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AGMA 913- A98

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Method for Specifying the Geometry of


Spur and Helical Gears
AGMA 913- A98

AGMA INFORMATION SHEET


(This Information Sheet is NOT an AGMA Standard)
American Method for Specifying the Geometry of Spur and Helical Gears
AGMA 913--A98
Gear
Manufacturers CAUTION NOTICE: AGMA technical publications are subject to constant improvement,
revision, or withdrawal as dictated by experience. Any person who refers to any AGMA
Association Technical Publication should be sure that the publication is the latest available from the
Association on the subject matter.
[Tables or other self--supporting sections may be quoted or extracted. Credit lines should
read: Extracted from AGMA 913--A98, Method for Specifying the Geometry of Spur and
Helical Gears, with the permission of the publisher, the American Gear Manufacturers As-
sociation, 1500 King Street, Suite 201, Alexandria, Virginia 22314.]

Approved March 13, 1998

ABSTRACT
This information sheet provides information to translate tooth thickness specifications which are expressed in
terms of tooth thickness, center distance or diameter into profile shift coefficients, as that term is used in
international standards.

Published by

American Gear Manufacturers Association


1500 King Street, Suite 201, Alexandria, Virginia 22314

Copyright 1998 by American Gear Manufacturers Association


All rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic


retrieval system or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

Printed in the United States of America

ISBN: 1--55589--714--2

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 913--A98

Contents
Page
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv
1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2 Terms and symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
3 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
4 Profile shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
5 Internal gear pair calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Tables

1 Symbols used in equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1


2 Obsolete terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Figures

1 The basic rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3


2 Hypothetical tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3 Profile shift of a helical gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4 Effect of profile shift on involute tooth profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5 Distances along the line of action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
6 Root radii cut with rack tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
7 Distances along the line of action for an internal gear pair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Annexes

A Tool proportions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
B Calculation of profile shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

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AGMA 913--A98 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Foreword
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, in this document are provided for
informational purposes only and are not to be construed as a part of AGMA Information
Sheet 913--A98, Method for Specifying the Geometry of Spur and Helical Gears.]
This information sheet is intended to provide sufficient information to allow its users to be able
to translate tooth thickness specifications which are expressed in terms of tooth thickness,
center distance or diameter into profile shift coefficients, as that term is used in international
standards.
This AGMA information sheet and related publications are based on typical or average data,
conditions or application.
AGMA 913--A98 was approved by the AGMA membership on March 13, 1998.
Suggestions for improvement of this standard will be welcome. They should be sent to the
American Gear Manufacturers Association, 1500 King Street, Suite 201, Alexandria,
Virginia 22314.

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 913--A98

PERSONNEL of the AGMA Nomenclature Committee

Chairman: John R. Colbourne . . . . . . . University of Alberta


Vice Chairman: D. McCarroll . . . . . . . . . Gleason Works

ACTIVE MEMBERS

W.A. Bradley III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Consultant


R.L. Errichello . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GEARTECH
D. Gonnella . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Texaco Lubricants Company
D.R. McVittie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gear Engineers, Inc.
O.A. LaBath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cincinnati Gear Company
I. Laskin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Irving Laskin, P.E.
G.W. Nagorny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nagorny & Associates
J.W. Polder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Delft University of Technology
L.J. Smith . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Invincible Gear Company
R.E. Smith . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R.E. Smith & Co., Inc.

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS

K. Acheson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Gear Works -- Seattle, Inc.


M. Allard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UNITRAM
M.R. Chaplin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contour Hardening, Inc.
A.S. Cohen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engranes y Maquinaria
L. Faure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CMD
R. Green . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eaton Corporation
T. Okamoto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nippon Gear

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AGMA 913--A98 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

(This page is intentionally left blank.)

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 913--A98

American Gear Manufacturers Annexes A and B provide practical examples on the

Association -- calculation of tool proportions and profile shift.

Method for Specifying 2 Terms and symbols

the Geometry of Spur 2.1 Terms

and Helical Gears The terms used, wherever applicable conform to


the following standards.
ISO 701:1998, International gear notation ----
Symbols for geometrical data
1 Scope ANSI/AGMA 1012--F90, Gear Nomenclature, Def-
initions of Terms with Symbols
This information sheet provides a general method 2.2 Symbols
for specifying profile shift and rack shift, with gear
nomenclature and definitions. This document This information sheet uses the ISO symbols in
describes the effect that profile shift has on the table 1. In cases where there are no ISO symbols,
geometry and performance of gears, but does not or the definitions are different, other symbols are
make specific design recommendations. used.

The equations in the first part of this document NOTE: The symbols, definitions and terminology used
in this information sheet may differ from other AGMA
(clauses 3 and 4) apply to external gear pairs only. publications. The user should not assume that familiar
The corresponding equations for internal gear pairs symbols can be used without a careful study of these
are contained in clause 5. definitions.

Table 1 -- Symbols used in equations


ISO Other Where
Symbols Symbols Terms Units first used
C1 Distance to SAP mm Eq 23
C2, C3, C4 Distances along line of action mm Eq 27
C5 Distance to EAP mm Eq 23
C6 Distance between interference points mm Eq 23
YJ1, YJ2 Bending strength geometry factor, pinion and gear ---- Eq 30
aref Reference center distance mm Eq 5
aw Operating center distance mm Eq 16
c Root clearance mm Eq 42
ci2 Required clearance at the tooth root of the internal gear mm Eq 70
d Diameter mm Eq 4
ha0 Addendum of the tool mm Eq 22
ha1, ha2 Addendum, pinion and gear mm Eq 34
haP0 Distance on the cutting tool from the reference line to the mm Eq 21
point near the tooth tip where the straight part of the pro-
file ends and the circular tip begins
(continued)

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AGMA 913--A98 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Table 1 (concluded)
ISO Other Where
Symbols Symbols Terms Units first used
jn Normal operating circular backlash mm Eq 31
k Tip--shortening coefficient ---- Eq 32
m Module mm Eq 3
p Circular pitch mm Eq 1
r1, r2 Reference radius, pinion and gear mm Eq 5
ra1, ra2 Outside radius, pinion and gear mm Eq 25
rb1, rb2 Base circle radius, pinion and gear mm Eq 13
rf1, rf2 Root radius, pinion and gear mm Eq 42
rfP1 Radius of the pinion fillet circle mm Eq 60
s Tooth thickness mm Eq 2
sn1, sn2 Reference normal circular tooth thickness, pinion and gear mm Eq 7
u Gear ratio ∫ 1.0 ---- Eq 10
xE1, xE2 Generating rack shift coefficient, pinion and gear ---- Eq 46
x1, x2 Profile shift coefficient, pinion and gear ---- Eq 6
x1min Minimum pinion profile shift coefficient to avoid undercut ---- Eq 20
y Profile shift mm Eq 6
yE Rack shift ---- Eq 8
y1min Minimum pinion profile shift to avoid undercut mm Eq 20
z1, z2 Number of teeth, pinion and gear ---- Eq 4
∼n Reference normal pressure angle ---- Eq 7
∼t Reference transverse pressure angle ---- Eq 9
∼wt Operating transverse pressure angle ---- Eq 9
ϒ Reference helix angle ---- Eq 1
∆aref Center distance modification mm Eq 32
∆sn Amount of tooth thinning mm Eq 8
∆sn1, ∆sn2 Tooth thinning for backlash, pinion and gear mm Eq 31
±a0 Radius of the circular tip of the tool mm Eq 22
±fP Fillet radius of the basic rack mm Fig 1
Σx Sum of profile shift coefficients ---- Eq 53
ΣxE Sum of generating rack shift coefficients ---- Eq 52
σF1, σF2 Allowable bending stress, pinion and gear MPa Eq 30
Subscript conversion
(none) At reference diameter
a At addendum (tip) diameter
b At base cylinder diameter
f At root diameter
n Normal plane
t Transverse plane
w Operating, running or working
y At any (undefined) diameter
0 Tool dimensions
1 Pinion
2 Gear or rack

