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http://istqbexamcertification.

com/what-is-the-software-testing-objectives-and-purpose/

http://istqbexamcertification.com/what-things-to-keep-in-mind-while-planning-tests/
http://istqbexamcertification.com/what-is-fundamental-test-process-in-software-testing/

https://www.ecanarys.com/Blogs/ArticleID/262/Business-Process-Testing-Framework-in-
QTP---BPT frame work for TAO

http://www.adcisi.com/aboutadc.html
https://www.tutorialspoint.com/sap_testing/sap_testing_interview_questions.htm-->SAP TAO
questions

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vMfNVV4nWBc&t=81s-->Pricing

http://www.softwaretestinghelp.com/ecommerce-testing/-->e commerce

https://www.guru99.com/how-to-determine-shipping-point.html-->Shipping determntion
https://www.guru99.com/picking-packing-and-pgi.html--> DeVry pick pack PGI
https://www.guru99.com/how-to-determine-shipping-point.html-->Main topics
https://www.stechies.com/sales-and-distribution-sd/ T-codes

srs describes what client is expecting from the system. For example in case of Gmail SRS consists
details like first page should be login, to access mail box user should be authenticated. FRS
describes how above requirements will be developed .in FRS, the functionality in SRS will be
written down in more technical terms. For example in case of Gmail FRS consists details like for
login what fields should be present and what are valid inputs. This means FRS will have screen
level details of the application.

When will you combine deliveries into one invoice?


We will combine multiple deliveries into one invoice, when The bill to party , payment terms
and billing date is same.
And also when billing date, that means billing is done only Once in a month for the particular
customer, then you combine all deliveries of that month create invoice .
In VF04, you can process multiple Deliveries at a time.
In standard SAP, System automatically combines those Deliveries into one Billing doc which have
same Payer, Payment Term, Billing Date, Inco term & Destination Country.
In Copy Control (VTFL) at Item level, in the VBRK/VBRP field, Routine 001 or 007 must have been
assigned for Collective Invoice.
Those Deliveries which are not meeting the above criteria's will not be combined. There will be
Invoice split. You can also see the Split Analysis.

What are the delivery possibilities, When there is not enough stock available?
When there is not enough stock system will give the next delivery date by checking the
availability of that quantity of material.

or

system checks if the same material is available with some other plant. if it is available in other
plant we can do the delivery from other other plant

Credit control area: Organizational unit in an organization that specifies and checks credit limits
for customers.T-code:Fd32 or FD33.

A plant is a place where either materials are produced or goods and services provided.

Can you further subdivide a plant? If yes into what?


A plant can be subdivided into storage locations, allowing stocks of materials to be broken down
according to predefined criteria.

If you have a warehouse management system active, to what would you assign the warehouse
number?
Plant & Storage Location. Sales and Distribution – Transfer of Requirements The MRP
department is informed about the quantities and deadlines by which incoming orders should be
delivered. The system checks the availability of the goods based on the requested delivery date
of the customer and creates MRP records which contain all necessary information for passing on
to planning. It ensures that the goods are available in time for the delivery.
OVZG – Requirement class It specifies the following points: – whether an availability check and a
transfer of requirements is carried out for a transaction (for sales documents, fine tuning using
the schedule line category is possible),- whether the requirements are relevant for.

techniques available in delivery Scheduling?


Backward Scdg: The system calculates requested delivery date
• Forward Scheduling: The system calculates the earliest possible date based on the material
available date.

Customer Taxes in OVK3


Material Taxes in OVK4
tax condition type “MWST”
if both the Customer Master and Material Master Tax code is 1, Tax will be included when you
create the Sales Order.

Rule MALA decide the picking location?


Shipping point+Delivery Plant+Storage Condition.

Is it possible to do delivery without shipping point?


No it is not possible to have a delivery without a shipping point.
YES For Cash orders where the delivery is automatically created.

Cash Sales:
Cash sales is for when the customer orders, picks up and pays for the goods immediately
Delivery is processed as soon as the order has been entered.
A cash invoice can be printed immediately from the order and billing is related to the order.
Receivables do not occur for the customer as they do for rush or standard orders, because the
invoice amount is posted directly to a cash account.
Rush Order:
Rush order transaction, the customer picks up the goods or you deliver the goods on the same
day as the order is placed.
Delivery is automatically created
Billing is related to the delivery.
In sales order how system does picks up plant?
system looks in the fashion
1)Customer material Info Record
2)Customer master record
3)Material Master Record.

Without delivery can you do billing?


Yes, You can do Billing without creating Delivery. It is called(order related billing).
1. Go to Tcode - VOV7, for item categories "TAN" maintain "F" in the field Billing relevence.
2, In copy control VTFA (order to billing ) for item - maintain copying requirement 001
(Header/Order-related).

use of pricing date in condition type?


Pricing date is the date in which the condition records are accesed. For eg: lets say you have the
price of the material as 1000Rs till Mar 2008 as per the validity period of condition record and
from april the same price of the material is 2000Rs as per the validity period of the condition
record. Now your pricing date in the Sales doc determines as which price should be taken into
account.

WHAT DOES A/C GROUP CONTROL CUSTOMER?


