N2 Kg/hr % % % % S % Gross Temperature Calorific Water Content Value % kCal/Kg °C


s An l sis
Composition of dry exhaust gas CO2 O2 % % CO %


Cooling water Amount of Water kg/ton

Inlet temperature

Outlet temperature




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Temperature of combustion air = Ambient air temperature = Heat Balance Table Heat In ut Item kCal/t Combustion heat of fuel Heat Output Item kCal/t Quantity of heat in steel Sensible heat in flue gas Moisture and hydrogen loss of fuel Heat loss by incomplete combustion (CO loss) Heat loss in cooling water Sensible heat of scale Heat loss due to openings Radiation and other unaccounted heat loss Total






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