© All Rights Reserved

208 views

© All Rights Reserved

- AGMA 915-2-A05
- AGMA 910-C90
- AGMA 915-3-A99
- AGMA_ANSI_ISO1328_2_99.pdf
- AGMA 930-A05
- AGMA 915-1-A02 Gears Inspect
- AGMA 2002-B88
- Agma 927-a01.pdf
- AGMA6011-I03_Specification for High Speed Helical Gear Units
- AGMA 923-B05
- AGMA 1103-H07 Tooth Proportions for Fine- Pitch Spur and Helical Gearing (Metric Edition)
- ANSI AGMA 2015 2A 06
- AGMA 917-B97 Design Manual for Parallel Shaft Fine-pitch Gearing
- 1012-G05 Gear Nomenclature, Definition of Terms
- AGMA 2000-A88.pdf
- AGMA 908-B89
- AGMA 912-A04
- Gear & Pulley engineering - How to Specify (AGMA) Face Gear Quality.pdf
- Ansi Agma6010 f97
- Spline DIN 5480

You are on page 1of 32

Spur and Helical Gears

AGMA 913- A98

(This Information Sheet is NOT an AGMA Standard)

American Method for Specifying the Geometry of Spur and Helical Gears

AGMA 913--A98

Gear

Manufacturers CAUTION NOTICE: AGMA technical publications are subject to constant improvement,

revision, or withdrawal as dictated by experience. Any person who refers to any AGMA

Association Technical Publication should be sure that the publication is the latest available from the

Association on the subject matter.

[Tables or other self--supporting sections may be quoted or extracted. Credit lines should

read: Extracted from AGMA 913--A98, Method for Specifying the Geometry of Spur and

Helical Gears, with the permission of the publisher, the American Gear Manufacturers As-

sociation, 1500 King Street, Suite 201, Alexandria, Virginia 22314.]

ABSTRACT

This information sheet provides information to translate tooth thickness specifications which are expressed in

terms of tooth thickness, center distance or diameter into profile shift coefficients, as that term is used in

international standards.

Published by

1500 King Street, Suite 201, Alexandria, Virginia 22314

All rights reserved.

retrieval system or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

ISBN: 1--55589--714--2

ii

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 913--A98

Contents

Page

Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv

1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

2 Terms and symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

3 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

4 Profile shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

5 Internal gear pair calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Tables

2 Obsolete terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Figures

2 Hypothetical tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

3 Profile shift of a helical gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

4 Effect of profile shift on involute tooth profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

5 Distances along the line of action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

6 Root radii cut with rack tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

7 Distances along the line of action for an internal gear pair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Annexes

A Tool proportions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

B Calculation of profile shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

iii

AGMA 913--A98 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Foreword

[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, in this document are provided for

informational purposes only and are not to be construed as a part of AGMA Information

Sheet 913--A98, Method for Specifying the Geometry of Spur and Helical Gears.]

This information sheet is intended to provide sufficient information to allow its users to be able

to translate tooth thickness specifications which are expressed in terms of tooth thickness,

center distance or diameter into profile shift coefficients, as that term is used in international

standards.

This AGMA information sheet and related publications are based on typical or average data,

conditions or application.

AGMA 913--A98 was approved by the AGMA membership on March 13, 1998.

Suggestions for improvement of this standard will be welcome. They should be sent to the

American Gear Manufacturers Association, 1500 King Street, Suite 201, Alexandria,

Virginia 22314.

iv

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 913--A98

Vice Chairman: D. McCarroll . . . . . . . . . Gleason Works

ACTIVE MEMBERS

R.L. Errichello . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GEARTECH

D. Gonnella . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Texaco Lubricants Company

D.R. McVittie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gear Engineers, Inc.

O.A. LaBath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cincinnati Gear Company

I. Laskin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Irving Laskin, P.E.

G.W. Nagorny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nagorny & Associates

J.W. Polder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Delft University of Technology

L.J. Smith . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Invincible Gear Company

R.E. Smith . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R.E. Smith & Co., Inc.

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS

M. Allard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UNITRAM

M.R. Chaplin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contour Hardening, Inc.

A.S. Cohen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engranes y Maquinaria

L. Faure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CMD

R. Green . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eaton Corporation

T. Okamoto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nippon Gear

v

AGMA 913--A98 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

vi

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 913--A98

the following standards.

ISO 701:1998, International gear notation ----

Symbols for geometrical data

1 Scope ANSI/AGMA 1012--F90, Gear Nomenclature, Def-

initions of Terms with Symbols

This information sheet provides a general method 2.2 Symbols

for specifying profile shift and rack shift, with gear

nomenclature and definitions. This document This information sheet uses the ISO symbols in

describes the effect that profile shift has on the table 1. In cases where there are no ISO symbols,

geometry and performance of gears, but does not or the definitions are different, other symbols are

make specific design recommendations. used.

The equations in the first part of this document NOTE: The symbols, definitions and terminology used

in this information sheet may differ from other AGMA

(clauses 3 and 4) apply to external gear pairs only. publications. The user should not assume that familiar

The corresponding equations for internal gear pairs symbols can be used without a careful study of these

are contained in clause 5. definitions.

ISO Other Where

Symbols Symbols Terms Units first used

C1 Distance to SAP mm Eq 23

C2, C3, C4 Distances along line of action mm Eq 27

C5 Distance to EAP mm Eq 23

C6 Distance between interference points mm Eq 23

YJ1, YJ2 Bending strength geometry factor, pinion and gear ---- Eq 30

aref Reference center distance mm Eq 5

aw Operating center distance mm Eq 16

c Root clearance mm Eq 42

ci2 Required clearance at the tooth root of the internal gear mm Eq 70

d Diameter mm Eq 4

ha0 Addendum of the tool mm Eq 22

ha1, ha2 Addendum, pinion and gear mm Eq 34

haP0 Distance on the cutting tool from the reference line to the mm Eq 21

point near the tooth tip where the straight part of the pro-

file ends and the circular tip begins

(continued)

1

AGMA 913--A98 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Table 1 (concluded)