Account group is responsible to capture the field control in master data ,which fields are
mannual/mandatory/optional/supress , wether output has to determine and is he one time
customer are not and how the master record should be maintained as internal no range or
external no range(ovt0).

Can you explain about Higher-level item category and item usage?
When a existing line item is refering to another line item, the item category of the refered line
item is called as Higher level item category.
Item usage: Free charge item(TAN).

How to extend material and customer to other sales areas?


Xd01 and MM01.

Rush order and cash sales:


A. order type – RO/CS
B. shipping conditions – immediately
C. immediate delivery – X
D. lead time in days – not to be specified
E. delivery type – LF/BV
F. billing type – F2/BV
G. item category – TAN/BVN
H. schedule line category – CP/CP
I.standard output RD00/ Cash sales uses RD03.

O2C is In- Quotation-sales Order-Delivery-TOR


(Transfer Of Requirement pass to MRP to create demand)
Packing- Picking-Route Determination-PGI-Transportation-
Invoice generation (it could be normal invoice & Excise
invoice)-Payment Collection.
2) If goods are spoiled/break/not delivery on time to
customer or any other reason, he will return material to
business for that business creates return delivery.
3) If customer wants replacement- once material is get
return business create Susequent free of charge goods sales
document with reference to Return order and deliver the
same.
4)If customer wants money back- then business creates
credit memo request with reference to return order and
create credit memo invoice.
5)If business wrongly quoted price/quantity business will
create debit memo request to adjust accounting entries
MRP & availability check:
MRP: The availability check can be set in the MRP3 tab of the material master. There are a lot of
checking groups, in this section the two basic types, the daily requirements and the individual
requirements
Availability check is determined:
Material group
Material type
Item catg + Mrp type.
01 and 02 are the checking group. Availability check is carried out with the help of these
checking group and checking rule. Checking group 01 and 02 are maintained on the material
master.
01 - Individual requirement -For this system generates transfers the requirement for each order
to the MRP .So that MM can either produce or procure.
02- Collective requirement.-In this all the requirements in a day or in a week are processed at a
time.
Idoc processing?
SD account key and FI account key?
As far as account key concern both are the same to find the right G/L Account through condition
technique.SD account key will be from pricing procedure. On the other hand, FI account key will
be from tax procedure.
milestone and periodic billing?
full amount of money are spreading over several dates within billing plan.
Full amount of money are billed over certain period of time.
Is it possible to create delivery without shipping points in SAP ?
When you are releasing a sales order, choose Sales document -> Subsequent functions-> Create
delivery, then the shipping point will be brought in from the sales order. In all other scenarios
you have to key in the shipping point. The above described scenario will only work if all items on
the sales order are to be shipped from the same shipping point.
MRP(Material Requirement Planing) in SAP ?
It uses current and future sales figures
The system calculates the requirements based on the warehouse stockreceipts, etc.
If externally procured then procurement proposals; if internal productionthen it leads to
creation of planned orders, and also dependentrequirements are calculated
The best thing about this is that it leads to minimization of inventory,which leads to reduction of
costs involved.
Stock requirement list in SAP ?
T Code: MD04
listing the blocked documents in SAP SD?
VKM1.
difference between Static and Dynamic Credit Check?
Static & Dymanic: is a check which is comparing the credit limit assign to the customer to the
total value of open sales order, plus total value of open delivery that are not yet to invoiced plus
total amount billing document that are yet to be passed on accounting plus total value of billing
amount that are yet to be paid by customer.
difference is that time period (credit horizon) is attached with dynamic credit states that the
system is not calculated all open item and all open value after credit horizon.
line item in SAP SD ?
Line item is an individual item in a sales document which has a item detail such as shipping
point, division and route.
Goods issue from negative stock in SD ?
1) OMJ1 - Allow negative stocks - at plant level and at storage location level.
2) MM02 - Plant data/stor.2 - check negative stock in plant.

Tax Determination:
1)Enter T-code VK12 in the command field.
2) Enter condition type as WUST
3) Select Domestic taxes.
4) Enter Country / customer tax class / material tax class.
5) Click on execute
6) Enter Customer Tax class/Material Tax class / amount / validity period and tax code.
7) Click on Save
five features you can control for the sale document type?
• Text
• Partner
• Pricing
• Taxes
• Output
• Delivery.

Proforma Invoice and what are the types of it?


Proforma invoice is a reference doc for import and export negotiations.
• With reference to order – F5
• With reference to delivery- F8
create a scheduling agreement?
T-code – ME31L
condition table?
A Condition table is defined as combination of keys to identify an individual condition record

In third-party process the delivery of the goods required by the customer is not done by sales
organization where customer orders. Instead, the request of the goods is forwarded to an
external vendor who sends the material directly to the customer.
Here is what happens in third-party process:
1. Customer orders goods and a sales order is created in a sales organization
2. Purchase requisition is created automatically when sales order is saved.