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 913--A98

3 Definitions Table 2 -- Obsolete terms


Addendum correction
Addendum elongation
This information sheet provides definitions of profile
Addendum increment
shift and rack shift and shows the relations between
Addendum modification
them and other gear quantities. The terms profile Addendum ratio
shift and rack shift are used in this information sheet Basic rack offset
for standardization. The intention is to replace the Cutter offset
similar or related terms listed in table 2. Delta addendum
Delta teeth
3.1 Basic rack Drop--tooth design
Enlargement/reduction
The standard basic rack tooth profile is the tooth
Enlarged/reduced center distance
profile normal section through the teeth of a basic Enlarged/reduced number of teeth
rack which corresponds to an external gear with Half pitch hob pull
number of teeth z =  and diameter d = , see High/low addendum
figure 1. Hob offset
Hob pull
A gear with normal module, mn , and normal Increase/decrease
pressure angle, ∼n , has a basic rack whose normal Involute shift
circular pitch, pn , is πmn and whose normal pressure Long/short addendum
angle is ∼n . Nonstandard addenda
Over/undersize
The reference plane of the basic rack is parallel to its Profile displacement
tooth tip plane and is the plane on which the normal Profile withdrawal
circular tooth thickness, sn , is equal to one half the Rack withdrawal
normal circular pitch. From this definition it follows Tool shift
that the normal circular tooth thickness on the Tool withdrawal
reference plane is equal to the normal circular Unequal addenda
space width. X factor

Normal base pitch, pbn


Normal
∼n pressure
angle
Addendum

π mn
haP

2
Reference line
π mn
hwP
Dedendum

2
haP0
hfP

± Normal circular
fP
thickness, sn
cP

Normal circular pitch, pn = π mn


Figure 1 -- The basic rack

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AGMA 913--A98 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

If the basic rack is oriented so that its teeth make an The pitch plane of the basic rack is parallel to the
angle β with the gear axis, see figure 3, the section reference plane and is the plane that is tangent to
through the basic rack perpendicular to the gear the reference cylinder of the gear. The helix angle of
axis is called the transverse section. On this the gear at its reference cylinder is equal to β.
section, the transverse circular pitch, pt , and the
transverse tooth thickness, st , are given by: 3.3 Reference center distance
pn
pt = ...(1) The reference center distance of an external gear
cos β
s pair is defined as half the sum of the reference
st = n ...(2) diameters.
cos β
and the transverse module, mt , is defined by: Ꮛd1 + d2Ꮠ
m a ref = = r 1 + r2 ...(5)
mt = n ...(3) 2
cos β
The basic rack represents the theoretical gear tooth where r1 and r2 are the radii of the reference
form, not the form of the cutting tool. No allowance cylinders.
is made for backlash, finishing stock or manufactur-
The reference center distance is not necessarily
ing method.
equal to the operating center distance. It is one of
The standard 20 normal pressure angle basic rack the advantages of involute gears, that the operating
of ISO 53 is commonly used. This document is valid center distance can vary from the reference center
for that basic rack and for any other basic rack which distance without change in operation.
meets the criteria of figure 1.
3.4 Hypothetical tool
3.2 Reference cylinder of the gear (standard
pitch cylinder) The hypothetical tool is the complement of the basic
rack as shown in figure 2. The reference line of the
The reference cylinder of a gear is defined as the
hypothetical tool is the line at which its normal
pitch cylinder where circular pitch of the gear is
equal to circular pitch of the basic rack. If the gear circular tooth thickness is equal to π m n .
2
has z teeth and the rack is oriented with its teeth
making an angle β with the gear axis, then the The use of the phrase “hypothetical tool” in this
diameter, d, of the reference cylinder is given by document refers to a rack--type cutter. For
z mn additional information and an example calculation,
d= ...(4)
cos β see annexes A and B.
Dedendum

π mn
2
hf0

haP

Hypothetical Reference line


tool tooth
π mn
Addendum

2
haP0

Basic rack
ha0

±a0
Profile
∼n angle

Normal circular pitch, pn


Figure 2 -- Hypothetical tool

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 913--A98

3.5 Zero backlash gear pair 3.8 Tooth thickness

A zero backlash gear pair is one which operates in The normal circular tooth thickness, sn , of the zero
tight mesh (has no backlash) on the operating backlash gear at its reference cylinder is equal to
center distance. the normal circular space width of the hypothetical
tool at its pitch plane when in tight mesh with the
3.6 Profile shift zero backlash gear.

The profile shift, y, of the gear is defined as the s n = 1 π mn + 2y tan αn ...(7)


2
amount by which the reference plane of the NOTE: Equations 7, 8 and 9 are for external gears
hypothetical tool (conjugate to the basic rack) is only. The corresponding equations for internal gears
displaced from the reference cylinder of the gear. In are given in 5.1.
other words, the gear has profile shift y if the 3.9 Rack shift
reference plane of the hypothetical tool lies a
distance (r + y) from the gear axis, where r is half the It is customary to first choose the tooth thicknesses
diameter, d. Profile shift, y, can be either plus or in a gear pair, assuming there is no backlash, and to
minus depending on whether the profile shift is to then reduce the tooth thicknesses to allow for
the outside or to the inside of the reference backlash. The phrase “profile shift” will be used for
diameter. See figure 3. the value of y corresponding to the tooth thickness
before thinning, and the phrase “rack shift” for the
3.7 Profile shift coefficient value of y after thinning. Since the rack shift
determines the actual tooth thickness at the time of
The profile shift coefficient, x, of the gear is defined cutting or generating, the symbol yE is used for the
as the profile shift divided by the normal module. rack shift and xE for the rack shift coefficient. If the
y amount of thinning is ∆sn , the relationship between
x=m ...(6) rack shift and profile shift is:
n

Hypothetical tool Normal plane

Hypothetical tool reference line


Gear reference pitch cylinder

Profile shift “y”

Helix angle
β

r
Basic rack in tight Transverse plane
mesh with zero
backlash gear

Base circle Zero backlash gear


without tooth thinning

Figure 3 -- Profile shift of a helical gear

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AGMA 913--A98 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

