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DESIGN MANUAL FOR ROADS AND BRIDGES

VOLUME 2 HIGHWAY STRUCTURES:
DESIGN
(SUBSTRUCTURES)
MATERIALS
SECTION 2 SPECIAL STRUCTURES

PART 8

BD 29/04

DESIGN CRITERIA FOR FOOTBRIDGES

SUMMARY

This Standard specifies design criteria for footbridges
for use by pedestrians, cyclists and equestrians.

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August 2004
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DESIGN MANUAL FOR ROADS AND BRIDGES BD 29/04

THE HIGHWAYS AGENCY

SCOTTISH EXECUTIVE

WELSH ASSEMBLY GOVERNMENT
LLYWODRAETH CYNULLIAD CYMRU

THE DEPARTMENT FOR REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT
NORTHERN IRELAND

Design Criteria for Footbridges

Summary: This Standard specifies design criteria for footbridges for use by pedestrians,
cyclists and equestrians.

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Volume 2 Section 2 Part 8 BD 29/04 Registration of Amendments REGISTRATION OF AMENDMENTS Amend Page No Signature & Date of Amend Page No Signature & Date of No incorporation of No incorporation of amendments amendments August 2004 Volume 2 home page .

Volume 2 Section 2 Registration of Amendments Part 8 BD 29/04 REGISTRATION OF AMENDMENTS Amend Page No Signature & Date of Amend Page No Signature & Date of No incorporation of No incorporation of amendments amendments August 2004 Volume 2 home page .

General Principles 3. Introduction 2. Requirements for Combined Use by Pedestrians and Cyclists or Equestrians 13. Walkway Surfaces 11. Design Standards 6. Drainage 10. Enquiries August 2004 Volume 2 home page . Enclosed Footbridges and Clearance Gauge 9. Layout 4. Lighting 12. DESIGN MANUAL FOR ROADS AND BRIDGES VOLUME 2 HIGHWAY STRUCTURES: DESIGN (SUBSTRUCTURES) MATERIALS SECTION 2 SPECIAL STRUCTURES PART 8 BD 29/04 DESIGN CRITERIA FOR FOOTBRIDGES Contents Chapter 1. Parapets 8. Bridge Supports 5. Further Reading 15. References 14. Dimensional Standards 7.

improvement and maintenance of 1.2 This Standard supersedes standard BD 29/87 including those aspects of Technical Memorandum 1.6 Particular terms used in this standard are defined BE1/78 that relate to footbridges. 1. implementation. 1. that encourage greater use and appreciation by the public. (carriageway.7 Sections of this document.4. It is to be used where as follows: appropriate in conjunction with the relevant Parts of BS 5400 as implemented by the Overseeing Desire Line Line likely to be taken by Organisation except where otherwise specified by this pedestrians finding the Standard. remainder of the document contains advice and enlargement that is commended to designers for their consideration. c) Figures have been included to illustrate certain Footway Public right of way for provisions/advice. Other design aspects such as used in this Standard such as “highway types” (trunk strength and properties of materials are covered by road.Volume 2 Section 2 Chapter 1 Part 8 BD 29/04 Introduction 1. impairment have been incorporated into the general provisions.1. Bridleway Public right of way open to pedestrians. verge etc) refer to BS 6100. Subsection 2. motorway etc) and “components of the highways” other documents within the DMRB Series. or progress. this will contained in boxes.4 This standard shall be used forthwith on all future road schemes for the construction. Cycle Lane A separate part of the footway or footbridge for use by pedal Implementation cycles. in the expects in design. August 2004 1/1 Volume 2 home page . The Overseeing Organisation. Mandatory Sections 1. d) Definitions of terms have been provided. Cyclist A pedal cyclist. shortest route between two points.1 This Standard deals mainly with geometric and 1. are highlighted by being opinion of the Overseeing Organisation. These are the sections with not result in significant additional expense or delay which the Design Organisation must comply. equestrians and b) The provisions for users with visual or mobility cyclists.3 The major changes to this document are as follows: Goal orientated users Users making a journey to reach a specific destination. pedestrian use only. INTRODUCTION General Definitions 1. which form part trunk roads.5 For the definition of the general highway terms user requirements. a) Advice is given on considering all relevant factors before deciding the form and layout of the Recreational users Users making a journey for footbridge with a view to developing structures leisure purposes. Design Organisations shall confirm its have agreed a suitable departure from standard application to particular schemes with the with the relevant Overseeing Organisation. It shall apply also to schemes of the standards that the Overseeing Organisation currently in preparation provided that.

an Advice Note ‘Provisions for Non Motorised Users’ is under preparation by the Environment Group of the Highways Agency.9 Guidelines for the selection of other suitable forms of pedestrian crossings are outside the scope of this Standard. However. 1. aluminium alloy. timber or other agreed materials.8 This Standard specifies non-structural criteria for the design of footbridges for use by pedestrians. cyclists and equestrians. reinforced or prestressed concrete.Chapter 1 Volume 2 Section 2 Introduction Part 8 BD 29/04 Scope 1. which may be constructed of steel. and this will contain advice on the selection of appropriate NMU crossings. 1/2 August 2004 Volume 2 home page . in urban and rural areas.