3. Purchase order is created at the vendor in the MM purchasing application (manually or


automatically)

4. If the vendor does the outbound delivery to the customer, the goods receipt can be
posted in the system

5. Invoice receipt is created (invoice from vendor)

6. Invoice to customer is created (order based invoice)

Sales order type used for third-party – OR (standard order)


Item category for third-party – TAS
Schedule line category for third-party – CS
Item Cateogry group--BANS

TAS=OR+BANS
CS=TAS+Pricing(CN/CP)

Item Category group will be determined in MM01 (Sales org2 tab)


Procurement type will be F means external procurement (manufacturing goods).
We need to give as trade goods bcz we are doing procurement.(MRP2 Tab)

Step1: creating order


Enter mandatory details:
Cmpny code, sales org, DC, Division
Sold to party, ship to party, Material and quantity.
After entering the material click on enter we can see item category as TAS bcz it was configured
in material master data.
Sales order created.
Once sales order is created now goto VA03GotoItemSchedule lines
Here you can see the purchase requisition number generated and This number is used for
creating purchase order.
So for purchase order we need vendor, so creating vendor T-code:Xk01.Vendor no(1222)

Step 2:
Now create purchase order T-Code:ME21N
Enter Vendor No(1222)This is the guy who is supplying goods to customer
Click on enter it will fetch all vendor details
Order type is NB
Click on Save.
PO Created.

Step3:
Now vendor delivery goods to customer
T-code: MIGO, Goods receipt
Goods movement type is 101
Enter PO No click on enter.
And click on POST

Step4: Invoice
T-code: MIRO(Vendor invoice)
Enter the PO No & click on Enter
Enter Invoice date
Click on Save

Pricing Procedure:
T.Code: OVKK
Pricing Sales + Distribution + Division + Customer + Document
Procedure = Organization Centre Pricing Procedure Pricing Procedure
1.Sales Area is determined in Sales Order Header Level.
2. Customer Pricing Procedure is determined from Customer Master - Sales Data - Sales Tab -
Pricing Section
3. Document Pricing Procedure is determined from Sales Document Type (TCode VOV8) / Billing
Type (TCode VOFA) (if configured)

Once the pricing procedure is determined, Condition records are fetched.


Condition table:(T-code: V/03, V/04 & V/05)
1. If existing condition table meets the requirement, we need not create a new condition
table. Considering the requirement for new condition table.

Access Sequence (TCode V/07) :


1.If existing access sequence meets the requirement, we need not create a new access
sequence. Considering the requirement for new sequence. Here we assign the condition table
to access sequence.

Condition Type (TCode V/06) :


1.If existing condition type meets the requirement, we need not create a new condition type.
Considering the requirement for new condition type, It is always recommended to copy an
existing similar condition type & make the necessary changes.
Pricing Procedure (TCode V/08) : Pricing Procedure is a set of condition type & arranged in the
sequence in which it has to perform the calculation.
Condition record (TCode VK11, VK12, VK13) : T he condition records can be uploaded using tools
like SCAT, LSMW, etc .

It is assumed that document pricing procedure, customer pricing procedure , ... and other
required config & Determination are in place.

BOM:Bill of materials
Components of any material which makes up the full material
Output determinations:

Sales order related outputs VV11, VV12, VV13 for create, change and display
For Delivery documents VV21, VV22, VV23
For billing VV31, VV32, VV33
Maintain the condition record for outbound deliveries in VV21. Select LD00, enter Sales Org,
customer no. of Ship to party, SH partner function. Select the line item an click on
communication, select the printer and save the settings.
Now you have created the delivery in VL01N. Save the delivery. Now go to VL02N, select the
delivery number, In the menu bar in outbound delivery, click on issue delivery output. Her select
the output type and click on print preview.

Maintain the condition record for billing documents in <b>VV31</b> and use output type as
<b>RD00</b>.
When you have saved the billing document in <b>VF01</b>. Now go to <b>VF02</b>, select the
billing document number, in the menu bar select billing document and in this click <b>on issue
output to</b>. Here select <b>RD00</b> and click on print preview.

challenges faced during SAP Testing?


 Valid combination of test data required for testing
 All the critical interfaces should be determined, and their connectivity should be
established with corresponding test systems

 To recognize the business processes which are suitable for test automation

 Identify negative testing conditions

 Mention how does the system design trace back to all captured requirements and the
number of test cases

 Identify Regression scenarios/test cases and build Regression test suite that requires
during each release

 Managing output and input data to complete the scenarios OTC, P2P, etc.

 Design robust Automation Framework that should be maintainable and scalable

Is it possible that changing one module can also effect other modules of your SAP
implementation? How?
Suppose you have to create a Sales Order in Sales and Distribution (SD) module. Here, you first
need to enter the transaction code(e.g., Transaction Code VA01). Next, check the stock of the
item in Inventory module and check the credit limit available on Customer profile in Customer
Relationship Module. It shows that all these modules are interdependent; if you customize any
of these modules, it will affect the related ERP system.
Explain how shipping point is determined?
Shipping point is determined by,
Shipping Conditions + Loading Group + Delivery Plant = Shipping Point

Company: its legal entity under cmpny we are having many company’s called as cmpny codes.
Company is the organizational unit for which individual financial statements can be drawn
according to the relevant legal requirements.
A Company has local currencies in which its transactions are recorded.

Company code: Company code is highest org unit in FICO. All financial activities are done at
company code level only e.g, profit and loss, bal sheet a/c’s
One company code can hv multiple sales operations in different loc.