∆ sn Figure 4 illustrates how the shape of a gear tooth is


yE = y − ...(8)
2 tan α n influenced by the number of teeth on the gear and
If two external gears are to mesh with no backlash, the value of the profile shift coefficient.
their profile shift values must satisfy: The influence that the number of teeth has on tooth
aref (inv α wt − inv α t) form can be seen by viewing the teeth within any
y1 + y2 = ...(9) given column of figure 4. With small numbers of
tan α t
teeth, the tooth has larger curvature and the relative
where
thickness of the teeth at the topland and at the form
aref is the reference center distance; diameter is smaller. As the number of teeth
∼wt is the operating transverse pressure angle; increases, the topland and tooth thicknesses in-
crease and the curvature of the profiles decrease.
∼t is the reference transverse pressure angle.
Tooth thicknesses are maximum for a rack with
3.10 Addendum values straight--sided profiles and theoretically infinite
number of teeth.
The gear addendum, measured from the reference
cylinder, is usually chosen as (haP + y). This value Viewing figure 4 horizontally within any given row
depends on the profile shift rather than the rack shift shows how profile shift changes tooth form. Rows
and is therefore independent of the value chosen for near the top of figure 4 show that gears with few
backlash. In certain designs, particularly when the teeth have a tooth form that depends strongly on the
center distance is significantly larger than the value of the profile shift coefficient. For gears with
reference standard center distance, the gear ad- few teeth, the sensitivity to profile shift narrows the
dendum may need to be reduced to allow adequate choice for profile shift coefficient because too little
clearance at the roots of the meshing gear, see profile shift results in undercut teeth, whereas too
4.10. much profile shift gives teeth with toplands that are
too narrow. For example, the acceptable values of
For internal gear pair equations which replace profile shift coefficient for a 12 tooth gear range from
equations 7 through 9, see 5.1. x = 0.4 near undercut, to x = 0.44 for a topland
thickness equal to 30% of the module. In contrast,
rows near the bottom of figure 4 show that gears
4 Profile shift with large numbers of teeth are relatively insensitive
to profile shift. This means that the gear designer
has wider latitude when choosing profile shift for
4.1 Profile shift calculation
gears with a large number of teeth. As a limiting
Profile shift is selected considering the following case, the shape of the teeth of a rack are
criteria: independent of profile shift.
-- avoiding undercut; Generally, the performance of a gear is enhanced
with increasing numbers of teeth and the optimum
-- avoiding narrow top lands;
value of profile shift. For a fixed gear diameter, with
-- balanced specific sliding; the exception of bending strength, load capacity is
-- balanced flash temperature; increased when the number of teeth increases and
the profile shift is designed properly. Resistance to
-- balanced bending fatigue life.
macropitting, adhesive wear and scuffing is im-
The profile shift should be large enough to avoid proved and the gears usually operate more quietly.
undercut and small enough to avoid narrow top The maximum number of teeth is limited by bending
lands. The profile shifts required for balanced strength because a large number of relatively small
specific sliding, balanced flash temperature and teeth have high bending stresses. Therefore, the
balanced bending fatigue life are usually different. gear designer must limit the number of teeth in the
Therefore, the value used should be based on the pinion based on maintaining adequate bending
criterion that is judged to be the most important for strength. Load capacity can be maximized by
the particular application. balancing the pitting resistance and the bending

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 913--A98

strength of the gearset (see AGMA 901--A92). A designer to select the profile shift to minimize
balanced design has a relatively large number of specific sliding, minimize flash temperature or
teeth in the pinion. This makes the gearset balance the bending fatigue life of the pinion and
relatively insensitive to profile shift, and allows the gear.

12

15

20
Number of teeth

30

50

100

--0.4 0.0 0.4 0.8


Profile shift coefficient
Figure 4 -- Effect of profile shift on involute tooth profiles

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AGMA 913--A98 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

4.2 Basic gear geometry The minimum profile shift coefficient (to avoid
undercut) for the pinion is given by:
z
u = z2 , where z2 ≥ z 1 ...(10) y 1 min
1 x 1 min = ...(20)
mn
z1 mn y 1 min = haP0 − r 1 sin2 ∼ t
r1 = ...(11) ...(21)
2 cos β
where
z mn
r2 = 2 = r1 u ...(12) haP0 is the distance on the cutting tool tooth from
2 cos β
the reference line to the point near the tool
r b1 = r1 cos ∼ t ...(13)
tooth tip where the straight part of the
r b2 = r2 cos ∼ t = rb1 u ...(14) profile ends and the circular tip begins.
h aP0 = ha0 − a0 + a0 sin ∼ n ...(22)

∼ t = arctan Ꮛtancos ∼β Ꮠn ...(15) where


is the addendum of the tool;
Ꮛa Ꮠ
cos ∼ t ha0
ref
∼ wt = arccos aw ...(16) ±a0 is the radius of the circular tip of the tool.
inv ∼ t = tan ∼ t − ∼ t ...(17) 4.5 Avoiding narrow top lands

inv ∼ wt = tan ∼ wt − ∼ wt ...(18) The maximum permissible profile shift coefficients


are obtained by iteratively varying the profile shift
4.3 Sum of profile shift coefficients for zero coefficients of the pinion and gear until their top land
backlash thicknesses are equal to the minimum allowable.

NOTE: The equations to follow in this section are for 4.6 Balanced specific sliding
external gear pairs only. The corresponding equations
for internal gear pairs are given in 5.2.1. Specific sliding is defined as the ratio of the sliding
velocity to rolling velocity at a particular point of
aref (inv ∼ wt − inv ∼ t) contact on the gear of interest.
x1 + x2 = ...(19)
mn tan ∼ t
Maximum pitting and wear resistance is obtained by
4.4 Avoiding involute undercut teeth balancing the specific sliding at each end of the path
of contact. This is done by iteratively varying the
There are a number of design options to compen- profile shift coefficients of the pinion and gear until
sate for undercut teeth, including profile shift. the following equation is satisfied:

Undercut is a condition in generated gear teeth


where any part of the fillet curve lies inside a line
ᏋCC 6
1
− 1 ᏐᏋCC 6
5

− 1 = u2 ...(23)

drawn tangent to the working profile at its point of where


juncture with the fillet. For such gears, the end of the
cutting tool has extended inside of the point of C6 is the distance between interference points
(see figure 5);
tangency of the base circle and the line of action,
and removed an excessive amount of material. C1 is the distance to SAP (see figure 5);
This removal of material can weaken the tooth and C5 is the distance to EAP (see figure 5).
also may reduce the length of contact, since gear
C 6 = Ꮛrb1 + rb2Ꮠ tan ∼ wt = a w sin ∼ wt ...(24)
action can only take place on the involute portion of
the flank. Should a gear be made by another C 1 = C6 − Ꭹr2a2 − r2b2 ...(25)

C 5 = Ꭹr2a1 − r2b1
method that would not undercut the flanks, there
may be interference of material and generally the ...(26)
gear would not mesh or roll with another gear. See C 2 = C5 − pbt ...(27)
AGMA 908--B89, Geometry Factors for Determin-
C 3 = rb1 tan ∼ wt ...(28)
ing the Pitting Resistance and Bending Strength of
Spur, Helical and Herringbone Gear Teeth. C 4 = C1 + pbt ...(29)