GENERAL PRINCIPLES General 2. where possible. appropriate fixing details should be specified.4 and 8.7 It is important to determine the user groups of the bridge and their main purpose before deciding on its 2. aesthetics. due consideration of these factors and any other relevant design constraint. the selection process should include new circular route. misuse and vandalism by users than road bridges and this shall be taken into account in the design and agreed with the Overseeing Organisation.6 Criteria to be considered in relation to use by visually or mobility-impaired persons are incorporated 2. safety. may in some situations be inappropriate. add value to the recreational route. layout and exposure to traffic. line is usually the highest priority. by reducing Where there are options for alignment. will meet the stated objectives of the Overseeing Organisation. 2. Materials vulnerable to fire damage.Volume 2 Section 2 Chapter 2 Part 8 BD 29/04 General Principles 2. buildability. and to encourage people to regard walking or cycling as an acceptable mode of transport. the new crossing should be located to sustainability. For goal-orientated use. introducing new views or creating a structural form. In locations with a high risk of unauthorised removal of parts. location on the desire considerations such as modes of users. operation and maintenance.3 Footbridges can be more prone to various forms of damage. The impaired mobility e. robustness. For recreational use. See in particular paragraphs 2. Provision of Footbridges 2. 2. 2. August 2004 2/1 Volume 2 home page . These followed when designing footbridges for new and criteria are of benefit to many types of users with improved all-purpose trunk roads and motorways. environmental impact.1 below.g. cost.5 One of the purposes of footbridges is to facilitate and encourage walking and cycling whilst ensuring safety for all road users. Such matters should be considered in liaison with the Overseeing Organisation.1 This section describes the principles to be into the following sections of this standard. or to graffiti that is difficult to remove. older people. e. The type of crossing provided should therefore be such as to encourage people to use it.g. heavily-laden shoppers maximum flexibility to develop footbridge designs that etc. underlying principle is that the designer is given the those with walking difficulties. Consideration should be given by the Designer to assessing any existing patterns or likelihood of vandalism at the location. taking account of likely pedestrian flows and movements.4 Materials of high scrap value may not be suitable for components vulnerable to removal. Relevant authorities such as the local police may be consulted if necessary. people with prams.2 The designer should balance the full range of location.

3. it should. be sited in such a way that pedestrians walking towards the bridge face oncoming traffic. Figure 2 (ref para. 3.6) 3. where the footpath is outside the cutting at original natural ground level. the steps and ramps should be built into the face of the cutting. 3. both carriageways shall be crossed with a single span to avoid the need for a support in the central reserve.4 The position of a footbridge should be chosen to maximise the use of the topography so as to avoid or minimise the need for stairs and ramps. these should be used as far August 2004 3/1 Volume 2 home page . other than a motorway. This may be effected by making the gap between the structures at least 2m wherever possible. particularly when visible on the skyline. 3. See Figure 1. using a false cutting if necessary.4) 3.1 Where a footbridge crosses a dual carriageway carrying traffic with permitted speeds in excess of 48 km/h. 3. consideration should be given by the Designer to the provision of a road restraint system on the approaches to the footbridge to contain appropriate vehicles within the highway. 3.3 Where a separate footbridge is located close to a highway bridge such that an errant vehicle could impact the footbridge. the access to the deck should be linked gradually into the footpath. LAYOUT Location as is practicable to provide access to the footbridge by incorporating ramps in the side slopes.2 Where a separate footbridge is installed alongside a road bridge it should be detailed such as to deter attempts by persons to cross between. Figure 1 (ref para.Volume 2 Section 2 Chapter 3 Part 8 BD 29/04 Layout 3. is in cutting or has other ground modelling which provide side slopes on one or both sides. adequate alternative safety precautions should be taken to minimise the risk of persons falling through the gap. Where this cannot be provided. See Figure 2.5 Where a paved approach to the ramp or stairs of a footbridge is located immediately adjacent to the carriageway.7 When the footbridge is in a cutting. as far as practicable. the cutting slope should if possible extend at least up to deck level. where the footpath is within the cutting.6 When a road. In such situations. 3. Alternatively.

