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UNIVERSITY OF TOURISM, TECHNOLOGY AND BUSINESS STUDIES

(U.T.B)

P.O.Box:239 Gisenyi

WOMEN EMPOWERMENT AND PUBLIC ORGANIZATION

PERFORMANCE IN RWANDA

CASE STUDY OF RWANDA REVENUE AUTHORITY (RRA)/KIGALI


BRANCH

Submitted and presented

by:

NZAYISENGA ADRIEN

REG No: 00589/14/G

Under the guidance and supervision of Mr. TUSHABE Emmy

A Dissertation submitted to:

Department of Business Management in partial fulfillment of requirement for the


award of the Bachelor’s degree in Business Management

November, 2016

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DECLARATION

I NZAYISENGA ADRIEN do declare that this research project is my own work. I have to
the best of my knowledge acknowledged all authors or sources from where I got information.
I further declare that this work has not been submitted to any university or institution for the
award of a degree or any of its equivalents.

Signed....................................................... Date.........../……../………….

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APPROVAL

This is to acknowledge that this research project has been submitted with my approval

Signed............................................................. Date.........../……../………….

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DEDICATION

This research is dedicated to my father,

To my mother,

To my brothers and sisters

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ACKNOWLEGMENTS

This work comes to the end not only by the effort of the researcher but also the support of
some individuals and organization. First and foremost I thank the God almighty for his
plentiful blessing, assistance and guidance during my studies in University of Tourism
Technology and Business studies (U.T.B).

I would like to express my deepest appreciation to vice-chancellor of U.T.B campus Mr.


Kabera Callixte and all staff members of U.T.B Gisenyi campus and particularly my
supervisor Professor TOMBOLA together with Co-supervisor Mr. TUSHABE Emmy for
they invaluable support and insight during my dissertation writing process. My appreciation
is also addressed to my elder brother NGIRIMANA MOSES for his inspiration and
encouragement.

I would also need to thank Rwanda revenue authority Kigali branch employees whom they
provided to me with priceless data and experiences. My greatest gratitude is also expressed to
my father BARAYAGWIZA Anastase., my mother NAKIPIMO Francoise, my sweetie for
their huge and continuous encouragement, assistance, patient, and love during the very long
journey to reach my dream. My thankfulness is extended for all family members of my
grandfather MERIMERI. Finally, I am thankful to all colleagues at the University of Tourism
Technology and Business studies whom I have spent time together to enjoy the academic and
social life.

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LIST OF SYMBOLS/ABBREVIATION/ ACRONONYMS

% : Percentage.

AIDS : Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome).

CCTVs : Closed-circuit televisions.

CDC : Center for disease control.

EBM : Electronic billing machine.

FGDs : Focus Group discussions.

GDP : Gross domestic product.

HIV : Human immunodeficiency virus.

IBM : International business machine.

ILO : International labor organization.

MDGs : Millennium development goals.

MINECOFIN : Ministry of finance and economic planning.

NGOs : Nongovernmental organizations.

OSBP : One stop border post.

PHD : Doctor of philosophy.

RRA : Rwanda Revenue Authority.

SIGTAS : Stands for Standard Integrated Government Tax Administration System.

U.S. : United nation.

UN : United Nations.

VAT : Value-added tax.

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LIST OF APPENDICES

APPENDICES I:QUESTIONNAIRE INTENDED FOR RRA KIGALI BRANCH


MANAGEMENT .......................................................................................... a

APPENDICES II:QUESTIONNAIRE INTENDED FOR RRA KIGALI BRANCH


EMPLOYEES. .............................................................................................. d

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Characteristics of respondents by gender .................................................................. 22

Table 2: Marital status according to the respondents............................................................... 23

Table 3: Characteristics of respondents by ages ...................................................................... 23

Table 4: Demographic Profile of Respondents by Educational level ...................................... 24

Table 5:Research Question One, What is the role of empowering women in public
organization? ............................................................................................................. 24

Table 6: Research Question Two, What are the challenges organizations faces as regards to
women empowerment? ............................................................................................. 25

Table7: Research Question Three, What are the strategies to overcoming the challenges
women faces in organization? ................................................................................... 26

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION....................................................................................................................... i

APPROVAL .............................................................................................................................ii

DEDICATION........................................................................................................................ iii

ACKNOWLEGMENTS ......................................................................................................... iv

LIST OF SYMBOLS/ABBREVIATION/ ACRONONYMS ............................................... v

LIST OF APPENDICES ........................................................................................................ vi

LIST OF TABLES .................................................................................................................vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................................... viii