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 913--A98

∼wt rb2

ra2

Line of
action

aw
pbt

EAP
pbt
HPSTC

P
LPSTC
SAP ra1
C1
C2
C3
C4
rb1 C6
C5

Figure 5 -- Distances along the line of action for external gear pair

4.7 Balanced flash temperature two pair zones (between points SAP and LPSTC
and between points HPSTC and EAP, see figure 5).
According to Blok’s theory, the maximum scuffing
resistance is obtained by minimizing the contact 4.8 Balanced bending strength
temperature. This is done by iteratively varying the Maximum bending resistance is obtained by itera-
profile shift coefficients of the pinion and gear, while tively varying the profile shift coefficients of the
calculating the flash temperature by Blok’s equation pinion and gear until the ratio of the bending
(see annex A of ANSI/AGMA 2101--C95, Funda- strength geometry factors equals the ratio of
mental Rating Factors and Calculation Methods for allowable bending stresses, i.e.,
Involute Spur and Helical Gear Teeth), until the flash
Y J1 σ
temperature peaks in the approach and recess = σF2 ...(30)
portions of the line of action are equal. The flash Y J2 F1
temperature should be calculated at the points SAP, See ANSI/AGMA 2101--C95, clause 5.2 through
LPSTC, HPSTC, EAP and at several points in the 5.2.3, for an explanation of YJ1, YJ2, σF1 and σF2.

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AGMA 913--A98 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

4.9 Tooth thinning for backlash 4.10.1.2 Full working depth -- option 2

The small adjustments of the position of the cutting 


h a1 = 1 + x 1 − 1 k m n
2
 ...(36)

 
tool to thin the gear teeth for backlash are
considered independently of the profile shift coeffi- h a2 = 1 + x 2 − 1 k m n ...(37)
2
cients (x1 and x2) by specifying the amount the CAUTION: Option 2 (full working depth) may give in-
pinion and gear teeth are thinned for backlash, ∆sn1 sufficient tip--to--root clearance if aw & aref. Check
and ∆sn2. This way, the outside diameters are clearances or use option 3 (full tip--to--root clearance)
independent of tooth thinning for backlash. The to be safe.
total thinning coefficients are selected such that: 4.10.1.3 Full tip--to--root clearance -- option 3

Ꮛ Ꮠ
a
∆ s n1 + ∆ s n2 = j n aref ...(31)
h a1 = Ꮛ1 + x 1 − kᏐ m n ...(38)
h a2 = Ꮛ1 + x 2 − kᏐ m n
w
...(39)
where 4.10.2 Root radius and clearance
jn is normal operating circular backlash Root radii (cut with rack tool). See figure 6.
A common convention among gear manufacturers r f1 = r1 − ha01 + x E1 m n ...(40)
is to reduce the normal tooth thickness of each r f2 = r2 − ha02 + x E2 m n ...(41)
member by the same amount, which may be a value
The root clearances are:
in m or a function of the normal module, such as
0.024mn . This maintains the same whole depth for c 1 = aw − rf1 − ra2 ...(42)
both members. However, for other directions of c 2 = aw − rf2 − ra1 ...(43)
tooth thickness measurement, see ANSI/AGMA
2002--B88.
tool reference line
4.10 Tip--shortening coefficient for external
gearsets
yE
For gears operating on extended centers (aw > aref),
the outside radii of the gears may be shortened to
maintain adequate tip--to--root clearance. The ha0
tool pitch line
amount of adjustment of the outside radii is
proportional to the tip--shortening coefficient, k: r

∆ a ref
k = x1 + x2 − mn ...(32) yE = xE mn
rf
where
∆ a ref = aw − aref ...(33) Figure 6 -- Root radii cut with rack tool
For internal gear sets, see 5.2.3. (refer to annex A for additional information)

4.10.1 Tip--shortening options 4.11 Addendum circle radii


r a1 = r1 + ha1 ...(44)
Three of the tip shortening options are as follows:
r a2 = r2 + ha2 ...(45)
4.10.1.1 Full length teeth -- option 1
For internal gear sets, see 5.3.
h a1 = Ꮛ1 + x 1Ꮠ mn ...(34) 4.12 Generating rack shift coefficients
h a2 = Ꮛ1 + x 2Ꮠ mn ...(35) ∆ s n1
x E1 = x 1 − ...(46)
CAUTION: Option 1 (full length teeth) may give insuffi- 2 mn tan ∼ n
cient tip--to--root clearance if aw & aref. Check clear- ∆ s n2
x E2 = x 2 − ...(47)
ances or use option 3 (full tip--to--root clearance). 2 mn tan ∼ n

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 913--A98

For internal gear sets, see 5.4. 5 Internal gear pair calculations
4.13 Normal circular tooth thickness
5.1 Internal gear rack shift
2

s n1 = 1 π + 2 x E1 tan ∼ n m n  ...(48)
Equations 57 through 59 are equations 7 through 9

s n2 = 1 π + 2 x E2 tan ∼ n m n
2
 ...(49) altered for the case of an internal gear.1)

For internal gears, see 5.5. s n = 1 π mn − 2 y tan ∼ n ...(57)


2
∆ sn
4.14 Determining profile shift coefficients of yE = y + ...(58)
2 tan ∼ n
existing gear pairs
a (inv ∼ wt − inv ∼ t)
If the normal circular tooth thicknesses are known, y 2 − y 1 = ref tan ∼ t
...(59)
the generating rack shift coefficients are found from In equation 59, the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the
equations 50 and 51. pinion and the gear.
sn1 π
mn − 2 ...(50) The addendum of an external gear is generally
x E1 = chosen equal to (1.0 mn + y). The corresponding
2 tan ∼ n
sn2 π value for an internal gear would be (1.0 mn - y), but
mn − 2 ...(51) this value often leads to interference at the pinion
x E2 =
2 tan ∼ n tooth fillets. It is common to choose the largest
For internal gear sets, see 5.6. addendum possible, consistent with no interfer-
4.14.1 Sum of generating rack shift coefficients ence. The tip circle radius of the internal gear is then
given by:
Σ x E = x E2 + x E1 ...(52)
For internal gear sets, see 5.6.1.
4.14.2 Normal operating circular backlash
r 2a2 = r2b2 + Ꮑ Ꮛrb2 − rb1Ꮠ tan ∼ wt + ᎩᏋr fP1 +


2
jn = Ꮛ2 a w
aref Ꮠ
m n tan ∼ n Ꮛ
Σ x − Σ x EᏐ ...(53)
n ∼ wt + ᎩᏋr 2
0.025 mnᏐ − r 2b1
fP1 +
For internal gear sets, see 5.6.2. ...(60)

4.14.3 Tooth thinning for backlash where

The tooth thinning coefficients must satisfy equa- rfP1 is the radius of the pinion fillet circle, i.e., the
tion 31. However, it is usually impossible to radius at which the involute tooth profile
meets the tooth fillet.
determine the ratio ∆sn1/∆sn2 that was used for
existing gears. The following analysis is based on Equation 60 insures that no interference occurs at
common practice where ∆sn1 Ζ ∆sn2Ι in which case: the pinion root fillet. A similar equation can be used

Ꮛ Ꮠ
a to avoid the possibility of interference with the root
∆ s n1 = ∆ sn2 = 1 j n aref ...(54) fillets of the cutter, which would cause the tooth tips
2 w
of the internal gear to be undercut. Other consider-
4.14.4 Profile shift coefficients
ations affecting tip shortening of internal gears are
From equations 46 and 47: discussed in 5.2.3.
∆ s n1 5.2 Internal gear pair profile shift calculation
x 1 = x E1 + ...(55)
2 mn tan ∼ n
∆ s n2 The basic gear geometry equations are given in 4.2.
x 2 = x E2 + ...(56)
2 mn tan ∼ n These equations are valid for both external and
For internal gear sets, see 5.6.3. internal gearsets.