However. any provision of suitable pedestrian guardrails or diversion of the footpath should commence as far from appropriate planting which prevent them from crossing the carriageway or crossing point as is practicable to the carriageway at road level. rather than crossing at grade. and the Sustrans information sheet Access Controls (Ref. as far as impaired persons. in which case the Figure 4. 3. Spiral ramps can be very effective. landscaping with trees practicable. Restrictions should be “Provision for Non Motorised Users” (Ref. steps and ramps should be built into the contours of the landscape. The method cut directly across fields. busy roads. 3/2 August 2004 Volume 2 home page . with larger radii generally being more visually pleasing. Where practicable. Access shall be as short and direct as might cause anxiety or a risk to users' personal security. This should be taken into account in any decision on ramp layout. rural footpaths the access shall be restricted by spaced bollards or frequently follow field boundaries and historic rights of way and care should be taken to avoid diversions that a system of staggered horizontal rails.7) 3. berries. Further information can be is practicable. particularly to visually 3. the absence of landings in spiral ramps may lead to them being more difficult or even impossible to negotiate for mobility-impaired users. Where there are no trees provided by both ramps and stairs wherever in the area of the footbridge. 4). minimise the total route length and maintain the desire line to the footbridge. Figure 3 (ref para. This will make the path more 3. Any proposed planting should be discussed if stairs may be omitted.12 Access to footbridges with combined cycle or equestrian use shall not be by stairs only. ideally following directly the desire line. avoiding long users from root and branch growth or falling foliage and detours and unnecessary climbing. unless ramps alone would provide the should be considered.14 Pedestrians can be encouraged to use a 3. run beside unscreened. 6). adequately marked in contrasting colour to reduce the risk of accidents. 5).9 In order to avoid discouraging walking. exploit the topography. particularly wheelchair users.11 Ramp geometry should be as simple as is practical. However. especially in flat country. Further guidance on the of restriction adopted shall be appropriate to its diversion of existing Rights of Way can be found in environmental setting and shall allow the passage Section 3 of the Highways Agency draft document of wheelchairs and prams.16 Existing hedgerows or tree lines should be 3. 3. Access by stairs alone necessary with a landscape architect and should take should only be considered in exceptional into account the effect on any future maintenance circumstances in consultation with the Overseeing liabilities for the structure.8 Where a footbridge is installed to provide a footbridge. rural footpaths should not be diverted to obtained from Sense and Accessibility (Ref. See most direct route to the deck.15 Where access to a footbridge is such that a pleasant for users. Straight ramps with 180-degree turns or multiple levels should be avoided where possible.10 Access to the deck of a footbridge should be utilized as effectively as possible to minimise the visual impact of the steps and ramps.Chapter 3 Volume 2 Section 2 Layout Part 8 BD 29/04 3. provide better accessibility and help motor vehicle could be driven onto the structure. 3.13 Access stairs and ramps are often the most noticeable and environmentally damaging elements of a pedestrian bridge and should be minimised where possible. practicable and follow the desire line of the main or which may eventually cause trip or slip hazards to pedestrian flow wherever possible. by the crossing point for an existing rural footpath. Access 3. Planting schemes should be Organisation and local access and disability designed to avoid creating an enclosed area which groups.

the detailing and avoided.11) “The Design and Appearance of Bridges”. close-up effects should be designed to satisfy those who will appreciate the bridge at close quarters and at a 3.19 There should be no concealed areas or recesses slower pace. 7) particularly chapter 12. and the more general advice in BA 41 (DMRB 1.Volume 2 Section 2 Chapter 3 Part 8 BD 29/04 Layout 3.23) should be given by the Designer to consulting the local planning authority about the appearance and location. Areas of gantry signs in close proximity to a footbridge is Outstanding Natural Beauty. Scotland and Wales are the Royal Fine Arts Commission for Scotland and the Design Commission for Wales. from all viewpoints. This detail will also with clarity.3. help to prevent the accumulation of rubbish in inaccessible or confined spaces beneath the ramp. are unavoidable their interaction should be taken into account from the earliest stages of design. In this situation bolder. Where the guidance in BA 41 (DMRB 1. Because the possible candidates for submission to the plane of the sign is fixed relative to the road alignment. sufficient land form is simple or more complex it should be expressed should be acquired to facilitate this.) The need for consultation with these bodies shall be discussed at an early stage with the Overseeing Organisation.11) is being followed to produce a family of bridges along a road with an occasional substantially different bridge to provide variation and respond to the Figure 4 (ref para. See Figure 5. should be considered. Whether the existing contours. The overall 3. should be avoided. Commission for Architecture and the Built the line of the footbridge should follow this to avoid Environment (CABE). 3. they should also be proportions of the bridge in elevation should be detailed such that the accumulation of rubbish in designed to satisfy the road users or distant observer. Appearance 3. It should be aesthetically pleasing. 3.17 Where possible. Where necessary. (The relevant bodies for awkward clashes in angle. enhance the environment and encourage people to use the bridge. with should be built on embankments that merge with the the agreement of the TAA to give it drama. inaccessible or confined spaces beneath them is The approaches.16) topography. the lower sections of ramps contrasting forms of structure could be considered.24 Visual clarity of the structure and all of its elements is essential. To this end the mounting of signs 3. The highest standard of detailing is on the bridge that may cause bridge users to become required. 3.21 Footbridges which may have a significant or signal equipment on the bridge structure or in its visual impact on their local environment.23 The appearance of the footbridge. it is often appropriate to use a footbridge as the dramatic contrast. In urban areas consideration Figure 5 (ref para. Heritage sites etc.22 The long spans and relatively light loads of footbridges should be exploited and expressed in their appearance. concerned about their personal security while crossing. or which immediate environment. which create an impression of may be situated in areas requiring special clutter. August 2004 3/3 Volume 2 home page . Where the provision of consideration such as Conservation Areas. 3. In Northern Ireland please consult the Overseeing Organisation. 3. the handrailing. simplicity and elegance. The appearance of footbridges shall follow the advice given in the HA publication “The Appearance of Bridges and Other Highway Structures” (Ref.20 The appearance of a footbridge should be appropriate for its site.3.18 Where stairs are provided.