Sales org is responsible for all sales related activities. Whatever u r selling to customer all detals
will be updated sales org level.It is the highest org in SD.

DC is a channel in which the material reaches to customer.


Here we have dealers and direct sales.
Division:One division can hv multiple materials
Eg, Home appliance, electronic appliance division.
Under home we are hvg sub material like fan,sofa
Under electronic we are hvg sub material like tv,fridge etc.

Plant: Place where we manufacture products.


If it is retail industry we call it as distribution center.

Storage loc: its nothing but once the manufacture is done we will store the prodcuts in storage
loc.From storage loc it will be moved to shipping point..based on shipping cond it vl be delivered
to customers.

Shipping point: Under plant we are having 2 shipping points one is for shipping point through
truck another shipping point is for rail
It is a point from where material is shifted to customer.

Master data is data which is not changed frequently and it will be used for the day to day
transcations.
Eg.Take Sal a/c it will be having all information regarding the customer like name,DOB,Place etc.
Based on this we can perform day to day trans like withdrwl,deposit..
1.customer master data.
2.Material master data.
3.customer material info record
4.Condition master data.(based on cond price may vary).

1.customer master data:

14/9/17
Difference between Verification and Validation:

- Verification is Static Testing where as Validations is Dynamic Testing.


- Verification takes place before validation.
- Verification evaluates plans, document, requirements and specification, where as Validation
evaluates product.
- Verification inputs are checklist, issues list, walkthroughs and inspection ,where as in
Validation testing of actual product.
- Verification output is set of document, plans, specification and requirement documents where
as in Validation actual product is output.
---->
Priority: concern with application from the business point of view.

It answers: How quickly we need to fix the bug? Or how soon the bug should get fixed?
Severity: concern with functionality of application.

Severity – Represents the gravity/depth of the bug.


 Priority – Specifies which bug should get fixed first.
 Severity – Describes the application point of view.
 Priority – Defines the user’s point of view.

1. High Priority and Low Severity:


If a company logo is not properly displayed on their website.

2. High Priority and High Severity:


Suppose you are doing online shopping and filled payment information, but after submitting the
form, you get a message like "Order has been cancelled."

3. Low Priority and High Severity:


Suppose you have an application which is having functionality of exporting to Excel File. But that
functionality is totally not working. So in this case the Severity is Very High. But for current
release this functionality is not useful, means user may not use the Export function, so here is
have Low Priority.

4. Low Priority and Low Severity:


There is a mistake like "You have registered success" instead of successfully, success is written.

We need test stub and test driver because of following reason:

- Suppose we want to test the interface between modules A and B and we have developed only
module A. So we cannot test module A but if a dummy module is prepare, using that we can
test module A.
- Now module B cannot send or receive data from module A directly so, in these cases we have
to transfer data from one module to another module by some external features. This external
feature used is called Driver.

What is Agile Testing?


Agile Testing means to quickly validation of the client requirements and make the application of
good quality user interface. When the build is released to the testing team, testing of the
application is started to find the bugs. As a Tester, we need to focus on the customer or end user
requirements. We put the efforts to deliver the quality product in spite of short time frame
which will further help in reducing the cost of development and test feedbacks will be
implemented in the code which will avoid the defects coming from the end user.

What is the purpose of test strategy?


We need Test Strategy for the following reasons:

1. To have a signed, sealed, and delivered document, where the document contains details
about the testing methodology, test plan, and test cases.
2. Test strategy document tells us how the software product will be tested.
3. Test strategy document helps to review the test plan with the project team members.
4. It describes the roles, responsibilities and the resources required for the test and schedule.
5. When we create a test strategy document, we have to put into writing any testing issues
requiring resolution

What are the advantages of black box testing?


- Developer and tester are independent of each other.
- The tester does not need knowledge of any programming languages.
- The test is done from the point-of-view of the user.
- Test cases can be designed when specifications are complete.
- Testing helps to identify issues related to functional specifications.

What is SRS and BRS document?


Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is documented form of the requirement of the
customer. It consists of all requirement of the customer regarding that software to be
developed. The SRS document work as agreement between the company and the customer
consisting of all functional and non functional requirements.

Business Requirement Specification (BRS) are the requirements as described by the business
people. The business tells “what” they want for the application to do. In simple word BRS
contain the functional requirement of the application.
What is Requirement Traceability Matrix?
Answer.
Requirement Traceability Matrix (RTM) is a document which records the mapping between the
high-level requirements and the test cases in the form of a table.
That’s how it ensures that the Test Plan covers all the requirements and links to their latest
version.
Q-12. What are the key elements of a test plan?
Answer. A test plan contains the following main points.
 Testing objectives.
 Test scope.
 Testing the frame.
 The environment
 Reason for testing
 The criteria for entrance and exit
 Deliverables
 Risk factors
What is a Test case?
Answer.
A test case is a sequence of actions and observations that are used to verify the desired
functionality. A good test case helps to identify problems in the requirements or design of an
application.

What is smoke testing and what is sanity?