_______________________
1) CAUTION: There are different conventions for the sign of x used in internal gear calculations.

11
AGMA 913--A98 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

5.2.1 Sum of profile shift coefficients for zero where


backlash
C 6 = Ꮛrb2 − rb1Ꮠ tan ∼ wt = a w sin ∼ wt ...(64)

For internal gearsets: C 1 = Ꭹr2a2 − r2b2 − C6 ...(65)

a ref = r2 − r1 ...(61) C 5 = Ꭹr2a1 − r2b1 ...(66)

aref (inv ∼ wt − inv ∼ t) C 2 = C5 − pbt ...(67)


x2 − x1 = ...(62)
mn tan ∼ t C 3 = rb1 tan ∼ wt ...(68)
C 4 = C1 + pbt ...(69)
5.2.2 Balanced specific sliding
5.2.3 Tip shortening for internal gearsets
To balance the specific sliding at each end of the For internal gear pairs operating at extended
path of contact for an external gear pair see 4.6. For centers (aw > aref), the addendum values are
an internal gear pair, this is done by iteratively generally reduced for a number of reasons. The tip
varying the profile shift coefficients of the pinion and shortening coefficient given by equation 32 is valid
gear, see figure 7, until the following equation is for an external gear pair, in which both gears are cut
satisfied: by a rack--type cutter. Since an internal gear is

ᏋCC + 1 ᏐᏋCC + 1 Ꮠ = u
usually cut by a pinion cutter, the tip shortening
6 6 2 ...(63) coefficient is not particularly useful for calculating
1 5 the addendum circle radii of an internal gear pair.

EAP

C4 HPSTC

C3 C5
P
C2
LPSTC
ra1
C1
SAP
C6 ∼wt

rb1
rb2 rfP1

ra2

O1
aw

O2

Figure 7 -- Distances along the line of action for an internal gear pair

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 913--A98

To choose the addendum circle radius of the pinion, 5.5 Internal gear pair normal circular tooth
the root circle radius, rf2, of the internal gear must thickness
first be calculated. This will depend on the required
tooth thickness and the diameter and tooth thick- 
2

s n1 = 1 π + 2 x E1 tan ∼ n m n ...(75)
ness of the pinion cutter. The addendum circle
radius of the pinion should then be given by: s n2 = 1 π − 2 x E2 tan ∼ n m n ...(76)
r a1 = rf2 − aw − c i2 2
...(70)
where
5.6 Determining profile shift coefficients of
ci2 is the required clearance at the tooth roots existing internal gear pairs
of the internal gear.
An expression for the addendum circle radius, ra2, If the normal circular tooth thicknesses are known,
of the internal gear was given in equation 60. This the rack shift coefficients are found from equations
value was chosen to ensure that there would be no 76 and 77.
interference between the internal gear tooth tips sn1 π
and the pinion tooth fillets. There are several other mn − 2 ...(77)
x E1 =
requirements that should also be considered. 2 tan ∼ n
There must be no interference between the internal
gear tooth tips and the tooth fillets of the pinion  s n2
mn − 2
π 
x E2 = −   ...(78)
cutter. The base circle of the pinion cutter should lie
inside the tooth tips of the internal gear (c1 > 0). In
 2 tan ∼ n

addition, there must be no rubbing between the
cutter and gear during the return strokes of the 5.6.1 Sum of rack shift coefficients
cutter. Finally, there must be no interference
between the tooth tips of the internal gear and those Σ x E = x E2 − x E1 ...(79)
of the pinion, which can occur when the difference
between the tooth numbers is small. Reference [4]
5.6.2 Normal operating circular backlash
describes a design procedure for internal gear pairs
which includes all of the above considerations.
jn = − Ꮛ2 a w
a ref Ꮠ
mn tan ∼ n Ꮛ
Σ x − Σ x EᏐ ...(80)
5.3 Internal gear pair addendum circle radii
r a1 = r1 + ha1 ...(71) 5.6.3 Internal gear pairs profile shift
coefficients
r a2 = r2 − ha2 ...(72)
From equations 72 and 73:
5.4 Internal gear pair rack shift coefficients
∆ s n1
∆ s n1 x 1 = x E1 + ...(81)
x E1 = x 1 − ...(73) 2 mn tan ∼ n
2 mn tan ∼ n
∆ s n2 ∆ s n2
x E2 = x 2 + ...(74) x 2 = x E2 − ...(82)
2 mn tan ∼ n 2 mn tan ∼ n

13
AGMA 913--A98 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

(This page is intentionally left blank.)

14
AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 913--A98

Annex A
(informative)
Tool proportions

[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a
part of AGMA 913--A98, Method for Specifying the Geometry of Spur and Helical Gears.]

A.1 Purpose A.3 Equations for calculation of tool proportions


This annex defines a method for deriving the This annex uses the geometry of the measured
geometry of the hypothetical tool basic rack. The roughing tool and the finishing stock allowance. See
tool geometry used by ISO 6336 for the purpose of ISO 53 for tooth form basic rack definitions and
calculating gear ratings is hypothetical rather than detailed information. In ISO 6336--3, figure 2,
actual tool geometry. The tool proportions required specific tooth form and hypothetical tool basic racks
are those of a hypothetical tool basic rack that is are defined which include the effects of tool protuber-
conjugate to (the complement of) the basic rack, ance and stock allowance for finishing, but not tooth
zero backlash tooth form. The hypothetical tool thinning for backlash. Figure A.1 illustrates the
contains the combined effects of the roughing tool, relations between the basic racks of the tooth form,
which produces the root, and the finishing tools for the hypothetical tool and the roughing tool.
the flank. Changing the stock allowance for finishing
A.3.1 Normalized dimensions (coefficients)
will change the tool addendum.
Some of the tool geometry requires coefficients,
A.2 Definitions
which are also known as normalized dimensions. To
The basic rack is an imaginary rack having the normalize SI dimensions, divide the dimension (mm)
standard basic rack tooth profile in the normal by the module (mm). For the example used, the
section. It corresponds to a zero backlash gear with addendum of the 4.233 module hob basic rack is
an infinite pitch radius. A gear with a normal module, 6.248 mm, so the normalized addendum is
mn , and a normal pressure angle, αn , at its reference 6.248/4.233 = 1.476.
circle, has a basic rack whose normal pitch is π mn
To normalize an English dimension, multiply the
and whose pressure angle is ∼n .
dimension (inches) by the diametral pitch (in --1). In
The basic rack reference line is defined as the English units, since the example 6 Pnd hob has an
datum line where the normal tooth thickness is equal addendum of 0.246 inch, the normalized addendum
to (π mn )/2. Therefore, the tooth thickness equals the is 6 ¢ 0.246 = 1.476.
space between the teeth on the reference line. As can be seen, the resulting coefficient is the same
The tool measurement line is an arbitrary datum because it is dimensionless.
line on the actual tool where the tool tooth thickness
A.3.2 Calculation from the finishing stock
is measured and from which the tool addendum is
allowance and tool dimensions
measured.
mn is the normal module (for SI units, mm);
The hypothetical tool is by definition conjugate to
the basic rack, so the hypothetical tool reference line Pnd is the normal diametral pitch, in --1;
is coincident with the basic rack reference line for the q is the finish stock allowance per flank, in
zero backlash gear. (mm);
The tool reference line is defined as the line where ∼n is the normal pressure angle at the
the actual tool normal tooth thickness is equal to reference diameter;
(π mn )/2 or π/(2 Pnd ). See ISO 6336--3, figure 2.
ha is the measured tool addendum (from the
The reference circle of a gear is that pitch circle tool tip to the tool measurement line), in
whose diameter is equal to (z mn )/cosβ, where z is the (mm);
number of teeth and β is the helix angle.
t is the normal circular tooth thickness of
For additional and more formal definitions see ISO roughing tool at the measurement line, in
1122--1 and ANSI/AGMA 1012--F90. (mm);