Volume 2 Section 2 Chapter 4 Part 8 BD 29/04 Bridge Supports 4. August 2004 4/1 Volume 2 home page .5) for collision loading. in particular BD 37 (DMRB 1.3 For new bridges over existing roads.14) for loading and BD 60 (DMRB 1.3. the foundations shall be designed to cause the minimum delay to traffic during construction. BRIDGE SUPPORTS 4.3.1 Footbridge supports and foundations shall be designed in accordance with the current Departmental requirements. 4.2 Where footbridge sub-structures are sited on Railway or Waterway property. the appropriate Authority’s requirements shall be satisfied. 4.

timber structures.3. are particularly susceptible to unacceptably large oscillations caused by the passage of large groups of people who may unconsciously or deliberately synchronise their walking patterns. For be agreed with the Overseeing Organisation. the footbridge is suitable for entry into service. Minimum Thickness of Metal Sections 5. by the relevant appropriate dynamic testing in order to verify that European Code. For any footbridge having modal frequencies below these limits 5.3.5 The minimum thickness of metal structural generally comply with the requirements of elements shall be as follows: BS 5268 and BS 8118 respectively or where implemented. by the relevant European Code. where permissible stress methods of design are used. Particular consideration shall be given to the possibility that vandals may deliberately attempt to excite the structure into motion or that the passage of large numbers of people may unintentionally do so.Volume 2 Section 2 Chapter 5 Part 8 BD 29/04 Design Standards 5. Steel plates and sections other than hollow sections 6mm Vibration and Dynamic Response Steel hollow sections effectively sealed 5.3.14) and design on the basis of its expected dynamics shall BD 60 (DMRB 1. Criteria for accepting or rejecting a shall be those given in BD 37 (DMRB 1.4 Due consideration shall be given by the by welding 5mm Designer to the susceptibility of any footbridge to Aluminium alloy plates and sections 4mm vibrations induced by pedestrians and by other bridge users.1 Steel and concrete footbridges shall be consideration should be given by the Designer. to BS 5400 as implemented by Departmental any requirements needed for carrying out Standards or where implemented. The possibility of the synchronisation of a large number of people to vertical motions should August 2004 5/1 Volume 2 home page .5. DESIGN STANDARDS General particularly be considered.5) for collision loading.14) Appendix B5. Such oscillations can present a hazard to pedestrians on the structure and can risk damaging the structure itself. the unfactored nominal values shall be applied. All footbridges shall satisfy the vibration serviceability requirements set out in BD 37 (DMRB 1. Designers should be aware that footbridges having modes of oscillation with frequencies less than 5Hz involving vertical motions of the deck.3 Timber and aluminium footbridges shall 5. and/or less than 1. in designed in accordance with the relevant Parts of agreement with the Overseeing Organisation. and to the provisions needed for the future installation 5.2 The loading and loading effects to be used if required of vibration reduction devices such as for the design of timber and aluminium footbridges dampers.5Hz involving horizontal motions of the deck.

this requirement may be relaxed over localised 6.3 The clear width of the bridge.4 Where the bridge structure incorporates an measured along the centre line of the stairs. the requirements whichever is the greater. shall be (a) The number of risers in a single flight shall derived on the following basis to meet the peak not be more than 13. 6. ramps and stairs. canals and watercourses with the local access and disability groups. August 2004 6/1 Volume 2 home page . where the deck form incorporates a varying Drainage Authority. the slope requirements regarding or not less than the width of the stairs. b) On steps or ramps steeper than 1 in 20 (c) The risers and treads of each step in a flight gradient: 300mm of width per 14 persons of stairs shall be uniform.3. except as amended below (see also Figure 6): 6.5 Normally. the vertical and horizontal clearances to 6. trafficked arch. suspension. 8).1 The vertical clearances to the carriageway across the deck in agreement with the Overseeing shall be in accordance with Departmental Standard Organisation.6 Access stairs to footbridges shall comply with the dimensional and safety requirements of Width BS 5395 for ‘public’ stairs. (g) Landing lengths shall be not less than 2m 6. with the Environment Agency and the Land However.5m unless otherwise agreed with the mobility levels of the bridge users in consultation with Overseeing Organisation. pedestrian flows: (b) A maximum of three successive flights may be used in line. having given due regard to the likely TD 27 (DMRB 6.2 The horizontal clearance from the edge of lengths of the deck by agreement with the Overseeing the carriageway to the bridge supports shall be a Organisation. degrees.5) and/or provided with appropriate road restraint systems. DIMENSIONAL STANDARDS Clearances 1 in 20. per minute. (d) Risers shall not be variable in height over c) For shared use with cyclists and equestrians their width. inclined deck.g. shall also be complied with. Where a deck is steeper than 1 in 20 the requirements regarding landings may be waived 6. stressed ribbon etc. The vertical and horizontal mobility levels of the bridge users in consultation clearances to railways. regarding spacing of landings on ramps may not be practical across a deck structure and for this reason Further guidance can be obtained from Inclusive the deck slope should normally be no steeper than Mobility (Ref. For example. 4.Volume 2 Section 2 Chapter 6 Part 8 BD 29/04 Dimensional Standards 6. gradients on the deck shall be no rivers and watercourses in England shall be agreed steeper than those adopted for the access ramps. the bridge supports shall be designed for collision loading to Stairs BD 60 (DMRB 1. However. shall be agreed with the Appropriate Authority. the requirements contained in Section 12 (e) The riser shall be not more than 150mm. (f) The tread width shall be not less than Gradients on Bridge Structure 300mm and not greater than 350mm. provided any adjacent flights a) On the level or up to 1 in 20 gradient: provide a change in direction of at least 30 300mm of width per 20 persons per minute. plain ramps shall apply.5m or greater cannot be achieved. having given due regard to the likely minimum of 4.1. slope (e.).2). which shall be not less than 2m. Where a clearance of the local access and disability groups.