Answer.
Smoke testing confirms the basic functionality works for a product. It requires you to identify
the most basic test cases for execution.
Sanity testing, on the other hand, ensures that the product runs without any logical errors. For
example, if we are testing a calculator app; we may multiply a number by 3 and check whether
the sum of the digits of the answer is divisible by 3.
system testing the behavior of whole system/product is tested as defined by the scope of the
development project or product.
Black-box testing.
It doesn’t require the knowledge of internal design or code. So the tests are based on
requirements and functionality. Black box testing focuses on finding the following errors.
 Interface errors
 Performance errors
 Initialization errors
 Incorrect or missing functionality
 Errors in accessing external database
 Equivalence partitioning is mainly used to reduce number of test cases by identifying
different sets of data that are not the same and only executing one test from each set of
data
 Boundary Value Analysis is used to check the behaviour of the system at the boundaries
of allowed data.
Functional Testing is a testing technique that is used to test the features/functionality of the
system or Software, should cover all the scenarios including failure paths and boundary cases.

What is a V-Model?
A software development model that illustrates how testing activities integrate with software
development phases

UAT: User Acceptance Testing (UAT) involves running a product through a series of specific
tests which determines whether the product will meet the needs of its users.
n equivalence-partitioning technique we need to test only one condition from each partition.
This is because we are assuming that all the conditions in one partition will be treated in the
same way by the software. If one condition in a partition works, we assume all of the conditions
in that partition will work, and so there is little point in testing any of these others. Similarly, if
one of the conditions in a partition does not work, then we assume that none of the conditions
in that partition will work so again there is little point in testing any more in that partition.

The link between SD and MM :-


1. When you create sales order in SD, all the details of the items are copied from Material
master of MM.
2. MRP and availability check related data is also taken from MM although you control this data
in SD as well.
3. While you create inbound/outbound delivery with reference to a sales order, the shipping
point determination takes place with the help of the loading group, plant data, shipping
conditions etc. This also refers to Material Master (except shipping condition).
4. The material which you are entering in a sales order must be extended to the sales area of
your sales order/customer otherwise you cannot transact with this material.
There are many such links between SD and MM.

Master Data
1. customer master data
2. Material master data
3.Customer material Information record
4. When we are maintaining condition records like pricing
condition record,rebate condition record,..
2. Master data provides important sources of data for creating documents.

3. Master data help to run business transaction smoothly.

4. Master data help to define which field is important and which field is important

THE main purpose of maintaining the master data is that when


we will create any documents in sales like sales
document,the data regarding customer is coming from customer
master and the data regarding material is coming from
material master,and for example in the sales order the
delivery plant is coming from CMIR,OR CUSTOMER MASTER
OR,MATERIAL MASTER ,like this...
Basic Functions in SD

The most important basic functions are:


o Pricing
o Availability Check
o Credit Management
o Material Determination
o Output Determination
o Text Processing
o Tax Determination
o Account Determination
--->PGI:Post Goods issue is done when physically the goods are moved from warehouse or plant
after Delivery is fully picked.
---->Shipping points are independent organizational entities within which processing and
monitoring of the deliveries as well as goods issue is carried out.
The physical location (for example, a warehouse or collection of loading ramps) from which you
ship the item.
If, for example, you want to ship refrigerated goods to a certain customer by rail, the system
proposes a shipping point with a suitable location and equipment for loading refrigerated goods
onto rail cars.

---->Loading point :A place in a shipping point where goods are loaded.

-ASAP methodology in SAP

It contains five phases, they are


1.Project preparation
2.Business blue print
3.Realization
4.Final preparation
5.Golive and support.

Documents involved in each phase as follows.


1)Project preparation
a.Document for project goals /object
b.Document for Scope of project
c.Budgetplaning document
d.Resource planning document

2)Business blue print


a.Quastion and answer database(QADB)
b.As-Is document
c.To-Be document
d.Business blue print
c.Master data templetes

3)Realization
a.Test scripts document
b.Functional specifications
c.Technical specifications
d.End user manuals
e.List of Tr's

4)Final preparation
a.Test plan document
b.Training plan document
c.Transactional data templetes
d.Master data validation sign-off document
e.Authorization validation sign off document

5)Golive and support


a.Documentation for resolved issues
b.system hand over document
c.Project closure document

MMBE—to check material

BRS includes list of requirements which are demanded by client and should be part of proposed
system; whereas, FRS includes requirement converted into the way it is going to work as a part
of proposed system.

SDLC or the Software Development Life Cycle is a process that produces software with the
highest quality and lowest cost in the shortest time. SDLC includes a detailed plan for how to
develop, alter, maintain, and replace a software system.
SDLC involves several distinct stages, including planning, design, building, testing, and
deployment. Popular SDLC models include the waterfall model, spiral model, and Agile model.

What are the tables in testplans?


Test design, scope, test strategies , approach are various details that Test plan document
consists of.
1. Test case identifier
2. Scope
3. Features to be tested
4. Features not to be tested
5. Test strategy & Test approach
6. Test deliverables
7. Responsibilities
8. Staffing and training
9. Risk and Contingencies

Combinatorial Test Design (CTD)

is a smarter approach
that helps us identify the tests that are likely to expose
defects. CTD takes a systematic approach to modeling
the things that need to be tested, then uses advanced
mathematics to dramatically reduce the number of test
cases while ensuring coverage of conditions and
interactions
.