ISO Other Where

Symbols Symbols Terms Units first used

jn Normal operating circular backlash mm Eq 31

k Tip--shortening coefficient ---- Eq 32

m Module mm Eq 3

p Circular pitch mm Eq 1

r1, r2 Reference radius, pinion and gear mm Eq 5

ra1, ra2 Outside radius, pinion and gear mm Eq 25

rb1, rb2 Base circle radius, pinion and gear mm Eq 13

rf1, rf2 Root radius, pinion and gear mm Eq 42

rfP1 Radius of the pinion fillet circle mm Eq 60

s Tooth thickness mm Eq 2

sn1, sn2 Reference normal circular tooth thickness, pinion and gear mm Eq 7

u Gear ratio ∫ 1.0 ---- Eq 10

xE1, xE2 Generating rack shift coefficient, pinion and gear ---- Eq 46

x1, x2 Profile shift coefficient, pinion and gear ---- Eq 6

x1min Minimum pinion profile shift coefficient to avoid undercut ---- Eq 20

y Profile shift mm Eq 6

yE Rack shift ---- Eq 8

y1min Minimum pinion profile shift to avoid undercut mm Eq 20

z1, z2 Number of teeth, pinion and gear ---- Eq 4

∼n Reference normal pressure angle ---- Eq 7

∼t Reference transverse pressure angle ---- Eq 9

∼wt Operating transverse pressure angle ---- Eq 9

ϒ Reference helix angle ---- Eq 1

∆aref Center distance modification mm Eq 32

∆sn Amount of tooth thinning mm Eq 8

∆sn1, ∆sn2 Tooth thinning for backlash, pinion and gear mm Eq 31

±a0 Radius of the circular tip of the tool mm Eq 22

±fP Fillet radius of the basic rack mm Fig 1

Σx Sum of profile shift coefficients ---- Eq 53

ΣxE Sum of generating rack shift coefficients ---- Eq 52

σF1, σF2 Allowable bending stress, pinion and gear MPa Eq 30

Subscript conversion

(none) At reference diameter

a At addendum (tip) diameter

b At base cylinder diameter

f At root diameter

n Normal plane

t Transverse plane

w Operating, running or working

y At any (undefined) diameter

0 Tool dimensions

1 Pinion

2 Gear or rack

2

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 913--A98

Addendum correction

Addendum elongation

This information sheet provides definitions of profile

Addendum increment

shift and rack shift and shows the relations between

Addendum modification

them and other gear quantities. The terms profile Addendum ratio

shift and rack shift are used in this information sheet Basic rack offset

for standardization. The intention is to replace the Cutter offset

similar or related terms listed in table 2. Delta addendum

Delta teeth

3.1 Basic rack Drop--tooth design

Enlargement/reduction

The standard basic rack tooth profile is the tooth

Enlarged/reduced center distance

profile normal section through the teeth of a basic Enlarged/reduced number of teeth

rack which corresponds to an external gear with Half pitch hob pull

number of teeth z = and diameter d = , see High/low addendum

figure 1. Hob offset

Hob pull

A gear with normal module, mn , and normal Increase/decrease

pressure angle, ∼n , has a basic rack whose normal Involute shift

circular pitch, pn , is πmn and whose normal pressure Long/short addendum

angle is ∼n . Nonstandard addenda

Over/undersize

The reference plane of the basic rack is parallel to its Profile displacement

tooth tip plane and is the plane on which the normal Profile withdrawal

circular tooth thickness, sn , is equal to one half the Rack withdrawal

normal circular pitch. From this definition it follows Tool shift

that the normal circular tooth thickness on the Tool withdrawal

reference plane is equal to the normal circular Unequal addenda

space width. X factor

Normal

∼n pressure

angle

Addendum

π mn

haP

2

Reference line

π mn

hwP

Dedendum

2

haP0

hfP

± Normal circular

fP

thickness, sn

cP

Figure 1 -- The basic rack

3

AGMA 913--A98 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

If the basic rack is oriented so that its teeth make an The pitch plane of the basic rack is parallel to the

angle β with the gear axis, see figure 3, the section reference plane and is the plane that is tangent to

through the basic rack perpendicular to the gear the reference cylinder of the gear. The helix angle of

axis is called the transverse section. On this the gear at its reference cylinder is equal to β.

section, the transverse circular pitch, pt , and the

transverse tooth thickness, st , are given by: 3.3 Reference center distance

pn

pt = ...(1) The reference center distance of an external gear

cos β

s pair is defined as half the sum of the reference

st = n ...(2) diameters.

cos β

and the transverse module, mt , is defined by: Ꮛd1 + d2Ꮠ

m a ref = = r 1 + r2 ...(5)

mt = n ...(3) 2

cos β

The basic rack represents the theoretical gear tooth where r1 and r2 are the radii of the reference

form, not the form of the cutting tool. No allowance cylinders.

is made for backlash, finishing stock or manufactur-

The reference center distance is not necessarily

ing method.

equal to the operating center distance. It is one of

The standard 20 normal pressure angle basic rack the advantages of involute gears, that the operating

of ISO 53 is commonly used. This document is valid center distance can vary from the reference center

for that basic rack and for any other basic rack which distance without change in operation.

meets the criteria of figure 1.

3.4 Hypothetical tool

3.2 Reference cylinder of the gear (standard

pitch cylinder) The hypothetical tool is the complement of the basic

rack as shown in figure 2. The reference line of the

The reference cylinder of a gear is defined as the

hypothetical tool is the line at which its normal

pitch cylinder where circular pitch of the gear is

equal to circular pitch of the basic rack. If the gear circular tooth thickness is equal to π m n .

2

has z teeth and the rack is oriented with its teeth

making an angle β with the gear axis, then the The use of the phrase “hypothetical tool” in this

diameter, d, of the reference cylinder is given by document refers to a rack--type cutter. For

z mn additional information and an example calculation,

d= ...(4)

cos β see annexes A and B.

Dedendum

π mn

2

hf0

haP

tool tooth

π mn

Addendum

2

haP0

Basic rack

ha0

±a0

Profile

∼n angle

Figure 2 -- Hypothetical tool

4

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 913--A98

A zero backlash gear pair is one which operates in The normal circular tooth thickness, sn , of the zero

tight mesh (has no backlash) on the operating backlash gear at its reference cylinder is equal to

center distance. the normal circular space width of the hypothetical

tool at its pitch plane when in tight mesh with the

3.6 Profile shift zero backlash gear.

2

amount by which the reference plane of the NOTE: Equations 7, 8 and 9 are for external gears

hypothetical tool (conjugate to the basic rack) is only. The corresponding equations for internal gears

displaced from the reference cylinder of the gear. In are given in 5.1.

other words, the gear has profile shift y if the 3.9 Rack shift

reference plane of the hypothetical tool lies a

distance (r + y) from the gear axis, where r is half the It is customary to first choose the tooth thicknesses

diameter, d. Profile shift, y, can be either plus or in a gear pair, assuming there is no backlash, and to

minus depending on whether the profile shift is to then reduce the tooth thicknesses to allow for

the outside or to the inside of the reference backlash. The phrase “profile shift” will be used for

diameter. See figure 3. the value of y corresponding to the tooth thickness

before thinning, and the phrase “rack shift” for the

3.7 Profile shift coefficient value of y after thinning. Since the rack shift

determines the actual tooth thickness at the time of

The profile shift coefficient, x, of the gear is defined cutting or generating, the symbol yE is used for the

as the profile shift divided by the normal module. rack shift and xE for the rack shift coefficient. If the

y amount of thinning is ∆sn , the relationship between

x=m ...(6) rack shift and profile shift is:

n

Gear reference pitch cylinder

Helix angle

β

r

Basic rack in tight Transverse plane

mesh with zero

backlash gear

without tooth thinning

5

AGMA 913--A98 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

yE = y − ...(8)

2 tan α n influenced by the number of teeth on the gear and

If two external gears are to mesh with no backlash, the value of the profile shift coefficient.

their profile shift values must satisfy: The influence that the number of teeth has on tooth

aref (inv α wt − inv α t) form can be seen by viewing the teeth within any

y1 + y2 = ...(9) given column of figure 4. With small numbers of

tan α t

teeth, the tooth has larger curvature and the relative

where

thickness of the teeth at the topland and at the form

aref is the reference center distance; diameter is smaller. As the number of teeth

∼wt is the operating transverse pressure angle; increases, the topland and tooth thicknesses in-

crease and the curvature of the profiles decrease.

∼t is the reference transverse pressure angle.

Tooth thicknesses are maximum for a rack with

3.10 Addendum values straight--sided profiles and theoretically infinite

number of teeth.

The gear addendum, measured from the reference

cylinder, is usually chosen as (haP + y). This value Viewing figure 4 horizontally within any given row

depends on the profile shift rather than the rack shift shows how profile shift changes tooth form. Rows

and is therefore independent of the value chosen for near the top of figure 4 show that gears with few

backlash. In certain designs, particularly when the teeth have a tooth form that depends strongly on the

center distance is significantly larger than the value of the profile shift coefficient. For gears with

reference standard center distance, the gear ad- few teeth, the sensitivity to profile shift narrows the

dendum may need to be reduced to allow adequate choice for profile shift coefficient because too little

clearance at the roots of the meshing gear, see profile shift results in undercut teeth, whereas too

4.10. much profile shift gives teeth with toplands that are

too narrow. For example, the acceptable values of

For internal gear pair equations which replace profile shift coefficient for a 12 tooth gear range from

equations 7 through 9, see 5.1. x = 0.4 near undercut, to x = 0.44 for a topland

thickness equal to 30% of the module. In contrast,

rows near the bottom of figure 4 show that gears

4 Profile shift with large numbers of teeth are relatively insensitive

to profile shift. This means that the gear designer

has wider latitude when choosing profile shift for

4.1 Profile shift calculation

gears with a large number of teeth. As a limiting

Profile shift is selected considering the following case, the shape of the teeth of a rack are

criteria: independent of profile shift.