6. The effective gradient and governing dimensions shall be measured 900mm from the edge of the walkway surface on the inside of the curve. successive sloping ramps in one line may be used in (b) The ratio of the open area to the total area of agreement with the Overseeing Organisation where the riser shall be not greater than 0.15 For straight ramps of gradient steeper than 1 in 20.14 For straight or spiral ramps of gradient 1 in 20. a steeper ramp may be used. however. in either of direction (30 deg or more) or in horizontal which case the openings shall meet the following alignment (e.13 The effective gradient for spiral and curved ramps shall comply with the requirements for plain ramps. no ramp shall be steeper than 1 in 12. For reasons of keeping the access on curve. 6.16 The length of a landing shall not be less than 6. or for reasons of limitations of space. The minimum inside radius of walkway surfaces for curved and spiral ramps shall be 5. landings shall be provided at equal intervals of 6.6) 6. Spiral and Curved Ramps 6.7 Completely open risers shall not be used.g. Landings Figure 6 (ref para. or to avoid damage to the environment. offset by at least one ramp width). reasons there should normally be a significant change Stairs may. 6. Plain Ramps 6. preferably no steeper than 1 in 15. horizontal landings shall be provided at Ramps intervals producing a rise of no more than 650mm between landings. the desire line. (a) The principal dimensions of the perforation shall not exceed 50mm. either no other arrangement of ramps is possible on the site or where it provides more encouragement to pedestrians to use the footbridge by shortening the walking distance.5m. 6/2 August 2004 Volume 2 home page . at requirements: least at every 3. 6. for safety 6. cyclists and 2m measured for straight ramps on the centreline equestrians shall not be steeper than 1 in 20 unless of the ramp or for spiral ramps circumferentially at agreed otherwise with the Overseeing 900mm from the walkway edge on the inside of the Organisation. intermediate landings are not required.4. However.11 For ramps of gradient steeper than 1 in 20.9 Ramps for pedestrians.10 Where the ramp is steeper than 1 in 20. or to avoid long diversions. risers to protect the privacy of users and screening to protect the privacy of neighbouring dwellings. for the purpose of design to this Standard.12 The footway. have perforated risers.Chapter 6 Volume 2 Section 2 Dimensional Standards Part 8 BD 29/04 6. be regarded as part of the footbridge structure.5m rise of the ramp at an intermediate landing.8 Consideration should be given by the Designer to maximum rise 2. cycleway or equestrian approaches to the footbridge or ramps shall not.5m. For gradients flatter than 1 in the provision of solid infill panels to parapets and step 20.