When any modification or changes are done to the application or even when any small change
is done to the code then it can bring unexpected issues. Along with the new changes it becomes
very important to test whether the existing functionality is intact or not. This can be achieved by
doing the regression testing.

SIT:
It verifies the proper execution of software components and proper interfacing between
components within the solution and is to validate that all software module dependencies are
functionally correct

In functional testing basically the testing of the functions of component or system is done. It
refers to activities that verify a specific action or function of the code.
Challenges:
l1) Billing Document not released to accounting / Accounts determination:
To resolve the error, you can analyze account determination in the billing document.
Process:
Go to T.Code: VF02 & Enter Invoice number Next (On the top most strip) go to EnvironmentNext
(Select Environment) go to Account determinationNext (In Account Determination) select
Revenue Account Determination (first option)This will list all the condition types in the Billing
document & analyze each condition & check for which G/Laccounts is not determined.
Possible errors:
1. VKOA not maintained for required combination
2. Solution: Maintain the combination in VKOA.
HP Business Process Testing in a nut shell is used for designing business components that can
be reused in business process tests.
Components are easily-maintained, reusable units that perform a specific task. Quick Test
provides two types of components: Manual / QTP / Winrunner
QTP - business components and scripted components
Business Components are keyword driven components
Scripted Components are regular code driven components.

Application Area: Collection of testing resources like function libraries, shared object .

repositories, keywords, testing preferences and recovery scenarios

Advantages of Business Process Testing Framework:

Eliminates the need of creating a separate framework for the Automation.

1. Both input and output parameters can be directly added in Quality Centre
2. A manual tester can remove the unwanted component from the test flow without
affecting the code
3. Single point of maintenance for all elements associated with the testing of a specific part
of your application
4. High reusability with data-driven test components
5. Quickly test multiple flows , suitable for agile frameworks
6. Need not have expertise in automation to create and run tests once the components are
built.

Banking Services 9.0 combines high volume transaction processing with analytics through the
SAP HANA platform.
integration of two, new SAP Fiori applications and an enhanced version of SAP Accounting for
Financial Instruments (AFI);
Get Bank Customer Overview and the Manage Time Deposit feature.

ASAP (AcceleratedSAP) is a step-by-step methodology for speeding up the implementation of


an SAP R/3 system. The components of ASAP, which can be used together or individually, are
called accelerators.

The emphasis in a BRD is on what is required, rather than on how to achieve it; this is usually
delegated to a Systems Requirements Specification or Document (SRS or SRD), or other
variation such as a Functional Specification Document.
Test Management Process is a set of activities from the start of the testing to the end of the
testing. It gives a discipline to testing. When follow a test process it gives us the plan at the
initial. Test process provides the facility to plan and control the testing throughout the
project cycle. It helps to track and monitor the testing throughout the project. Provides
transparent of testing among stakeholders and maintains the conducted test for future
reference. Or test plan we can expian.

Test Case is ‘How to be tested’ and Test Scenario is ‘What to be tested’

1.Test scenario consists of a detailed test procedure. We can also say that a test scenario
has many test cases associated with it
2.Test scenarios are the high level classification
3.Test scenario is one liner statement which tell us about what to test.

What is Requirement Traceability Matrix?