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AGMA 913--A98 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Normal circular pitch


π mn
Note the value for ∆s is shown
positive. It may have a negative
value, which would change the π mn π mn
relationships shown accordingly. 2 2
Hypothetical t
tool
∆s
2
Hypothetical Material
tool allowance, q,
dedendum, for finish
hf0 machining
Basic rack Tool reference line
addendum,
haP Hypothetical tool and ∆s
basic rack reference line 2 tan(∼ n)

Tool measurement line


Hypothetical tool
Measured
addendum, ha0 tool (hob)
Gear basic rack addendum,
dedendum, hfP q Tool
ha
sin(∼ n)

Profile
Basic rack “Zero Backlash” gear tooth angle,
∼n

Figure A.1 -- Basic rack and hypothetical tool represented in rack form

∆s is the adjustment if the roughing tool mea- A.3.3 Tool basic rack addendum coefficient
surement line is not coincident with the tool (normalized)
reference line. When the measured tool
Tool basic rack addendum coefficient (normalized)
addendum is taken from the tool reference
line, then ∆s = 0. Otherwise, it may be is:
calculated as:
h a0n = P nd ha0 ...(A.3)

h
∆s = π − t ...(A.1) h a0n = ma0 ...(A.3M)
2P nd n

A.3.4 Additional tool data required


π mn pr is the protuberance, as measured on tool, in
∆s = − t ...(A.1M)
2
(mm). Note that the 1996 release of ISO
ha0 is the hypothetical tool basic rack adden- 6336--1, page 9, lists the symbol for protu-
dum, in (mm). It is measured from the tip to berance as qpr, yet ISO 6336--3, figure 2,
the reference plane, where the hypothetical uses the symbol pr, which is also used here.
tool normal tooth thickness is (π mn )/2 or π/(2 spr is net protuberance
Pnd ). The hypothetical tool basic rack spr = pr -- q
addendum is equal to hfP, the dedendum of
the zero backlash tooth form basic rack. ±a0 is the tip radius, in (mm). This is assumed
See figure A.1. Either SI or English units to be equal to the tooth form basic rack root
may be used in the following equation: radius, ±fP. The maximum value that ±a0 can
have is that for a full fillet radius. An equation
for a full fillet radius may be derived from ISO
∆s q 6336--3, equation 12, by setting E = 0 and
h fP = h a0 = h a + − ...(A.2)
2 tan ∼ n sin ∼ n solving for ±a0 max:

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 913--A98

π cos ∼ + s − h sin ∼ Pinion Wheel Unit


n pr n
4 P nd a0
Pnd 6.0 in--1 Normal diametral pitch.
± a0 max =
1 − sin ∼ n ...(A.4) q 0.0053 0.0053 in Finish stock allowance
per flank.
π m cos ∼ + s − h sin ∼ ∼n 20 deg Normal pressure angle
n n pr a0 n
± a0 max = 4 at the reference diame-
1 − sin ∼ n ...(A.4M) ter.
ha 0.2460 in Measured tool adden-
dum (to reference line).
t 0.2618 in Normal circular tooth
A.3.5 Basic rack fillet radius coefficient thickness of roughing
(normalized) tool.

Basic rack fillet radius coefficient (normalized):

± a0n = P nd ± a0 Calculated values:


...(A.5)
±
± a0n = ma0 ...(A.5M)
n
∆s = π −t
2 P nd
A.4 Example calculation of tool proportions = π − 0.2618 = 0.0000
2(6)
The following example shows how the tool propor-
tions are calculated in English units for the sample
problem shown. This sample problem is based on h fP = h a0 = h a + ∆s − q
2 tan ∼ n sin ∼ n
AGMA 918--A93, example 3.1.3, see figure A.2. In
this example, the tool measurement line is coinci- = 0.246 + 0 − 0.0053 = 0.2305
dent with the tool reference line. 2 tan20 sin20

A.4.1 Addendum of tool basic rack (inch units) h a0n = P nd h a0 = 6(0.2305) = 1.383
Data needed for calculation: Tool basic rack addendum, normalized.

0.5236
0.2618 0.006
R =0.0682
Full

0.2460

20.00

20.00
Ref
Protuberance
normal plane

Figure A.2 -- Hob basic rack (linear dimensions in inches)

17
AGMA 913--A98 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

A.4.2 Addendum of tool basic rack (SI units) Calculated values:


Net protuberance.
Data needed for calculation:
spr = pr -- q
Pinion Wheel Unit = 0.006 -- 0.0053 = 0.0007
mn 4.23333 mm Normal module Full fillet radius check.
q 0.13462 0.13462 mm Finish stock allow- π cos(∼ ) + s − h sin(∼ )
4 P nd n pr a0 n
ance per flank. ± a0 max =
∼n 20 deg Normal pressure 1 − sin(∼ n)
angle at the refer- π cos(20) + 0.0007 − 0.2305 sin(20)
ence diameter. 46
ha =
6.24840 mm Measured tool ad- 1 − sin(20)
dendum (to refer-
ence line).
= 0.0682
t 6.6497 mm Normal circular tooth
thickness of roughing
tool. Normalized basic rack fillet radius
± a0n = P nd ± a0
Calculated values:
= 6(0.0682) = 0.4092
π mn
∆s = −t
2
A.4.4 Fillet radius (SI units)
π4.23333
= − 6.6497 = 0.0000
2 Data needed for calculation:
Pinion WheelUnit
∆s − q mn 4.23333 mm Normal module
h fP = h a0 = h a + ∼n
2 tan ∼ n sin ∼ n 20 deg Normal pressure
angle at the refer-
= 6.24840 + 0 − 0.13462 = 5.8548
ence diameter.
2 tan20 sin20 ha0 5.85470 5.85470 mm Hypothetical tool ba-
sic rack addendum.
pr 0.15240 0.15240 mm Protuberance.
h
h a0n = ma0 = 5.8548 = 1.383 q 0.13462 0.13462 mm Finish stock allow-
n 4.2333 ance per flank.