ABSTRACT .............................................................................................................................xii

CHAPTER ONE:

INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY ............................................. 1

1.1. Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 1

1.2. Background to the study ..................................................................................................... 1

1.3. Statement of the problem .................................................................................................... 3

1.4. Research objectives ............................................................................................................. 4

1.4.1. General objective ............................................................................................................. 4

1.4.2. Specific objectives ........................................................................................................... 4

1.5. Research questions .............................................................................................................. 4

1.6. Significance of the study. .................................................................................................... 4

1.6.1. To the researcher. ............................................................................................................. 4

1.6.2. To the future researcher. .................................................................................................. 5

1.6.3. To the public organizations.............................................................................................. 5

1.7. Scope of the study ............................................................................................................... 5

1.7.1. Time scope ....................................................................................................................... 5

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1.7.2. Geographical scope .......................................................................................................... 5

1.7.3. Content scope ................................................................................................................... 5

1.8. Limitation of the study ........................................................................................................ 5

1.9. Summary ............................................................................................................................. 6

CHAPTER TWO:

LITERATURE REVIEW ....................................................................................................... 7

2.1. Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 7

2.2. Definition of key terms. ...................................................................................................... 7

2.2.1. Women empowerment. .................................................................................................... 7

2.2.2. Public sector ..................................................................................................................... 7

2.2.3. Organization Performance ............................................................................................... 8

2.3. The role of empowering women in public organization ..................................................... 8

2.3.1. Overall development of organization............................................................................... 8

2.3.2. Economic Benefits ........................................................................................................... 9

2.3.3. Reduction of psychological violence ............................................................................... 9

2.3.4. Reduction in corruption ................................................................................................... 9

2.3.5. Reduce Poverty .............................................................................................................. 10

2.3.6. National Development ................................................................................................... 10

2. 4. The challenges women face in public organization. ........................................................ 10

2.4.1. The Work-Life Balance. ................................................................................................ 11

2.4.2. Health Issues. ................................................................................................................. 11

2.4.3. Leadership and the Glass Ceiling. ................................................................................. 11

2.4.5. Discrimination and Pay. ................................................................................................. 12

2.4.6. Inequality between men and women.............................................................................. 12

2.4.7. Under-employed and unemployed. ................................................................................ 12

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2.4.8.. Sexual persecution. ....................................................................................................... 12

2.5.The strategies to overcoming the challenges women face in organization. ....................... 13

2.5.1. Capacity building ........................................................................................................... 13

2.5.2. Gender mainstreaming ................................................................................................... 13

2.5.3. Eliminate gender inequality in employment .................................................................. 14

2.5.4. Combat violence against women at the workplace ........................................................ 14

2.5.5. Advocacy ....................................................................................................................... 15

Summary .................................................................................................................................. 16

CHAPTER THREE:

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ......................................................................................... 17

3.1. Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 17

3.1 .Research design ................................................................................................................ 17

3.2. Population and selection of the sample ............................................................................. 17

3.2.1. Sample selection technique ............................................................................................ 17

3.2.2. Sample size .................................................................................................................... 18

3.3. Tools for data collection. .................................................................................................. 18

3.3.1. Questionnaire ................................................................................................................. 18

3.3.2. Documentary .................................................................................................................. 18

3.3.3 .Observation .................................................................................................................... 18

3.4. Collection of data .............................................................................................................. 19

3.4.1. Primary data ................................................................................................................... 19

3.4.2. Secondary data ............................................................................................................... 19

3.5. Analysis of data................................................................................................................. 19

3.5.1. Data analysis .................................................................................................................. 19

3.5.2. Data processing .............................................................................................................. 20

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3.5.2.1. Coding ......................................................................................................................... 20

3.5.2.2. Editing ......................................................................................................................... 20

3.5.2.3. Tabulation ................................................................................................................... 20

3.6. Validity and reliability ...................................................................................................... 20

3.6.1. Validity .......................................................................................................................... 20

3.6.2. Reliability....................................................................................................................... 21

3.7. Ethical consideration. ........................................................................................................ 21

3.8. Summary ........................................................................................................................... 21

CHAPTER FOUR:

DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTEPRENTATIONS .............................. 22

4.1. Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 22

4.2. Bio data of the respondents ............................................................................................... 22

4.2.1. Gender of Respondents .................................................................................................. 22

4.2.2. Marital status of Respondents ................................................................................... 23

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ............ 27

5.1. Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 27

5.2. Summary of the Study ...................................................................................................... 27

5.2. Conclusions ....................................................................................................................... 28