-- avoiding undercut; Generally, the performance of a gear is enhanced

with increasing numbers of teeth and the optimum

-- avoiding narrow top lands;

value of profile shift. For a fixed gear diameter, with

-- balanced specific sliding; the exception of bending strength, load capacity is

-- balanced flash temperature; increased when the number of teeth increases and

the profile shift is designed properly. Resistance to

-- balanced bending fatigue life.

macropitting, adhesive wear and scuffing is im-

The profile shift should be large enough to avoid proved and the gears usually operate more quietly.

undercut and small enough to avoid narrow top The maximum number of teeth is limited by bending

lands. The profile shifts required for balanced strength because a large number of relatively small

specific sliding, balanced flash temperature and teeth have high bending stresses. Therefore, the

balanced bending fatigue life are usually different. gear designer must limit the number of teeth in the

Therefore, the value used should be based on the pinion based on maintaining adequate bending

criterion that is judged to be the most important for strength. Load capacity can be maximized by

the particular application. balancing the pitting resistance and the bending

6

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 913--A98

strength of the gearset (see AGMA 901--A92). A designer to select the profile shift to minimize

balanced design has a relatively large number of specific sliding, minimize flash temperature or

teeth in the pinion. This makes the gearset balance the bending fatigue life of the pinion and

relatively insensitive to profile shift, and allows the gear.

12

15

20

Number of teeth

30

50

100

Profile shift coefficient

Figure 4 -- Effect of profile shift on involute tooth profiles

7

AGMA 913--A98 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

4.2 Basic gear geometry The minimum profile shift coefficient (to avoid

undercut) for the pinion is given by:

z

u = z2 , where z2 ≥ z 1 ...(10) y 1 min

1 x 1 min = ...(20)

mn

z1 mn y 1 min = haP0 − r 1 sin2 ∼ t

r1 = ...(11) ...(21)

2 cos β

where

z mn

r2 = 2 = r1 u ...(12) haP0 is the distance on the cutting tool tooth from

2 cos β

the reference line to the point near the tool

r b1 = r1 cos ∼ t ...(13)

tooth tip where the straight part of the

r b2 = r2 cos ∼ t = rb1 u ...(14) profile ends and the circular tip begins.

h aP0 = ha0 − a0 + a0 sin ∼ n ...(22)

is the addendum of the tool;

Ꮛa Ꮠ

cos ∼ t ha0

ref

∼ wt = arccos aw ...(16) ±a0 is the radius of the circular tip of the tool.

inv ∼ t = tan ∼ t − ∼ t ...(17) 4.5 Avoiding narrow top lands

are obtained by iteratively varying the profile shift

4.3 Sum of profile shift coefficients for zero coefficients of the pinion and gear until their top land

backlash thicknesses are equal to the minimum allowable.

NOTE: The equations to follow in this section are for 4.6 Balanced specific sliding

external gear pairs only. The corresponding equations

for internal gear pairs are given in 5.2.1. Specific sliding is defined as the ratio of the sliding

velocity to rolling velocity at a particular point of

aref (inv ∼ wt − inv ∼ t) contact on the gear of interest.

x1 + x2 = ...(19)

mn tan ∼ t

Maximum pitting and wear resistance is obtained by

4.4 Avoiding involute undercut teeth balancing the specific sliding at each end of the path

of contact. This is done by iteratively varying the

There are a number of design options to compen- profile shift coefficients of the pinion and gear until

sate for undercut teeth, including profile shift. the following equation is satisfied:

where any part of the fillet curve lies inside a line

ᏋCC 6

1

− 1 ᏐᏋCC 6

5

Ꮠ

− 1 = u2 ...(23)

juncture with the fillet. For such gears, the end of the

cutting tool has extended inside of the point of C6 is the distance between interference points

(see figure 5);

tangency of the base circle and the line of action,

and removed an excessive amount of material. C1 is the distance to SAP (see figure 5);

This removal of material can weaken the tooth and C5 is the distance to EAP (see figure 5).

also may reduce the length of contact, since gear

C 6 = Ꮛrb1 + rb2Ꮠ tan ∼ wt = a w sin ∼ wt ...(24)

action can only take place on the involute portion of

the flank. Should a gear be made by another C 1 = C6 − Ꭹr2a2 − r2b2 ...(25)

C 5 = Ꭹr2a1 − r2b1

method that would not undercut the flanks, there

may be interference of material and generally the ...(26)

gear would not mesh or roll with another gear. See C 2 = C5 − pbt ...(27)

AGMA 908--B89, Geometry Factors for Determin-

C 3 = rb1 tan ∼ wt ...(28)

ing the Pitting Resistance and Bending Strength of

Spur, Helical and Herringbone Gear Teeth. C 4 = C1 + pbt ...(29)

8

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 913--A98

∼wt rb2

ra2

Line of

action

aw

pbt

EAP

pbt

HPSTC

P

LPSTC

SAP ra1

C1

C2

C3

C4

rb1 C6

C5

Figure 5 -- Distances along the line of action for external gear pair

4.7 Balanced flash temperature two pair zones (between points SAP and LPSTC

and between points HPSTC and EAP, see figure 5).

According to Blok’s theory, the maximum scuffing

resistance is obtained by minimizing the contact 4.8 Balanced bending strength

temperature. This is done by iteratively varying the Maximum bending resistance is obtained by itera-

profile shift coefficients of the pinion and gear, while tively varying the profile shift coefficients of the

calculating the flash temperature by Blok’s equation pinion and gear until the ratio of the bending

(see annex A of ANSI/AGMA 2101--C95, Funda- strength geometry factors equals the ratio of

mental Rating Factors and Calculation Methods for allowable bending stresses, i.e.,

Involute Spur and Helical Gear Teeth), until the flash

Y J1 σ

temperature peaks in the approach and recess = σF2 ...(30)

portions of the line of action are equal. The flash Y J2 F1

temperature should be calculated at the points SAP, See ANSI/AGMA 2101--C95, clause 5.2 through

LPSTC, HPSTC, EAP and at several points in the 5.2.3, for an explanation of YJ1, YJ2, σF1 and σF2.

9

AGMA 913--A98 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

4.9 Tooth thinning for backlash 4.10.1.2 Full working depth -- option 2

h a1 = 1 + x 1 − 1 k m n

2

...(36)

tool to thin the gear teeth for backlash are

considered independently of the profile shift coeffi- h a2 = 1 + x 2 − 1 k m n ...(37)

2

cients (x1 and x2) by specifying the amount the CAUTION: Option 2 (full working depth) may give in-

pinion and gear teeth are thinned for backlash, ∆sn1 sufficient tip--to--root clearance if aw & aref. Check

and ∆sn2. This way, the outside diameters are clearances or use option 3 (full tip--to--root clearance)

independent of tooth thinning for backlash. The to be safe.

total thinning coefficients are selected such that: 4.10.1.3 Full tip--to--root clearance -- option 3

Ꮛ Ꮠ

a

∆ s n1 + ∆ s n2 = j n aref ...(31)

h a1 = Ꮛ1 + x 1 − kᏐ m n ...(38)

h a2 = Ꮛ1 + x 2 − kᏐ m n

w

...(39)

where 4.10.2 Root radius and clearance

jn is normal operating circular backlash Root radii (cut with rack tool). See figure 6.