2 In areas of high prevailing winds or where a footbridge is designed for pedestrian use only. by EN1317 Part 6. and the than 1 in 20. to aid those with visual (e) If glass is used it shall be laminated. ramps and to decks with a gradient steeper implemented. upstand shall be not less than 25mm and not more than 50mm. 7.30m with the agreement of the Overseeing Organisation. Alternatively. either be fixed to the parapet or be self-standing.Volume 2 Section 2 Chapter 7 Part 8 BD 29/04 Parapets 7. measured vertically rail. Further guidance on provision of rigorous risk assessment shall be undertaken handrailings can be found in Inclusive Mobility during the selection of the glazing system. It (Ref. This loading the laminating materials. August 2004 7/1 Volume 2 home page . if damaged in service. A impairment. Those of non-circular section should preferably be 50mm wide by 38mm deep with (d) For plain or spiral ramps the height of the rounded edges.1 All bridge spans. Shards 700 N/m applied separately in the horizontal and created during the shattering of the outer vertical directions in such a way that the system is plies shall be large enough to be retained by designed for the most severe effects.6 Handrails should be of a contrasting colour to the parapet to which it is attached. not greater than 100mm. 8). when stairs. The height of the handrail shall be not less than (b) Where the parapet is provided with a bottom 900mm or more than 1000mm.5 Handrails of circular section should preferably (c) The height of the parapet shall be measured have a diameter of 40 – 50mm and if within an vertically above the line joining the noses of enclosure should have a clearance from any part of the the stairs. frame of 50 – 60mm. the height of the parapet. the height of the parapet may be increased to 1. 7. 7. Handrails shall be designed in following: accordance with BS 8300. the clearance from the rail to the nose above the line joining the noses of the stairs or of the stairs shall be not less than 50mm and above the line of the ramps as appropriate. ramps and stairs shall be provided with parapets. 7.7 The handrail and its fixings shall be post fracture strength to remain in place designed to resist a uniformly distributed load of within its fixings on the structure. The climbability aspect requires particular attention where diagonal members at intermediate heights are employed. Additional central handrails need only be provided where the width (a) No upstand is required under the parapet on of the stairs or ramps exceeds 3m. shall be demonstrated that the panels.4 Handrails shall be provided on both sides of Organisation given in the IRRRS or. the upstand at the edge of the walkway surface and the climbability of any part shall be in accordance with requirements of 7. Parapets shall conform to the current requirements of the Overseeing 7. PARAPETS Handrails 7. and the headroom under the bridge is greater than 10m. is not additional to the loading for parapets. would retain sufficient 7. Handrails may stairs. an enclosed form of superstructure should be considered – see Section 8.1.3 Where structural members of a footbridge serve as a parapet. the infilling of open areas.

enclosure frames etc. Flush glazing outside the face of the structure is an acceptable form for enclosure walls and arched mesh roofs are an acceptable form for preventing roof access. or where they are surface of each parapet. No part of any structural roof is prevented.3m be given by the Designer to full or partial Pedestrian and Cyclist 2. Equestrian (dismounting provisions where these are over the highway.7m such provision shall be agreed with the Overseeing Equestrian (mounted) 3. stairs and England (Ref. ENCLOSED FOOTBRIDGES AND CLEARANCE GAUGE 8.6 A vertical clearance envelope shall be pursuance of the National Suicide Strategy for maintained at all locations on decks. The need for in accordance with 12.3. or if there is a high risk of persons jumping onto the carriageway. aerodynamic effects shall be considered. high parapets with an inward canted top or full enclosure may be required.2 Consideration should be given by the Designer to the envelope.14) 2. 9). shall intrude into 8. The clearance envelope shall be enclosing footbridges when they are on sites exposed to formed by a vertical line flush with the innermost very adverse weather.3 Where bridge enclosures are proposed.g. the height shall be the greatest height of the respective users. The need for such provision shall be requirements given in 8. 8.Volume 2 Section 2 Chapter 8 Part 8 BD 29/04 Enclosed Footbridges and Clearance Gauge 8. The design of an enclosure shall ramps whether open or enclosed appropriate to the be such that unauthorised access to the sides or the respective user groups. Particular care in detailing is required to prevent access at the end of main spans where the bridge is over a cutting.4m enclosure of the crossing and its ramps or stairs.7m Organisation. fine unclimbable stainless steel mesh infill will be suitable as cladding to the enclosure frame but if solid panels are specified they should be transparent with provision made for cleaning. Depending on the particular site problems.1 Where it is considered that there is a high 8. 8.5 The minimum headroom inside the risk of objects being dropped or thrown from the enclosure shall be as follows: footbridge. Wind tunnel testing may be required and guidance is given in BD 49 (DMRB 1.4 Normally. August 2004 8/1 Volume 2 home page . or any signing or other attachments.3). The National Institute of Mental Health can help identify problem areas. exist. high winds. in 8. and a of such a height above the road that pedestrians may horizontal line complying with the height feel insecure. items such as cable stays. consideration shall Pedestrian only 2.1.5. fence or handrail. Where shared facilities agreed with the Overseeing Organisation. Requirements shall be agreed with the Overseeing Organisation. e. Enclosures shall comply with the parapet requirements of 7.

3 Positive drainage of bearing shelves shall be provided beneath all deck movement joints.2 With the exception of stair treads and perforated decks. ramps and roof shall have adequate falls and suitable detailing to allow water to run off. steps. All walkway surfaces.Volume 2 Section 2 Chapter 9 Part 8 BD 29/04 Drainage 9. August 2004 9/1 Volume 2 home page .1 Provision shall be made for the drainage of water from the footbridge and its roof in the case of enclosed footbridges. water should not be allowed to discharge or spill from the structure on to the carriageway or footpaths or to stain exposed surfaces. 9. DRAINAGE 9. but shall be carried away either to a drainage system or to a soakaway. 9.