5.3. Recommendations ............................................................................................................. 29

5.5. Areas for Further Researcher ............................................................................................ 29

REFFERENCES .................................................................................................................... 30

APPENDICES ........................................................................................................................ 32

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ABSTRACT

This study is on women empowerment and public organization performance in Rwanda. The
case study of Rwanda Revenue Authority Kigali Branch. The general objective of the study is
to analyze the impact of women empowerment in public organization performance and
specific objectives were to examine the role of empowering women in public organization, to
assess the challenges women faces in public organization, to find out the strategies to
overcoming the challenges women face in public organization. Literature review was guided
by research objectives and was attained from secondary sources. The research design was
descriptive design. The total population was 250 respondents from which sample sizes of 71
respondents were chosen by using Yamane formula and these were chosen using simple
random sampling and purposive sampling technique. Tools for collecting data were
questionnaires, documentaries and observation. Data was analyzed using tables, frequencies
and percentages. Findings on the role of empowering women were overall development of
organization, Economic benefits, Reduction of psychological violence, Reduction in
corruption, Reduction in poverty, and National development. Findings on the challenges
women faces in public organization were hundred percent where all respondents said the
work life balance, health issues, leadership and glass ceiling, discrimination pay, inequality,
under-employed and unemployed, sexual persecution Finding on strategies were capacity
building, gender mainstreaming, eliminate gender inequality in employment, advocacy,
policy development, coordination, monitoring and evaluation. The researcher recommended
that Organizations should have an internal code to ensure security of women employees and
take measures to ensure that they discharge their job in a secure atmosphere, providing self-
defense training to women; installing safety devices and closed circuit televisions at the work.
For future research, the study should focus on influence of women empowerment on
economic growth and factors for assessment of women empowerment in public organization.

Keywords: Women empowerment, Public sector, performance.

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CHAPTER ONE:

INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

1.1. Introduction

It has become widely understood that promoting women empowerment is an essential


component of an effective organization performance and human development strategy.
(World Bank reports, 2003). There is evidence of positive effects of women’s empowerment
from around the organizations, in recent years, a range of organizations have increasingly
shown commitment to women’ empowerment; they have also realized that empowering
women is a win situation that benefits both organizations and women. (Ryder, 2012) Claim
that women’s empowerment is fast becoming a key instrument in promoting organization
growth, productivity and efficiency not only that because also women’s empowerment
increasing women abilities to achieve their rights and well-being which subsequently reduces
household poverty after getting the job. (World Bank, 2011).Women empowerment and
Organization performance are closely related, in one direction, development alone can play a
major role in driving down inequality between men and women; although in the other
direction, empowering women may benefit to the development. (Esther, 2012).

This chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the
study, the research questions, scope of the study, significance of the study and limitations of
the study.

1.2. Background to the study

Women empowerment is increasingly seen as good for organization all over the world. The
growing participation of women in the labor market has been a major engine of organization
growth and competitiveness and a growing number of studies are reaching the conclusion that
gender balance in management teams and boards appears to make financial sense. (Ryder,
2012).

Issue of women empowerment first appeared on surface in 1980 since through various
women’s movements, they questioned themselves about their dilemma and their overloaded
position. (Alkire 2013),

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After women questioned themselves about their right as human being Later from 1980
Women’s empowerment implemented at some countries and especially in the workplace at
the same as in society some men embark on realized that empowerment of women is
significant and that is a prerequisite for sustainable development, pro-poor growth and the
achievement of all the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), In that decade Some of
European countries realized that empowered women is a catalyst for multiplying
development efforts and that Investments in women empowerment yield the highest returns
of organization development. (Ester, 2012).

In some of developed countries it already appeared that empowering women in the


organization is vital to maintaining a productive workforce and sustaining economic growth.
Indeed, in 2011 McKinsey Report that Unlocking the Full Potential of Women in the U.S.
Economy, found that if the United States had not increased the proportion of women in the
overall workforce from 37% to 48 % over the period of 1970 to 2009, its economy would
have been 25% smaller.(McKinsey report,2011). Further, in 2010 the study focused on Japan
indicated that an increase in female labor-force participation rates to parity with men would
add 8.2 million workers to Japan’s economy and even the productivity improved in this year
because they increased female labor-force compared to the previous years, virtually erasing
the projected decline in the country’s working-age population, and boost GDP growth by 15
%. . (The Probe Team, 1999).