A common convention among gear manufacturers r f1 = r1 − ha01 + x E1 m n ...(40)

is to reduce the normal tooth thickness of each r f2 = r2 − ha02 + x E2 m n ...(41)

member by the same amount, which may be a value

The root clearances are:

in m or a function of the normal module, such as

0.024mn . This maintains the same whole depth for c 1 = aw − rf1 − ra2 ...(42)

both members. However, for other directions of c 2 = aw − rf2 − ra1 ...(43)

tooth thickness measurement, see ANSI/AGMA

2002--B88.

tool reference line

4.10 Tip--shortening coefficient for external

gearsets

yE

For gears operating on extended centers (aw > aref),

the outside radii of the gears may be shortened to

maintain adequate tip--to--root clearance. The ha0

tool pitch line

amount of adjustment of the outside radii is

proportional to the tip--shortening coefficient, k: r

∆ a ref

k = x1 + x2 − mn ...(32) yE = xE mn

rf

where

∆ a ref = aw − aref ...(33) Figure 6 -- Root radii cut with rack tool

For internal gear sets, see 5.2.3. (refer to annex A for additional information)

r a1 = r1 + ha1 ...(44)

Three of the tip shortening options are as follows:

r a2 = r2 + ha2 ...(45)

4.10.1.1 Full length teeth -- option 1

For internal gear sets, see 5.3.

h a1 = Ꮛ1 + x 1Ꮠ mn ...(34) 4.12 Generating rack shift coefficients

h a2 = Ꮛ1 + x 2Ꮠ mn ...(35) ∆ s n1

x E1 = x 1 − ...(46)

CAUTION: Option 1 (full length teeth) may give insuffi- 2 mn tan ∼ n

cient tip--to--root clearance if aw & aref. Check clear- ∆ s n2

x E2 = x 2 − ...(47)

ances or use option 3 (full tip--to--root clearance). 2 mn tan ∼ n

10

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 913--A98

For internal gear sets, see 5.4. 5 Internal gear pair calculations

4.13 Normal circular tooth thickness

5.1 Internal gear rack shift

2

s n1 = 1 π + 2 x E1 tan ∼ n m n ...(48)

Equations 57 through 59 are equations 7 through 9

s n2 = 1 π + 2 x E2 tan ∼ n m n

2

...(49) altered for the case of an internal gear.1)

2

∆ sn

4.14 Determining profile shift coefficients of yE = y + ...(58)

2 tan ∼ n

existing gear pairs

a (inv ∼ wt − inv ∼ t)

If the normal circular tooth thicknesses are known, y 2 − y 1 = ref tan ∼ t

...(59)

the generating rack shift coefficients are found from In equation 59, the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the

equations 50 and 51. pinion and the gear.

sn1 π

mn − 2 ...(50) The addendum of an external gear is generally

x E1 = chosen equal to (1.0 mn + y). The corresponding

2 tan ∼ n

sn2 π value for an internal gear would be (1.0 mn - y), but

mn − 2 ...(51) this value often leads to interference at the pinion

x E2 =

2 tan ∼ n tooth fillets. It is common to choose the largest

For internal gear sets, see 5.6. addendum possible, consistent with no interfer-

4.14.1 Sum of generating rack shift coefficients ence. The tip circle radius of the internal gear is then

given by:

Σ x E = x E2 + x E1 ...(52)

For internal gear sets, see 5.6.1.

4.14.2 Normal operating circular backlash

r 2a2 = r2b2 + Ꮑ Ꮛrb2 − rb1Ꮠ tan ∼ wt + ᎩᏋr fP1 +

Ꮖ

2

jn = Ꮛ2 a w

aref Ꮠ

m n tan ∼ n Ꮛ

Σ x − Σ x EᏐ ...(53)

n ∼ wt + ᎩᏋr 2

0.025 mnᏐ − r 2b1

fP1 +

For internal gear sets, see 5.6.2. ...(60)

The tooth thinning coefficients must satisfy equa- rfP1 is the radius of the pinion fillet circle, i.e., the

tion 31. However, it is usually impossible to radius at which the involute tooth profile

meets the tooth fillet.

determine the ratio ∆sn1/∆sn2 that was used for

existing gears. The following analysis is based on Equation 60 insures that no interference occurs at

common practice where ∆sn1 Ζ ∆sn2Ι in which case: the pinion root fillet. A similar equation can be used

Ꮛ Ꮠ

a to avoid the possibility of interference with the root

∆ s n1 = ∆ sn2 = 1 j n aref ...(54) fillets of the cutter, which would cause the tooth tips

2 w

of the internal gear to be undercut. Other consider-

4.14.4 Profile shift coefficients

ations affecting tip shortening of internal gears are

From equations 46 and 47: discussed in 5.2.3.

∆ s n1 5.2 Internal gear pair profile shift calculation

x 1 = x E1 + ...(55)

2 mn tan ∼ n

∆ s n2 The basic gear geometry equations are given in 4.2.

x 2 = x E2 + ...(56)

2 mn tan ∼ n These equations are valid for both external and

For internal gear sets, see 5.6.3. internal gearsets.

_______________________

1) CAUTION: There are different conventions for the sign of x used in internal gear calculations.

11

AGMA 913--A98 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

backlash

C 6 = Ꮛrb2 − rb1Ꮠ tan ∼ wt = a w sin ∼ wt ...(64)

x2 − x1 = ...(62)

mn tan ∼ t C 3 = rb1 tan ∼ wt ...(68)

C 4 = C1 + pbt ...(69)

5.2.2 Balanced specific sliding

5.2.3 Tip shortening for internal gearsets

To balance the specific sliding at each end of the For internal gear pairs operating at extended

path of contact for an external gear pair see 4.6. For centers (aw > aref), the addendum values are

an internal gear pair, this is done by iteratively generally reduced for a number of reasons. The tip

varying the profile shift coefficients of the pinion and shortening coefficient given by equation 32 is valid

gear, see figure 7, until the following equation is for an external gear pair, in which both gears are cut

satisfied: by a rack--type cutter. Since an internal gear is

ᏋCC + 1 ᏐᏋCC + 1 Ꮠ = u

usually cut by a pinion cutter, the tip shortening

6 6 2 ...(63) coefficient is not particularly useful for calculating

1 5 the addendum circle radii of an internal gear pair.

EAP

C4 HPSTC

C3 C5

P

C2

LPSTC

ra1

C1

SAP

C6 ∼wt

rb1

rb2 rfP1

ra2

O1

aw

O2

Figure 7 -- Distances along the line of action for an internal gear pair

12

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 913--A98

To choose the addendum circle radius of the pinion, 5.5 Internal gear pair normal circular tooth

the root circle radius, rf2, of the internal gear must thickness

first be calculated. This will depend on the required

tooth thickness and the diameter and tooth thick-

2

s n1 = 1 π + 2 x E1 tan ∼ n m n ...(75)

ness of the pinion cutter. The addendum circle

radius of the pinion should then be given by: s n2 = 1 π − 2 x E2 tan ∼ n m n ...(76)

r a1 = rf2 − aw − c i2 2

...(70)

where

5.6 Determining profile shift coefficients of

ci2 is the required clearance at the tooth roots existing internal gear pairs

of the internal gear.