resistance to slip. durability. stairs and ramps. and the surfacing shall be fit for purpose with respect to the user type. This should address such requirements as corrosion resistance. 10. Cover plates to gaps and joints shall be set flush with the top of the surfacing to prevent tripping.Volume 2 Section 2 Chapter 10 Part 8 BD 29/04 Walkway Surfaces 10. 10.1 It is intended to establish an Approval/ Registration System for materials and systems to provide appropriate fitness for purpose for surfacing for various user types.4 The Designer. or for existing structures the Maintaining Agent.5 Exposed gaps in walkway surfaces shall not be in excess of 12mm in width. 10. 10. the upper substrate surfaces shall be waterproofed or otherwise protected against deterioration from surface contaminants. and the upper surfaces shall be suitably profiled or treated to reduce the likelihood of slippage. WALKWAY SURFACES 10.2 On the traversed areas of decks. and additionally for equestrian use.3 The minimum slip resistance of traversed areas shall be equivalent to a mean corrected Pendulum Test Value of 45 units using a standard skid resistance pendulum test (prEN 13036-4). August 2004 10/1 Volume 2 home page . noise attenuation. shall ensure that the Maintenance Manual for the structure states the installation date and minimum expected life from the surfacing or surfacing/waterproofing system. and until this is in place the fitness for purpose of the combined substrate/surfacing system for the respective user type shall be agreed with the Overseeing Organisation as an Aspect Not Covered by Standards. environmental deterioration.

August 2004 11/1 Volume 2 home page . Lighting systems. their fittings and connections shall be robust and tamper proof. fixings and connections shall be robust and tamper proof. if necessary. using fixings incorporated in the bridge design. LIGHTING 11. 11. the footbridge shall be illuminated by parapet lighting fittings or lighting columns mounted on the bridge structure.1 Footbridges shall be illuminated if they are located in areas where public lighting is provided and any lighting shall conform with the requirements of BS 5489: Part 6. by additional ground level mounted lighting columns and lanterns.2 Footbridges shall normally be illuminated by means of existing road or footway lighting augmented.Volume 2 Section 2 Chapter 11 Part 8 BD 29/04 Lighting 11. for instance in the case of a covered walkway. All components of lighting systems. Where this is impracticable. Parapet members shall not be used as cable ducts.

0m August 2004 12/1 Volume 2 home page . consideration should be given by the Designer to providing chicane barriers to slow down mounted 12. and segregation on the approaches.75m 3.8 The minimum width of a footbridge for combined pedestrian/equestrian use shall be 3. 12. 2. the cycle track side of the bridge. especially where ramp slopes are steeper than 1 in 20.10 In pursuance of 12. by a white line. it shall be designed in accordance accordance with the guidance on shared use by with BD 37 (DMRB 1. In Scotland.1 above. Where practical. The form of segregation on the structure passage of perambulators and wheelchairs or mobility as determined locally shall be compatible with the and visually impaired users would not be hindered. but where cyclists are information on tactile surfacing for combined use physically segregated from pedestrian facilities the situations see “Guidance on the use of tactile paving increased parapet height need only be provided on surfaces” (Ref.95m 3.95m 1.3 Where the crossing is part of a pedestrian 12. When segregated by kerb not less 1.0m colour contrast or surface texture Unsegregated .5m 3.40m.9m less than 900mm permitted in order to reduce the risk of horses being high startled by traffic on the carriageway below. REQUIREMENTS FOR COMBINED USE BY PEDESTRIANS AND CYCLISTS OR EQUESTRIANS 12. where agreed with than 50mm high the Overseeing Organisation the use of solid infill panels higher than the minimum requirement defined in When segregated the documents referred to in 7. 10) or any current for combined pedestrian/equestrian use. 13). for long Pedestrians and Cyclists ramps. All cyclists and pedestrians contained in Local crossings catering for equestrians shall be designed Transport Note 2/86 (Ref. approaches beyond the ramp and stair ends.5m 1. This should be done in such a way that the unsegregated.5 On footbridges with cycle facilities the Motorised User (NMU) provision to the footbridge minimum height of a parapet shall be 1. For additional as specified in 7. Footbridge Designed for Combined Use by 12. see Highways Agency draft Guidance Note “Provision for Design criteria and details for this parapet shall be Non Motorised Users” (Ref.14) and 7.2 Shared facilities may be segregated or cyclists.4 The minimum widths for a footpath (or footway) and a cycle track on a bridge and ramps 12. update of that document. 12.Volume 2 Section 2 Chapter 12 Part 8 BD 29/04 Requirements for Combined Use by Pedestrians and Cyclists or Equestrians 12.75m 1.9 Where the crossing is not part of a designated shall be: bridleway. 1. and should preferably be located on level landings where agreed with the Overseeing Organisation. specific provision shall be made in equestrian use.7 Where a crossing is designated for and cycle route.5m. differing surface textures on segregated footways to aid visually impaired users may be continued across the Footbridge Designed for Combined Use by structure.5m 12.6 Whether ramps are segregated or not.1 above. reference shall be made to ‘Cycling by Design’ (Ref. Due account shall be taken of the effects of this on When segregated aesthetics and potential loss of utility to other users. Pedestrians and Equestrians 12. 4).1 above may be by railings not 1. consideration should be given by the Designer to providing mounting/dismounting blocks on Pedestrian Cycle Total Path Path Width the approaches to the bridge to enable horses to be led across.3. 12). .1 For guidance on the layout and surfacing of Non 12.7 above.