Calculated values:
A.4.3 Basic rack fillet radius (inch units) Net protuberance

The basic rack fillet radius is normally given on the s pr = pr − q


tool drawing. However, if a full fillet radius is = 0.1524 − 0.13462 = 0.01778
specified without a dimension being given, it may be
Full fillet radius check
calculated as follows. Further, a given fillet radius
may be checked to be sure that it does not exceed π m cos(∼ ) + s − h sin(∼ )
n n pr n
± a0 max = 4
the value for a full fillet radius. a0
1 − sin(∼ n)
Data needed for calculation: π
4.2333 cos 20 + 0.01778 − 5.8547 sin 20
=4
Pinion Wheel Unit 1 − sin 20
Pnd 6.0 in--1 Normal diametral pitch.
∼n 20 deg Normal pressure angle = 1.7321
at the reference diame-
ter.
ha 0 0.2305 0.2305 in Hypothetical tool basic Normalized basic rack fillet radius
rack addendum. ±
± a0n = ma0
pr 0.0060 0.0060 in Protuberance. n
q 0.0053 0.0053 in Finish stock allowance
per flank. = 1.7321 = 0.4092
4.233

18
AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 913--A98

Annex B
(informative)
Calculation of profile shift

[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of
AGMA 913--A98, Method for Specifying the Geometry of Spur and Helical Gears.]

B.1 Purpose of the sign of x, the tool is “fed in” a little further to thin
the teeth for backlash. When the tool is positioned to
This annex gives a procedure for calculating profile produce these finished teeth, the distance between
shift coefficients from the finished normal circular the hypothetical tool reference line and the gear
tooth thickness. It is based on the assumption that reference circle is known as the generating rack shift
backlash is split equally between the gear and the coefficient, xE .
pinion. Profile shift coefficients for the gear and
pinion affect the calculation of tooth stiffness, which The generating rack shift coefficient for the pinion,
affects load distribution across the face of the teeth xE1, and gear, xE2, may be calculated from the
(KHβ), internal dynamic factor (Kv ) and root bending finished normal circular tooth thickness at the
strength. The nominal (zero backlash) values of reference circle (equations B.1 and B.2). The zero
profile shift coefficient must be used for consistent backlash profile shift coefficients are determined,
results. with this method, by adding equal amounts to the
generating rack shift coefficients, such that they
The profile shift coefficient is the distance (ex- would produce a zero backlash gear pair.
pressed as a coefficient, i.e., normalized) between
the basic rack reference line and the reference circle Figure B.2 shows, in rack form, the hypothetical tool,
on the gear when the basic rack is positioned for zero the basic rack and a finished gear tooth. In rack form
backlash teeth. See annex A for definitions. Figure the simple trigonometric relationships may be seen.
B.1 shows the hypothetical rack tool cutting the zero A tool (hob) is also shown in rack form to illustrate the
backlash tooth form on the left, and cutting the difference between an actual tool and the hypotheti-
finished tooth form on the right. For a positive value cal tool. For gearing produced to final shape without
of the x factor, the tool is “held out” from the part to finishing stock, there is no difference between the
produce thicker teeth than “standard”. Regardless actual tool and the hypothetical tool.

x mn ∆x m xE mn
Profile shift 2 n Generating
For
Hypothetical (zero backlash) backlash rack shift Hypothetical
tool tooth tool
thinning

Hypothetical tool and Hypothetical tool


basic rack reference line reference line
Tangent line to gear Gear reference
reference circle circle

Zero backlash gear Finished gear

Figure B.1 -- Hypothetical tool with zero backlash and finished gear

19
20

AGMA 913--A98
Figure B.2 -- Basic rack, hypothetical tool and finished gear tooth represented in rack form

Normal circular pitch


π mn

π mn π mn π mn
2 2 2

t
Hypothetical αs/2
tool

Material
Hypothetical allowance, q,
tool for finish
dedendum, machining
hf0 Basic rack Tool reference line ∆x
mn x mn
addendum, Finished 2 Basic rack
haP ∆s gear tooth For backlash Profile shift (zero reference line
Basic rack reference line tooth thinning backlash)
2 tan (∼n)

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION


Tool measurement line
} Reference line of
hypothetical tool
positioned for finished
Hypothetical tool (thinned) tooth
Measured
addendum, ha0
tool (hob) Finished gear xE mn
Gear basic rack
addendum, tooth normal Generating Tangent line to gear
dedendum, hfP Tool
ha q circular thickness, sn , rack shift reference circle
sin (∼n ) at reference circle
Gear
dedendum
Basic rack “Zero Backlash” gear tooth Zero backlash
tooth thickness

Profile
angle,
∼n
AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 913--A98

In figures B.1 and B.2: The generating rack shift coefficients for the pinion
and the wheel are:
-- The tooth thinning for backlash is greatly ex-
s n1 P nd − π
aggerated;
x E1 = 2 ...(B.1)
-- The profile shift coefficient, x, is multiplied by 2 tan ∼ n
the normal module, mn , to obtain the amount of
profile shift, because x is a coefficient; s n1 π
mn − 2 ...(B.1M)
x E1 =
-- Note that the values for ∆s, xE and x are shown 2 tan ∼ n
positive. They may have negative values, which
would change the relationships shown in the fig- s n2 P nd − π
x E2 = 2 ...(B.2)
ures accordingly. 2 tan ∼ n

The root diameter of the part may be calculated from s n2 π


the hypothetical tool addendum, ha0, and the gener- mn − 2 ...(B.2M)
x E2 =
ating rack shift, xE . Using the zero backlash profile 2 tan ∼ n
shift coefficient, x, rather than xE to calculate the root Calculate the sum of the nominal “zero--backlash”
diameter will result in a larger calculated root profile shift factors for this gear pair as:
diameter. The actual root diameter is process
dependent, but it is generally smaller than that
calculated with x. ᒑ x = z1 +2 z2 inv∼ wt − inv∼ t
tan ∼ n
...(B.3)

B.2 Equations for calculation of profile shift inv( ) is the involute function of the angle.
coefficients inv(∼) = tan(∼) -- ∼ (where ∼ in radians)
Determine the adjustment needed to bring the
Pnd is the normal diametral pitch;
generating rack shift coefficients, xE1 and xE2, to their
mn is the normal module; zero--backlash values.

z1, z2 is the number of teeth on pinion and


wheel, respectively;
∆x = ᒑ x − ᏋxE1 + xE2Ꮠ ...(B.4)

sn1, sn2 is the maximum finished normal circu- If the value of ∆x is negative, you should review the
lar tooth thickness (after all finishing geometry of the gear pair, since interference be-
operations, including tooth thinning for tween the finished gear flanks is indicated.
backlash) of pinion and wheel respec-
The nominal zero backlash profile shift coefficients,
tively, measured at the reference (stan-
x1 and x2, of the pinion and wheel are:
dard pitch) diameter;

∼wt is the operating pressure angle (trans- x 1 = x E1 + ∆x (B.5)


verse); 2

∼t is the pressure angle at the reference


(standard pitch) diameter (transverse); x 2 = x E2 + ∆x ...(B.6)
2
∼n is the pressure angle at the reference
(standard pitch) diameter (normal); B.3 Example calculation of profile shift
coefficients (inch units)
xE1, xE2 is the generating rack shift coefficients
of pinion and wheel, respectively; The following example shows how the profile shift
coefficients are calculated (with English units) for the
x1, x2 is the nominal zero backlash profile sample problem shown in the other appendices.
shift coefficient of pinion and wheel, This sample problem is based on AGMA 918--A93
respectively. example 3.1.3.