An expression for the addendum circle radius, ra2, If the normal circular tooth thicknesses are known,

of the internal gear was given in equation 60. This the rack shift coefficients are found from equations

value was chosen to ensure that there would be no 76 and 77.

interference between the internal gear tooth tips sn1 π

and the pinion tooth fillets. There are several other mn − 2 ...(77)

x E1 =

requirements that should also be considered. 2 tan ∼ n

There must be no interference between the internal

gear tooth tips and the tooth fillets of the pinion s n2

mn − 2

π

x E2 = − ...(78)

cutter. The base circle of the pinion cutter should lie

inside the tooth tips of the internal gear (c1 > 0). In

2 tan ∼ n

addition, there must be no rubbing between the

cutter and gear during the return strokes of the 5.6.1 Sum of rack shift coefficients

cutter. Finally, there must be no interference

between the tooth tips of the internal gear and those Σ x E = x E2 − x E1 ...(79)

of the pinion, which can occur when the difference

between the tooth numbers is small. Reference [4]

5.6.2 Normal operating circular backlash

describes a design procedure for internal gear pairs

which includes all of the above considerations.

jn = − Ꮛ2 a w

a ref Ꮠ

mn tan ∼ n Ꮛ

Σ x − Σ x EᏐ ...(80)

5.3 Internal gear pair addendum circle radii

r a1 = r1 + ha1 ...(71) 5.6.3 Internal gear pairs profile shift

coefficients

r a2 = r2 − ha2 ...(72)

From equations 72 and 73:

5.4 Internal gear pair rack shift coefficients

∆ s n1

∆ s n1 x 1 = x E1 + ...(81)

x E1 = x 1 − ...(73) 2 mn tan ∼ n

2 mn tan ∼ n

∆ s n2 ∆ s n2

x E2 = x 2 + ...(74) x 2 = x E2 − ...(82)

2 mn tan ∼ n 2 mn tan ∼ n

13

AGMA 913--A98 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

14

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 913--A98

Annex A

(informative)

Tool proportions

[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a

part of AGMA 913--A98, Method for Specifying the Geometry of Spur and Helical Gears.]

This annex defines a method for deriving the This annex uses the geometry of the measured

geometry of the hypothetical tool basic rack. The roughing tool and the finishing stock allowance. See

tool geometry used by ISO 6336 for the purpose of ISO 53 for tooth form basic rack definitions and

calculating gear ratings is hypothetical rather than detailed information. In ISO 6336--3, figure 2,

actual tool geometry. The tool proportions required specific tooth form and hypothetical tool basic racks

are those of a hypothetical tool basic rack that is are defined which include the effects of tool protuber-

conjugate to (the complement of) the basic rack, ance and stock allowance for finishing, but not tooth

zero backlash tooth form. The hypothetical tool thinning for backlash. Figure A.1 illustrates the

contains the combined effects of the roughing tool, relations between the basic racks of the tooth form,

which produces the root, and the finishing tools for the hypothetical tool and the roughing tool.

the flank. Changing the stock allowance for finishing

A.3.1 Normalized dimensions (coefficients)

will change the tool addendum.

Some of the tool geometry requires coefficients,

A.2 Definitions

which are also known as normalized dimensions. To

The basic rack is an imaginary rack having the normalize SI dimensions, divide the dimension (mm)

standard basic rack tooth profile in the normal by the module (mm). For the example used, the

section. It corresponds to a zero backlash gear with addendum of the 4.233 module hob basic rack is

an infinite pitch radius. A gear with a normal module, 6.248 mm, so the normalized addendum is

mn , and a normal pressure angle, αn , at its reference 6.248/4.233 = 1.476.

circle, has a basic rack whose normal pitch is π mn

To normalize an English dimension, multiply the

and whose pressure angle is ∼n .

dimension (inches) by the diametral pitch (in --1). In

The basic rack reference line is defined as the English units, since the example 6 Pnd hob has an

datum line where the normal tooth thickness is equal addendum of 0.246 inch, the normalized addendum

to (π mn )/2. Therefore, the tooth thickness equals the is 6 ¢ 0.246 = 1.476.

space between the teeth on the reference line. As can be seen, the resulting coefficient is the same

The tool measurement line is an arbitrary datum because it is dimensionless.

line on the actual tool where the tool tooth thickness

A.3.2 Calculation from the finishing stock

is measured and from which the tool addendum is

allowance and tool dimensions

measured.

mn is the normal module (for SI units, mm);

The hypothetical tool is by definition conjugate to

the basic rack, so the hypothetical tool reference line Pnd is the normal diametral pitch, in --1;

is coincident with the basic rack reference line for the q is the finish stock allowance per flank, in

zero backlash gear. (mm);

The tool reference line is defined as the line where ∼n is the normal pressure angle at the

the actual tool normal tooth thickness is equal to reference diameter;

(π mn )/2 or π/(2 Pnd ). See ISO 6336--3, figure 2.

ha is the measured tool addendum (from the

The reference circle of a gear is that pitch circle tool tip to the tool measurement line), in

whose diameter is equal to (z mn )/cosβ, where z is the (mm);

number of teeth and β is the helix angle.

t is the normal circular tooth thickness of

For additional and more formal definitions see ISO roughing tool at the measurement line, in

1122--1 and ANSI/AGMA 1012--F90. (mm);

15

AGMA 913--A98 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

π mn

Note the value for ∆s is shown

positive. It may have a negative

value, which would change the π mn π mn

relationships shown accordingly. 2 2

Hypothetical t

tool

∆s

2

Hypothetical Material

tool allowance, q,

dedendum, for finish

hf0 machining

Basic rack Tool reference line

addendum,

haP Hypothetical tool and ∆s

basic rack reference line 2 tan(∼ n)

Hypothetical tool

Measured

addendum, ha0 tool (hob)

Gear basic rack addendum,

dedendum, hfP q Tool

ha

sin(∼ n)

Profile

Basic rack “Zero Backlash” gear tooth angle,

∼n

Figure A.1 -- Basic rack and hypothetical tool represented in rack form

∆s is the adjustment if the roughing tool mea- A.3.3 Tool basic rack addendum coefficient

surement line is not coincident with the tool (normalized)

reference line. When the measured tool

Tool basic rack addendum coefficient (normalized)

addendum is taken from the tool reference

line, then ∆s = 0. Otherwise, it may be is:

calculated as:

h a0n = P nd ha0 ...(A.3)

h

∆s = π − t ...(A.1) h a0n = ma0 ...(A.3M)

2P nd n

π mn pr is the protuberance, as measured on tool, in

∆s = − t ...(A.1M)

2

(mm). Note that the 1996 release of ISO

ha0 is the hypothetical tool basic rack adden- 6336--1, page 9, lists the symbol for protu-

dum, in (mm). It is measured from the tip to berance as qpr, yet ISO 6336--3, figure 2,

the reference plane, where the hypothetical uses the symbol pr, which is also used here.

tool normal tooth thickness is (π mn )/2 or π/(2 spr is net protuberance

Pnd ). The hypothetical tool basic rack spr = pr -- q

addendum is equal to hfP, the dedendum of

the zero backlash tooth form basic rack. ±a0 is the tip radius, in (mm). This is assumed

See figure A.1. Either SI or English units to be equal to the tooth form basic rack root

may be used in the following equation: radius, ±fP. The maximum value that ±a0 can

have is that for a full fillet radius. An equation

for a full fillet radius may be derived from ISO

∆s q 6336--3, equation 12, by setting E = 0 and

h fP = h a0 = h a + − ...(A.2)

2 tan ∼ n sin ∼ n solving for ±a0 max:

16

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 913--A98

n pr n

4 P nd a0

Pnd 6.0 in--1 Normal diametral pitch.

± a0 max =

1 − sin ∼ n ...(A.4) q 0.0053 0.0053 in Finish stock allowance

per flank.