12. for example special surfacing. Alternatively.13 Suitable signage shall be erected on the approaches to the footbridge to warn other users of the potential presence of horses. 12. suitably sized equestrian waiting areas should be provided off the structure to allow users the option to cross when the deck is clear. mounting/dismounting blocks shall be provided and suitable signs erected to indicate that equestrians should dismount.15 Where the deck is constructed of steel or timber or any other material where the sound made while crossing the bridge could alarm the horses. requesting cyclists to take particular care or give way to equestrians.5. suitable noise attenuation measures. warning notices to this effect shall be erected.11 Wherever possible the bridge should be aligned such that all user types can see the entire length of the structure from the approaches and. 12. 12/2 August 2004 Volume 2 home page .12 The upper face of cover plates to expansion joints at deck level shall be provided with a suitable slip resistant coating. may be agreed with the Overseeing Organisation. where practical. 12.Chapter 12 Volume 2 Section 2 Requirements for Combined Use by Pedestrians and Cyclists or Equestrians Part 8 BD 29/04 12.14 Where the minimum headroom on the structure is not designed for mounted use in accordance with 8.

The Appearance of Bridges and Other Highway BS 8118: Structural use of aluminium Structures.8) BD 30 Backfilled Retaining Walls and Bridge Abutments (DMRB 2. Highways Agency. concrete and composite bridges 5. TSO Department for Transport (1998) BD 37 Loads for Highway Bridges (DMRB 1.11) TD 27 Cross Sections and Headroom (DMRB 6. Sense and Accessibility.5) BD 49 Design Rules for Aerodynamic Effects on Bridges (DMRB 1. Interim Requirements for Road Restraint Systems Straight Stairs (IRRRS) 2.4.Code of Practice Department of Health.1.14) 13. Draft Guidance Note on Non-Motorised Users.3. Guidance on the Use of Tactile Paving Surfaces.3. National Suicide Prevention Strategy.3) BA 41 The Design and Appearance of Bridges (DMRB 1. REFERENCES 1. HMSO BS 5395: Part 1: Code of Practice for the Design of 11. Scottish Executive BD 60 The Design of Highway Bridges for Vehicle Collision Loads (DMRB 1.3. Cycling by Design: A Consultation Paper – December 1999. Design Manual for Roads and Bridges (DMRB): 12. Manual of Contract Documents for Highways Works (MCHW): TSO Specification of Highways Works.1. (MCHW) August 2004 13/1 Volume 2 home page .5) BD 74 Foundations (DMRB 2.2) Technical Memorandum BE1/78 3. 2000 BS 8300: Design of buildings and their Approaches to 9. Straight Stairs London. British Standards: BSI 4. 1996 BS 5395: Part 1: Code of Practice for the Design of 8. 2000 BS 6100: Subsection 2.1. Highway Engineering 6. Countryside Agency Publications.1. Inclusive Mobility. Highways Agency BS 5400: Code of Practice for the Design of Steel. London 2002 BS 5489: Part 6: Lighting for bridges and elevated 10. Local Transport Note 2/86 – Shared use by roads Cyclists and Pedestrians – August 1986. Department for Transport. meet the needs of disabled people .3.Volume 2 Section 2 Chapter 13 Part 8 BD 29/04 References 13. Sustrans 1998 BS 5268: Structural use of timber 7. Sustrans Information Sheet FF22 – Access Controls. Glossary of Building and Civil Engineering Terms.

Walking Bibliography DETR Traffic Advisory Leaflet 4/00. FURTHER READING Traffic Signs (Amendment) Regulations:1982. HMSO DETR Traffic Advisory Leaflet 3/00. Transport Research Laboratory. Statutory Instrument 1982. No 1879 – December 1982. Cycling Bibliography Highways Report HR6 – Equestrian Use of Trunk Road Structures. 2002 August 2004 14/1 Volume 2 home page .Volume 2 Section 2 Chapter 14 Part 8 BD 29/04 Further Reading 14.

Volume 2 Section 2 Chapter 15 Part 8 BD 29/04 Enquiries 15. ENQUIRIES All technical enquiries or comments on this Standard should be sent in writing as appropriate to: Chief Highway Engineer The Highways Agency Room B153A Romney House 43 Marsham Street G CLARKE London SW1P 3HW Chief Highway Engineer Chief Road Engineer Scottish Executive Victoria Quay Edinburgh J HOWISON EH6 6QQ Chief Road Engineer Chief Highway Engineer Transport Directorate Welsh Assembly Government Llywodraeth Cynulliad Cymru Crown Buildings M J A PARKER Cardiff Chief Highway Engineer CF10 3NQ Transport Directorate Director of Engineering Department for Regional Development Roads Service Clarence Court 10-18 Adelaide Street G W ALLISTER Belfast BT2 8GB Director of Engineering August 2004 15/1 Volume 2 home page .