• To determine whether the developed project is meet the requirements of the user.
• To determine all the requirements given by the user
• To make sure the application requirement can be fulfilled in the verification process.
difference between Pilot and Beta testing?
A beta test when the product is about to release to the end user whereas pilot testing take
place in the earlier phase of the development cycle.
What is Silk Test?
Silk Test is a tool developed for performing the regression and functionality testing of the
application.
How to deal with not reproducible bug?
Tester can do following things to deal with not reproducible bug:
• Includes steps that are close to the error statement.
• Evaluate the test environment.
• Examine and evaluate test execution results.
• Resources & Time Constraints must be kept in point.
What is the role of QA in a project development?
The role of Quality Assurance is discussed below:
• QA team is responsible for monitoring the process to be carried out for development.
• Responsibilities of QA team are planning testing execution process.
• QA Lead creates the time tables and agrees on a Quality Assurance plan for the product.
• QA team communicated QA process to the team members.
• QA team ensures traceability of test cases to requirements.
When do you choose automated testing over manual testing?
Frequency of use of test case
2. Time Comparison (automated script run much faster than manual execution.)
3. Reusability of Automation Script
4. Adaptability of test case for automation.
5. Exploitation of automation tool
What are the key challenges of software testing?
Application should be stable enough to be tested.
2. Testing always under time constraint
3. Understanding the requirements.
4. Domain knowledge and business user perspective understanding.
5. Which tests to execute first?
6. Testing the Complete Application.
7. Regression testing.
8. Lack of skilled testers.
9. Changing requirements.
10. Lack of resources, tools and training
What is difference between QA, QC and Software Testing?
Quality Assurance (QA): QA refers to the planned and systematic way of monitoring the quality
of process which is followed to produce a quality product. QA tracks the outcomes and adjusts
the process to meet the expectation.
Quality Control (QC): Concern with the quality of the product. QC finds the defects and suggests
improvements. The process set by QA is implemented by QC. The QC is the responsibility of the
tester.
Software Testing: is the process of ensuring that product which is developed by the developer
meets the user requirement. The motive to perform testing is to find the bugs and make sure
that they get fixed.
What is Automated Testing?
The process of performing testing automatically which reduces the human intervention this is
automation testing. The automation testing is carried out with the help of the some automation
tool like QTP, Selenium, WinRunner etc. In automation testing we use a tool that runs the test
script to test the application; this test script can be generated manually or automatically. When
testing is completed then tools automatically generate the test report and report.
What is Integration Testing?
Integration testing is black box testing. Integration testing focuses on the interfaces between
units, to ensure that units work together to complete a specify task. The purpose of integration
testing is to confirm that different components of the application interact with each other. Test
cases are developed with the purpose of exercising the interfaces between the components.
What is Scalability Testing?
Scalability testing is testing performed in order to enhanced and improve the functional and
performance capabilities of the application.
What is Storage Testing?
In Storage Testing we test those functionalities of the application which is responsible for storing
the data into database. The data entered by the end user in GUI or front end, is the same data
which is stored in the database. The storage testing determines that the data taken from the
front end of the application is stored in correct place and in correct manner in the database.
What is Stress Testing?
Stress testing tests the software with a motive to check that the application do not crashes if we
increase the stress on the application by increasing the large number of user working on the
application. We can also apply the stress on the application firing the lots of process which
cannot be handled by the application.
What is good design?
Design refers to functional design or internal design. Good internal design is indicated by
software code whose overall structure is clear, understandable, easily modifiable, and
maintainable; is robust with sufficient error-handling and status logging capability, and works
correctly when implemented.
What makes a good QA or Test manager?
A good QA or Test manager should have following characteristics:
• Knowledge about Software development process
• Improve the teamwork to increase productivity
• Improve cooperation between software, test, and QA engineers
• To improvements the QA processes.
• Communication skills.
• able to conduct meetings and keep them focused
What are the fields in a bug report?
1. A unique ID
2. Defect description – a short describing what the bug is
3. Steps to reproduce – details about how to arrive at the error, exact test data, the time at
which defect was found(if applicable) environment – any information that will help re-
encounter the issue
4. Module/section of the application (if applicable)
5. Severity
6. Screenshot
7. Responsible QA – in case of any follow up questions regarding this issue

How to get maximum productivity from offshore team?


The key is to make sure that all the testers know about all the modules and that there is no
knowledge concentration in one place. Involving everyone in test script peer reviews, defect
meetings and KT sessions is going to ensure that everyone is aware of the application to the
best extent possible.
Also, by encouraging the concept of team work we can have the team members collaborate,
help and aid each other for better productivity.

Regular follow up meetings also help the process very much.

What are the Roles and Responsibilities of an onsite coordinator? Does he/she test too?
Onsite coordinator is a point of contact for the offshore team and to the client for any
information regarding the testing engagement.

This job includes:


 KT from and to offshore and clients
 Getting the environment to test all ready
 Sanity testing, smoke testing
 Testing – the key functionality.
 Bug review – found by the offshore team
 Bug assigning to the respective dev
 Presenting metrics
 Providing sign off
Yes, even an onsite coordinator has to test.

Inconsistent bugs – Why onsite can find it but offshore can’t and vice versa – How to handle
this situation?
#1. All the onsite and offshore team members should follow a guideline that screenshots had to
be taken for every error that we encounter – repeatable or not
#2. If there are logs, system files or anything like that, that might help us find any evidence of
the issue- we should try to find it
#3. Despite all these steps, if we still can’t tell why and when the problem occurs- we should
report it to the developer all the same – with as much information as we can.

How to handle a situation when you don’t have time for complete testing
When we do not have enough time to test, you might want to perform a risk analysis and
determine which modules/areas of your AUT are prone to the highest risk and are critical to the
success of the product and handle them first.

How to improve skills designing test cases and make sure high coverage rate?
Test designing is successful when the requirements are analyzed and understood completely. To
ensure 100% test coverage is achieved, you should not miss out on creating test cases for any
requirements and from time to time we can check ourselves with the help of atraceability
matrix.
You are working on a project, where the requirements change dynamically.
The data in the project comes from various ends (from various Platforms) and
are inter-dependent. You see this as a big risk in the project. How would you
plan accordingly?

Answer:
Give a Plan which takes care of the risk and is identified in the Risk Areas. Say that
the testing scope would concentrate more on Data driven tests etc.

What are the check lists, which a software tester should follow?

Learn product specification (+ yes)

2. Prepare software testing plan (+yes)

3. Prepare testing schedule (+yes)

4. Define test environments, test data, test scripts (+yes)


5. Determine responsibilities and deliverables (+yes)
Explain in short, sanity testing, ad-hoc testing and smoke
testing.
Sanity testing is a basic test, which is conducted if all the components of the software can

be compiled with each other without any problem. It is to make sure that there are no

conflicting or multiple functions or global variable definitions have been made by different

developers. It can also be carried out by the developers themselves. Smoke testing on the

other hand is a testing methodology used to cover all the major functionality of the

application without getting into the finer nuances of the application. It is said to be the main

functionality oriented test. Ad hoc testing is different than smoke and sanity testing. This

term is used for software testing, which is performed without any sort of planning and/or

documentation. These tests are intended to run only once. However in case of a defect

found it can be carried out again. It is also said to be a part of exploratory testing.