π m cos ∼ + s − h sin ∼ ∼n 20 deg Normal pressure angle

n n pr a0 n

± a0 max = 4 at the reference diame-

1 − sin ∼ n ...(A.4M) ter.

ha 0.2460 in Measured tool adden-

dum (to reference line).

t 0.2618 in Normal circular tooth

A.3.5 Basic rack fillet radius coefficient thickness of roughing

(normalized) tool.

...(A.5)

±

± a0n = ma0 ...(A.5M)

n

∆s = π −t

2 P nd

A.4 Example calculation of tool proportions = π − 0.2618 = 0.0000

2(6)

The following example shows how the tool propor-

tions are calculated in English units for the sample

problem shown. This sample problem is based on h fP = h a0 = h a + ∆s − q

2 tan ∼ n sin ∼ n

AGMA 918--A93, example 3.1.3, see figure A.2. In

this example, the tool measurement line is coinci- = 0.246 + 0 − 0.0053 = 0.2305

dent with the tool reference line. 2 tan20 sin20

A.4.1 Addendum of tool basic rack (inch units) h a0n = P nd h a0 = 6(0.2305) = 1.383

Data needed for calculation: Tool basic rack addendum, normalized.

0.5236

0.2618 0.006

R =0.0682

Full

0.2460

20.00

20.00

Ref

Protuberance

normal plane

17

AGMA 913--A98 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Net protuberance.

Data needed for calculation:

spr = pr -- q

Pinion Wheel Unit = 0.006 -- 0.0053 = 0.0007

mn 4.23333 mm Normal module Full fillet radius check.

q 0.13462 0.13462 mm Finish stock allow- π cos(∼ ) + s − h sin(∼ )

4 P nd n pr a0 n

ance per flank. ± a0 max =

∼n 20 deg Normal pressure 1 − sin(∼ n)

angle at the refer- π cos(20) + 0.0007 − 0.2305 sin(20)

ence diameter. 46

ha =

6.24840 mm Measured tool ad- 1 − sin(20)

dendum (to refer-

ence line).

= 0.0682

t 6.6497 mm Normal circular tooth

thickness of roughing

tool. Normalized basic rack fillet radius

± a0n = P nd ± a0

Calculated values:

= 6(0.0682) = 0.4092

π mn

∆s = −t

2

A.4.4 Fillet radius (SI units)

π4.23333

= − 6.6497 = 0.0000

2 Data needed for calculation:

Pinion WheelUnit

∆s − q mn 4.23333 mm Normal module

h fP = h a0 = h a + ∼n

2 tan ∼ n sin ∼ n 20 deg Normal pressure

angle at the refer-

= 6.24840 + 0 − 0.13462 = 5.8548

ence diameter.

2 tan20 sin20 ha0 5.85470 5.85470 mm Hypothetical tool ba-

sic rack addendum.

pr 0.15240 0.15240 mm Protuberance.

h

h a0n = ma0 = 5.8548 = 1.383 q 0.13462 0.13462 mm Finish stock allow-

n 4.2333 ance per flank.

Calculated values:

A.4.3 Basic rack fillet radius (inch units) Net protuberance

tool drawing. However, if a full fillet radius is = 0.1524 − 0.13462 = 0.01778

specified without a dimension being given, it may be

Full fillet radius check

calculated as follows. Further, a given fillet radius

may be checked to be sure that it does not exceed π m cos(∼ ) + s − h sin(∼ )

n n pr n

± a0 max = 4

the value for a full fillet radius. a0

1 − sin(∼ n)

Data needed for calculation: π

4.2333 cos 20 + 0.01778 − 5.8547 sin 20

=4

Pinion Wheel Unit 1 − sin 20

Pnd 6.0 in--1 Normal diametral pitch.

∼n 20 deg Normal pressure angle = 1.7321

at the reference diame-

ter.

ha 0 0.2305 0.2305 in Hypothetical tool basic Normalized basic rack fillet radius

rack addendum. ±

± a0n = ma0

pr 0.0060 0.0060 in Protuberance. n

q 0.0053 0.0053 in Finish stock allowance

per flank. = 1.7321 = 0.4092

4.233

18

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 913--A98

Annex B

(informative)

Calculation of profile shift

[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of

AGMA 913--A98, Method for Specifying the Geometry of Spur and Helical Gears.]

B.1 Purpose of the sign of x, the tool is “fed in” a little further to thin

the teeth for backlash. When the tool is positioned to

This annex gives a procedure for calculating profile produce these finished teeth, the distance between

shift coefficients from the finished normal circular the hypothetical tool reference line and the gear

tooth thickness. It is based on the assumption that reference circle is known as the generating rack shift

backlash is split equally between the gear and the coefficient, xE .

pinion. Profile shift coefficients for the gear and

pinion affect the calculation of tooth stiffness, which The generating rack shift coefficient for the pinion,

affects load distribution across the face of the teeth xE1, and gear, xE2, may be calculated from the

(KHβ), internal dynamic factor (Kv ) and root bending finished normal circular tooth thickness at the

strength. The nominal (zero backlash) values of reference circle (equations B.1 and B.2). The zero

profile shift coefficient must be used for consistent backlash profile shift coefficients are determined,

results. with this method, by adding equal amounts to the

generating rack shift coefficients, such that they

The profile shift coefficient is the distance (ex- would produce a zero backlash gear pair.

pressed as a coefficient, i.e., normalized) between

the basic rack reference line and the reference circle Figure B.2 shows, in rack form, the hypothetical tool,

on the gear when the basic rack is positioned for zero the basic rack and a finished gear tooth. In rack form

backlash teeth. See annex A for definitions. Figure the simple trigonometric relationships may be seen.

B.1 shows the hypothetical rack tool cutting the zero A tool (hob) is also shown in rack form to illustrate the

backlash tooth form on the left, and cutting the difference between an actual tool and the hypotheti-

finished tooth form on the right. For a positive value cal tool. For gearing produced to final shape without

of the x factor, the tool is “held out” from the part to finishing stock, there is no difference between the

produce thicker teeth than “standard”. Regardless actual tool and the hypothetical tool.

x mn ∆x m xE mn

Profile shift 2 n Generating

For

Hypothetical (zero backlash) backlash rack shift Hypothetical

tool tooth tool

thinning

basic rack reference line reference line

Tangent line to gear Gear reference

reference circle circle

Figure B.1 -- Hypothetical tool with zero backlash and finished gear

19

20

AGMA 913--A98

Figure B.2 -- Basic rack, hypothetical tool and finished gear tooth represented in rack form

π mn

π mn π mn π mn

2 2 2

t

Hypothetical αs/2

tool

Material

Hypothetical allowance, q,

tool for finish

dedendum, machining

hf0 Basic rack Tool reference line ∆x

mn x mn

addendum, Finished 2 Basic rack

haP ∆s gear tooth For backlash Profile shift (zero reference line

Basic rack reference line tooth thinning backlash)

2 tan (∼n)

Tool measurement line

} Reference line of

hypothetical tool

positioned for finished

Hypothetical tool (thinned) tooth

Measured

addendum, ha0

tool (hob) Finished gear xE mn

Gear basic rack

addendum, tooth normal Generating Tangent line to gear

dedendum, hfP Tool

ha q circular thickness, sn , rack shift reference circle

sin (∼n ) at reference circle

Gear

dedendum

Basic rack “Zero Backlash” gear tooth Zero backlash

tooth thickness

Profile

angle,

∼n

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 913--A98

In figures B.1 and B.2: The generating rack shift coefficients for the pinion

and the wheel are:

-- The tooth thinning for backlash is greatly ex-

s n1 P nd − π

aggerated;

x E1 = 2 ...(B.1)