21
AGMA 913--A98 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Data needed for calculation:


ᒑ x = z1 +2 z2 inv ∼ wt − inv ∼ t
tan ∼ n
Pinion Wheel
Unit
in--1 Normal diametral inv(22.012) − inv(20.6469)
= 21 + 86
Pnd 6.0
pitch. 2 tan(20)
β 15 deg Standard helix = 0.53425
angle.
∼n 20 deg Normal pressure
angle at the refer- inv( ) is the involute function of the angle.
ence diameter.
inv(α) = tan(α) -- α (where α in radians)
sn 0.32262 0.25780 in Actual normal circu-
lar tooth thickness Adjustment to bring the generating rack shift
at reference diame- coefficients to their zero--backlash values:
ter.
z1, z2
a
21
9.3175
86 --
in
Number of teeth.
Center distance. ∆x = ᒑ x − ᏋxE1 + xE2Ꮠ
= 0.53425 − (0.50131 + (− 0.03296))
Calculated values:
= 0.06591
Pressure angle at the reference (standard pitch)
diameter (transverse):
The values of x1 and x2 are:

∼ t = tan −1 Ꮛtancos∼β Ꮠ
n x 1 = x E1 + ∆x
2
= 0.50131 + 0.06591 = 0.5343
2
Ꮛ Ꮠ
= tan −1 tan 20 = 20.6469 degrees
cos 15
x 2 = x E2 + ∆x
2
Operating pressure angle (transverse):
= − 0.03296 + 0.06591 = 0.0000
2

∼ wt = cos −1 ᏁᏋz 1 + z 2Ꮠ Ꮛ cos ∼ t


2 P nd a cos β
ᏐᏆ B.3 Example calculation of profile shift
coefficients (SI units)


= cos −1 (21 + 86) Ꮛ2(6)(9.3175)
cos(20.6469)
cos(15)
ᏐᏆ Data needed for calculation:
Pinion WheelUnit
mn 4.23333 mm Normal module
= 22.0120 degrees β 15 deg Standard helix
angle.
Generating rack shift coefficients: ∼n 20 deg Normal pressure
angle at the refer-
ence diameter.
s n1 P nd − π sn 8.19455 6.54812 mm Actual normal
x E1 = 2
2 tan ∼ n circular tooth
thickness at
0.32262(6) − π reference diameter.
= 2 = 0.50131 z1, z2 21 86 -- -- Number of teeth.
2 tan(20) a 236.66450 mm Center distance.

Calculated values:
s n2 P nd − π
x E2 = 2 Pressure angle at the reference (standard pitch)
2 tan ∼ n
diameter (transverse):
0.25780(6) − π

Ꮛtancos∼β Ꮠ
= 2 = − 0.03296
2 tan(20) ∼ t = tan −1 n

Sum of the nominal “zero--backlash” profile shift Ꮛ Ꮠ


= tan −1 tan 20 = 20.6469 degrees
cos 15
coefficients:

22
AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 913--A98

Operating pressure angle (transverse):


ᒑ x = z1 +2 z2 inv ∼ wt − inv ∼ t
tan ∼ n

∼ wt = cos−1 Ꮛz 1 + z2Ꮠ Ꮛ
2 a cos β
ᏐᏆ
m n cos ∼ t
= 21 + 86
2
inv(22.012) − inv(20.6469)
tan(20)


= cos −1 (21 + 86) Ꮛ(4.23333) cos (20.6469)
2(236.6645) cos (15)
ᏐᏆ = 0.53425

= 22.0120 degrees Adjustment to bring the generating rack shift


coefficients to their zero--backlash values:
Generating rack shift coefficients:

s n1 π
∆x = ᒑ x − ᏋxE1 + xE2Ꮠ
mn – 2 = 0.53425 − (0.50131 + (− 0.03296))
x E1 =
2 tan α n
= 0.06591
8.19455 − π
= 4.23333 2 = 0.50131
The values of x1 and x2 are:
2 tan(20)

s n2 x 1 = x E1 + ∆x
π 2
mn − 2
x E2 = −
2 tan α n = 0.50131 + 0.06591 = 0.5343
2
6.54812 − π
= 4.23333 2 = − 0.03296
2 tan(20) x 2 = x E2 + ∆x
2
Sum of the nominal “zero--backlash” profile shift = − 0.03296 + 0.06591 = 0.0000
coefficients: 2

23
AGMA 913--A98 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

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24
AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 913--A98

Bibliography
The following documents are either referenced in the text of AGMA 913--A98, Method for Specifying the Geom-
etry of Spur and Helical Gears, or indicated for additional information.

1. AGMA 908--B89, Information Sheet -- Geometry Factors for Determining the Pitting Resistance and
Bending Strength of Spur, Helical and Herringbone Gear Teeth, 1989
2. ANSI/AGMA 2101--C95, Fundamental Rating Factors and Calculation Methods for Involute Spur and
Helical Gear Teeth, 1995
3. AGMA 901--A92, Information Sheet -- A Rational Procedure for the Preliminary Design of Minimum Volume
Gears, 1992
4. Colbourne, J.R., The Geometric Design of Internal Gear Pairs, AGMA Paper No. 87FTM2
5. McVittie, D.R., Describing Nonstandard Gears -- An Alternative to the Rack Shift Coefficient, AGMA Paper
No. 86FTM1
6. DIN 3992, Profilverschiebung bei Stirnrädern mit Aussenverzahnung
7. ISO 53:1998, Cylindrical gears for general and heavy engineering -- Basic rack
8. ISO 1122--1:1998, Glossary of gear terms -- Part 1: Geometrical definitions
9. ISO/TR 4467:1982, Addendum modification of the teeth of cylindrical gears for speed--reducing and
speed--increasing gear pairs
10. ISO/TR 10064--2:1996, Cylindrical gears -- Code of inspection practice -- Part 2: Inspection related to radial
composite deviations, runout, tooth thickness and backlash
11. Lorenz Gear Cutting Tools -- 1961
12. MAAG Gear Book, MAAG Gear Company, Ltd., Zurich, Switzerland, 1990
13. DIN 3960:1980, Begriffe und Bestimmungsgrößen für Stirnräder (Zylinderräder) und Stimradpaare
(Zylinderradpaare) mit Evolventenverzahnung
14. ISO 6336--3:1992, Calculation of load capacity of spur and helical gears -- Part 3: Calculation of tooth
strength
15. AGMA 918--A93, Information Sheet -- A Summary of Numerical Examples Demonstrating the Procedures
for Calculating Geometry Factors for Spur and Helical Gears
16. ANSI/AGMA 2002--B88 (R95), Tooth Thickness Specification and Measurement, 1988

25
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