Explain the test case life cycle.


On an average a test case goes through the following phases. The first phase of the test
case life cycle is identifying the test scenarios either from the specifications or from the use
cases designed to develop the system. Once the scenarios have been identified, the test
cases apt for the scenarios have to be developed. Then the test cases are reviewed and the
approval for those test cases has to be taken from the concerned authority. After the test
cases have been approved, they are executed. When the execution of the test cases start, the
results of the tests have to be recorded. The test cases which pass are marked
accordingly. If the test cases fail, defects have to be raised. When the defects are fixed the
failed test case has to be executed again.

What is a peer review?


Peer reviews are reviews conducted among people that work on the same team. For example, a
test case that was written by one QA engineer may be reviewed by a developer and/or another
QA engineer.
What should be included in a test strategy?
The test strategy includes a plan for how to test the application and exactly what will be tested
(user interface, modules, processes, etc.). It establishes limits for testing and indicates whether
manual or automated testing will be used.

When is a test considered to be successful?


The purpose of testing is to ensure that the application operates according to the requirements
and to discover as many errors and bugs as possible. This means that tests that cover more
functionality and expose more errors are considered to be the most successful.
When should testing be stopped?

It depends on the risks for the system being tested. There are some criteria bases on which you
can stop testing.

1. Deadlines (Testing, Release)


2. Test budget has been depleted
3. Bug rate fall below certain level
4. Test cases completed with certain percentage passed
5. Alpha or beta periods for testing ends
6. Coverage of code, functionality or requirements are met to a specified point
What are the common problems with software automation?
The biggest concern is the cost incurred for test automation. Also, often s/w test automation
requires skilled personnel and authentic test automation tools. Purchasing license of such tools
is a costly affair.
Also the time required for test automation is more. Automation often requires recording the
sequence of operations you need to perform in order to execute a particular test case and
comparing the final o/p with the expected o/p. Functions/macros need also be written
sometimes for some test cases. All this could be a time consuming job.
What is the role of QA in a project development?
The word assurance means ‘guarantee’. So the Quality Assurance Group’s role is to guarantee
that the product is of high quality. They examine the overall s/w development process and their
responsibility is to create and enforce standards and methods to improve it with the goal of
preventing bugs from ever occurring.

What is Picking?
It is necessary to prepare correct quantity and quality of goods as specified in sales order for
shipping on schedule as required by the customer. Material picking is done by warehouse
management(WM). WM picking is done via transfer order. The transfer order is the basis for
the picking list, it is used to withdraw the ordered goods from stock. There are three ways of
picking-
1. Pick Delivery individually.
2. Picking can be scheduled to run at per-defined intervals.

3. SAP SD module can be configured to execute picking automatically.

What is Packing?
Packing function is used to exchange product data between suppliers and customers. The
packing of product is done by the packing material. These packing materials need to be created
in the material master with material type “VERP”. Packing can we done in SAP in two ways-
1. Manual Packing
2. Automatic Packing

There are many Steps in packing function like manual packing and auto packing with single level
and multilevel packing.
What is Post Good Issue (PGI)?
Post goods issue is the last Step of delivery/shipment processing. Herein, ownership of the
goods transfer to the customer and the stock is updated. The carrier in turn transfers the
ownership to the final customer once goods are delivered.

Steps for Picking ,Packing and PGI are as below-


1. Create outbound delivery with reference to sales order.
2. Create picking request.

3. Creating Packing.

4. Create PGI.

Step 1) Create Outbound delivery


1. Enter T-code VL01N in command bar.
2. Enter Shipping Point.

3. Enter Selection Date and sales order.

Click on save button.


A message "Delivery 80016014" has been saved.

Step 2) Creating Picking Request


1. Enter T-code LT03 in command field.
2. Enter warehouse Number / Plant / Delivery and press enter .
Click on save Button.
A Message" Transfer order 0000002638 created" will be displayed.

Step 3) Create Packing


1. Enter T-code VL02N in command field.
2. Enter outbound delivery no,which was created earlier.

3. Click on Pack button.

In the next screen,


1. Select Tab "Pack material"
2. Enter packing material detail.

Click on save button.

Step 4) Post Good Issue (PGI).


By PGI (Post Goods Issue) the owner ship of the material or goods will be changed from
company to the customer.
1. Enter T-code VL02N in command field.
2. Enter Outbound Delivery number.

3. Click on Post Goods issue Button.


A message "Replenishment dlv. has been saved" is shown. When we do PGI , two documents
will be created-
 Material document (Regarding stock reduction)

1. Enter T-code MB03 in command field and Enter sales order no in sales order field and
execute the report.

2. Material document will be displayed .

 Accounting document (Cost of goods sold will credited and stock value will be debited.)

1. Enter T-Code S_ALR_87014387 in command field.

2. Enter Material code.

3. Click on execute button.