-- The profile shift coefficient, x, is multiplied by 2 tan ∼ n

the normal module, mn , to obtain the amount of

profile shift, because x is a coefficient; s n1 π

mn − 2 ...(B.1M)

x E1 =

-- Note that the values for ∆s, xE and x are shown 2 tan ∼ n

positive. They may have negative values, which

would change the relationships shown in the fig- s n2 P nd − π

x E2 = 2 ...(B.2)

ures accordingly. 2 tan ∼ n

the hypothetical tool addendum, ha0, and the gener- mn − 2 ...(B.2M)

x E2 =

ating rack shift, xE . Using the zero backlash profile 2 tan ∼ n

shift coefficient, x, rather than xE to calculate the root Calculate the sum of the nominal “zero--backlash”

diameter will result in a larger calculated root profile shift factors for this gear pair as:

diameter. The actual root diameter is process

dependent, but it is generally smaller than that

calculated with x. ᒑ x = z1 +2 z2 inv∼ wt − inv∼ t

tan ∼ n

...(B.3)

B.2 Equations for calculation of profile shift inv( ) is the involute function of the angle.

coefficients inv(∼) = tan(∼) -- ∼ (where ∼ in radians)

Determine the adjustment needed to bring the

Pnd is the normal diametral pitch;

generating rack shift coefficients, xE1 and xE2, to their

mn is the normal module; zero--backlash values.

wheel, respectively;

∆x = ᒑ x − ᏋxE1 + xE2Ꮠ ...(B.4)

sn1, sn2 is the maximum finished normal circu- If the value of ∆x is negative, you should review the

lar tooth thickness (after all finishing geometry of the gear pair, since interference be-

operations, including tooth thinning for tween the finished gear flanks is indicated.

backlash) of pinion and wheel respec-

The nominal zero backlash profile shift coefficients,

tively, measured at the reference (stan-

x1 and x2, of the pinion and wheel are:

dard pitch) diameter;

verse); 2

(standard pitch) diameter (transverse); x 2 = x E2 + ∆x ...(B.6)

2

∼n is the pressure angle at the reference

(standard pitch) diameter (normal); B.3 Example calculation of profile shift

coefficients (inch units)

xE1, xE2 is the generating rack shift coefficients

of pinion and wheel, respectively; The following example shows how the profile shift

coefficients are calculated (with English units) for the

x1, x2 is the nominal zero backlash profile sample problem shown in the other appendices.

shift coefficient of pinion and wheel, This sample problem is based on AGMA 918--A93

respectively. example 3.1.3.

21

AGMA 913--A98 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

ᒑ x = z1 +2 z2 inv ∼ wt − inv ∼ t

tan ∼ n

Pinion Wheel

Unit

in--1 Normal diametral inv(22.012) − inv(20.6469)

= 21 + 86

Pnd 6.0

pitch. 2 tan(20)

β 15 deg Standard helix = 0.53425

angle.

∼n 20 deg Normal pressure

angle at the refer- inv( ) is the involute function of the angle.

ence diameter.

inv(α) = tan(α) -- α (where α in radians)

sn 0.32262 0.25780 in Actual normal circu-

lar tooth thickness Adjustment to bring the generating rack shift

at reference diame- coefficients to their zero--backlash values:

ter.

z1, z2

a

21

9.3175

86 --

in

Number of teeth.

Center distance. ∆x = ᒑ x − ᏋxE1 + xE2Ꮠ

= 0.53425 − (0.50131 + (− 0.03296))

Calculated values:

= 0.06591

Pressure angle at the reference (standard pitch)

diameter (transverse):

The values of x1 and x2 are:

∼ t = tan −1 Ꮛtancos∼β Ꮠ

n x 1 = x E1 + ∆x

2

= 0.50131 + 0.06591 = 0.5343

2

Ꮛ Ꮠ

= tan −1 tan 20 = 20.6469 degrees

cos 15

x 2 = x E2 + ∆x

2

Operating pressure angle (transverse):

= − 0.03296 + 0.06591 = 0.0000

2

2 P nd a cos β

ᏐᏆ B.3 Example calculation of profile shift

coefficients (SI units)

Ꮑ

= cos −1 (21 + 86) Ꮛ2(6)(9.3175)

cos(20.6469)

cos(15)

ᏐᏆ Data needed for calculation:

Pinion WheelUnit

mn 4.23333 mm Normal module

= 22.0120 degrees β 15 deg Standard helix

angle.

Generating rack shift coefficients: ∼n 20 deg Normal pressure

angle at the refer-

ence diameter.

s n1 P nd − π sn 8.19455 6.54812 mm Actual normal

x E1 = 2

2 tan ∼ n circular tooth

thickness at

0.32262(6) − π reference diameter.

= 2 = 0.50131 z1, z2 21 86 -- -- Number of teeth.

2 tan(20) a 236.66450 mm Center distance.

Calculated values:

s n2 P nd − π

x E2 = 2 Pressure angle at the reference (standard pitch)

2 tan ∼ n

diameter (transverse):

0.25780(6) − π

Ꮛtancos∼β Ꮠ

= 2 = − 0.03296

2 tan(20) ∼ t = tan −1 n

= tan −1 tan 20 = 20.6469 degrees

cos 15

coefficients:

22

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 913--A98

ᒑ x = z1 +2 z2 inv ∼ wt − inv ∼ t

tan ∼ n

Ꮑ

∼ wt = cos−1 Ꮛz 1 + z2Ꮠ Ꮛ

2 a cos β

ᏐᏆ

m n cos ∼ t

= 21 + 86

2

inv(22.012) − inv(20.6469)

tan(20)

Ꮑ

= cos −1 (21 + 86) Ꮛ(4.23333) cos (20.6469)

2(236.6645) cos (15)

ᏐᏆ = 0.53425

coefficients to their zero--backlash values:

Generating rack shift coefficients:

s n1 π

∆x = ᒑ x − ᏋxE1 + xE2Ꮠ

mn – 2 = 0.53425 − (0.50131 + (− 0.03296))

x E1 =

2 tan α n

= 0.06591

8.19455 − π

= 4.23333 2 = 0.50131

The values of x1 and x2 are:

2 tan(20)

s n2 x 1 = x E1 + ∆x

π 2

mn − 2

x E2 = −

2 tan α n = 0.50131 + 0.06591 = 0.5343

2

6.54812 − π

= 4.23333 2 = − 0.03296

2 tan(20) x 2 = x E2 + ∆x

2

Sum of the nominal “zero--backlash” profile shift = − 0.03296 + 0.06591 = 0.0000

coefficients: 2

23

AGMA 913--A98 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

24

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 913--A98

Bibliography

The following documents are either referenced in the text of AGMA 913--A98, Method for Specifying the Geom-

etry of Spur and Helical Gears, or indicated for additional information.

1. AGMA 908--B89, Information Sheet -- Geometry Factors for Determining the Pitting Resistance and

Bending Strength of Spur, Helical and Herringbone Gear Teeth, 1989

2. ANSI/AGMA 2101--C95, Fundamental Rating Factors and Calculation Methods for Involute Spur and

Helical Gear Teeth, 1995

3. AGMA 901--A92, Information Sheet -- A Rational Procedure for the Preliminary Design of Minimum Volume

Gears, 1992

4. Colbourne, J.R., The Geometric Design of Internal Gear Pairs, AGMA Paper No. 87FTM2

5. McVittie, D.R., Describing Nonstandard Gears -- An Alternative to the Rack Shift Coefficient, AGMA Paper

No. 86FTM1

6. DIN 3992, Profilverschiebung bei Stirnrädern mit Aussenverzahnung

7. ISO 53:1998, Cylindrical gears for general and heavy engineering -- Basic rack

8. ISO 1122--1:1998, Glossary of gear terms -- Part 1: Geometrical definitions

9. ISO/TR 4467:1982, Addendum modification of the teeth of cylindrical gears for speed--reducing and

speed--increasing gear pairs

10. ISO/TR 10064--2:1996, Cylindrical gears -- Code of inspection practice -- Part 2: Inspection related to radial

composite deviations, runout, tooth thickness and backlash

11. Lorenz Gear Cutting Tools -- 1961

12. MAAG Gear Book, MAAG Gear Company, Ltd., Zurich, Switzerland, 1990

13. DIN 3960:1980, Begriffe und Bestimmungsgrößen für Stirnräder (Zylinderräder) und Stimradpaare

(Zylinderradpaare) mit Evolventenverzahnung

14. ISO 6336--3:1992, Calculation of load capacity of spur and helical gears -- Part 3: Calculation of tooth

strength

15. AGMA 918--A93, Information Sheet -- A Summary of Numerical Examples Demonstrating the Procedures

for Calculating Geometry Factors for Spur and Helical Gears

16. ANSI/AGMA 2002--B88 (R95), Tooth Thickness Specification and Measurement, 1988

25

PUBLISHED BY

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

1500 KING STREET, ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA 22314

- AGMA 915-2-A05Uploaded bysimone.castagnetti
- AGMA 910-C90Uploaded bypablo_stz
- AGMA 915-3-A99Uploaded bysimone.castagnetti
- AGMA_ANSI_ISO1328_2_99.pdfUploaded byLuis Testa
- AGMA 930-A05Uploaded bysimone.castagnetti
- AGMA 915-1-A02 Gears InspectUploaded bysimone.castagnetti
- AGMA 2002-B88Uploaded bysimone.castagnetti
- Agma 927-a01.pdfUploaded byRoro
- AGMA6011-I03_Specification for High Speed Helical Gear UnitsUploaded byConradodaMatta
- AGMA 923-B05Uploaded bysimone.castagnetti
- AGMA 1103-H07 Tooth Proportions for Fine- Pitch Spur and Helical Gearing (Metric Edition)Uploaded bysimone.castagnetti
- ANSI AGMA 2015 2A 06Uploaded byhanrotools
- AGMA 917-B97 Design Manual for Parallel Shaft Fine-pitch GearingUploaded bysimone.castagnetti
- 1012-G05 Gear Nomenclature, Definition of TermsUploaded byPablo Andrés Duque Ramírez
- AGMA 2000-A88.pdfUploaded byWilliamSiesquenInga
- AGMA 908-B89Uploaded byAngelRicardez
- AGMA 912-A04Uploaded bysimone.castagnetti
- Gear & Pulley engineering - How to Specify (AGMA) Face Gear Quality.pdfUploaded byldp162
- Ansi Agma6010 f97Uploaded byvyhtran4731
- Spline DIN 5480Uploaded bymstan11
- AGMA 922-A96 - Load Classification and Service Factors for Flexible Coupling-2Uploaded bysimone.castagnetti
- AGMA 926-C99Uploaded byMehul Bansal
- ANSI-AGMA 2004-B89-Gear Materials and Heat Treatment ManualUploaded byMarcelo Crestani
- Agma Tolerances and BacklashUploaded byHebert Javier Rengifo
- DIN-5480-15Uploaded byroscilla
- Norma ANSI+AGMA+6000-B96+(R2002)Uploaded byAlex Ripoll
- kupdf.com_agma-1103-h07-tooth-proportions-for-fine-pitch-spur-and-helical-gearing-metric-edition.pdfUploaded byLucas Raiths
- AGMA 938-A05.pdfUploaded byRoro
- 5480-2Uploaded byAshutosh Singh
- ANSI_AGMA_2015-1-A01Uploaded byNilson Venancio

- Q1DisplayUploaded byMauricio Adame
- AGMA_915-2-A05Uploaded byMauricio Adame
- ASTM A106 1999Uploaded byRolando Castillo
- ASTM A178A178 1995Uploaded byRolando Castillo
- D1186Uploaded bymasv792512
- AGMA_915-2-A05.pdfUploaded byMauricio Adame
- AGMA_922-A96.pdfUploaded byMauricio Adame
- AGMA 925-A03 - Effect of Lubrification on Gear Surface Distress.pdfUploaded byAnonymous uL3JlWfh
- AGMA_917-B97Uploaded byMauricio Adame
- AGMA_920-A01Uploaded byMauricio Adame
- D4541 Pull Off Adhesion Test.pdfUploaded byJosemanuel Guizado
- ec.nte.2230.2000.pdfUploaded byJuan Alfredo Velez
- GratingUploaded byMauricio Adame
- Torques TablesUploaded byMauricio Adame
- Torque Chart for ASTM A193 Grade B7 StudsUploaded bysarip83
- ACI-318-08 ESPAÑOL.pdfUploaded bySaul Pacompia Vilca
- A780.pdfUploaded byMauricio Adame
- 2009 Slings CatalogUploaded byMauricio Adame
- Bluebook.pdfUploaded byMauricio Adame
- Blind Plate 1Uploaded byMauricio Adame
- G0105-02R07Uploaded byMauricio Adame
- TorqliteUploaded byMauricio Adame

- Plate GirderUploaded byEzhil Kumar
- ACI MATERIALS JOURNAL Durability of Lightweight Concrete With Expanded GlassUploaded byMuchtar Sufaat
- IJCIET_09_01_089Uploaded bySaeed N Naoum
- Geodesic - Wikipedia, The Free EncyclopediaUploaded bybmxengineering
- paper1Uploaded byNgoc Nguyen
- Cqi 1 & 2_sem 1 Sessi 1617Uploaded byMohammad Asnizam
- Manual Bgi Pq200Uploaded byCarlos Juarez
- Impact of JetUploaded byMohammed Mehthab
- Kalkan & Chopra - Practical Guidelines to Select and Scale Earthquake Records.pdfUploaded byKevin Yosep Valdivia Berrios
- Alfredo Ortega, John F. Blount and Percy S. Manchand- Salvinorin, a New trans-Neoclerodane Diterpene from Salvia divinorurn (Labiatae)Uploaded byPoloGreen
- An Improved Bridgman-Stockbarger CrystalUploaded byAntonio Yubaile
- 10_chapter3Uploaded byKiran Christopher
- solutions4.pdfUploaded byJuan Lombardero
- MT-1 FULL NOTESUploaded byM.Saravana Kumar..M.E
- john titor.pdfUploaded bycastelgran
- Draft Seniority List of Tax Assistants as on 01.08.14Uploaded byRoxanne Young
- Simultaneous Localization and Mapping for Robot MappingUploaded byniranjan_187
- 73-GHz-wideband.pdfUploaded byabdel
- The Nine Steps of Arc Flash Hazard AnalysisUploaded byjesusbarajas
- AIMStar_99Uploaded byhodvmkvecauto
- Detail SurveingUploaded byFaustin Kouassi
- JPD_2M Vibrations NotesUploaded byHillel Baderman
- Thesis Kjetil Viken Behavioral economicsUploaded byverdenvilbedras
- Fanghua Lin and Yisong Yang- Existence of Knots of Minimum Energy and Topological Growth Laws in the Faddeev ModelUploaded byPomac232
- Determination and Correlation of Heat Transfer Coefficients in a Falling Film EvaporatorUploaded bySeyit Avcu
- Access Steel - SX023a - Effective Section Properties of Steel Lipped Channel in CompressionUploaded bygianniorlati1972
- Spir Package Unit - Buhasa StatcomUploaded bynaveenks355
- DSPUploaded byShawon Mohammad Shahryiar
- Imperial College TensiometerUploaded byMichael Zonshain
- 150499372-FINAL-PQRUploaded byAhamed Naufal Ca