Empowering Africa’s women is the key to economic wealth, briefly to promote the
empowerment of African women and girls, argued that “Empowerment of women could
drive economic growth, promote peace and can lead to the organization performance, Women
and girls need to be considered as agents of change to enable them to participate in the
organization decision making and have equal access to salaries and others different services,
as well as education, employment and managerial positions, if this happens that is an idea
worthy of support, after all, Africa has nothing to lose but everything to gain. (World Bank,
2011).

In 1999, Klasen finds that in Africa, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East
and North Africa had achieved women empowerment in schooling during the period 1960 to
1992 as rapidly as in the East African countries that their income per capita could have grown
by additional 0.5 to 0.9 percentages.

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In traditional Rwandan society there were Popular Rwandan dictums such as ‘the hen does
not crow with the cocks ‘in a home where a woman speaks there is discord and woman’s only
wealth is a man vividly describe the patriarchal structure of traditional Rwandan society and
women’s consequent inequality within the workplace and considered the men as symbol of
strength and protection who makes all major decisions in organization. (Avega Agahozo
1999).

The Women Empowered in Rwanda advanced more after analyzed the situation of women
from long years ago, Rwanda empowered women until where in this period Rwanda took the
first place as state empowered more women than all Africans counties for Rwanda has huge
number of women employees in Leadership positions and in more place of management.
(Ministry of Gender and Promotion of the Family, 1999).

Rwanda Revenue Authority was established by an Act of parliament in 1998, was vested with
a noble responsibility of assessing, collecting and accounting for the Government Revenue.
The Rwanda revenue authority was established with an understanding of the wide
significance of taxation. The Board of the RRA includes not just the MINECOFIN but also
the Ministry of Commerce, including the Investment Authority, charged with managing the
relationship between the collections of revenues and creating an enabling environment for
private sector investment and development. Most developed countries are characterized by a
broad base for direct and indirect taxes with tax liability covering the vast majority of citizens
and firms. Developing countries, in contrast, are confronted with social, political and
administrative difficulties in establishing a sound public finance system. As a consequence,
developing and emerging countries are particularly vulnerable to tax evasion and avoidance
activities of individual taxpayers and corporations. This can be considered one of the primary
reasons for large differences in the ability to mobilize own resources between developed and
developing countries. (Government report 2001).

1.3. Statement of the problem

The participation of women at all levels of decision-making is a basic tool of the organization
performance, women play a fundamental role in development of organization and
empowering women is a prerequisite to achieving the millennium development goals. (United
nation report, 2005). However most organizations treat Women as inferior to men, getting
unequal salaries to men, and face many kind of discrimination at the workplace that affect

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organization's productivity and causes employee turnover that jeopardize organization
reputation and the organization loyalty compromised when women are subject to gender bias.
Although Women performing their jobs incredibly excellent than men. Women
empowerment is crucial for better social and economical development of different countries,
because women empowerment enable much more working force and makes better results for
performance of organizations. This study intends to show Women empowerment in public
organization performance in Rwanda revenue authority Kigali Branch.

1.4. Research objectives

Objectives of this study were divided into two parts: general objectives and specific
objectives.

1.4.1. General objective

The general objective of this study is to analyze the impact of women empowerment in public
organization performance.

1.4.2. Specific objectives

1. To examine the role of empowering women in public organization.


2. To assess the challenges women faces in public organization.
3. To find out the strategies to overcoming the challenges women face in organization.

1.5. Research questions

1. What is the role of empowering women in public organization?


2. What are the challenges women faces in public organization?
3. What are the strategies to overcoming the challenges women faces in organization?

1.6. Significance of the study.

1.6.1. To the researcher.

This research will contribute to the researcher to get skills and knowledge about women
empowerment, not only that but this research will assist researcher to get the award bachelor
degree.

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1.6.2. To the future researcher.

This research will contribute to the academician to get views when carry out their research
project and will help future researchers to find experience from researcher study.

1.6.3. To the public organizations

This research will contribute to the public organization to treat all employees as the same and
give women their full right and how to reduce perpetration women faces at the workplace, not
only that but also to describe procedures that could be used to empower women .

1.7. Scope of the study

The scope of the study was limited in time, geographical, content of the study.

1.7.1. Time scope

The research was carried out for period of five years from 2012 to 2016; this period helped
the researcher to get enough information on literature review about women empowerment
and reading secondary data related to the public organization performance.

1.7.2. Geographical scope

The research was limited to Rwanda revenue authority (RRA) Kigali branch, to the
headquarter located in Gasabo district, kimihurura sector in Kigali city.

1.7.3. Content scope

The research limited on women empowerment and public organization performance, the

Independent variable is women empowerment and Dependant variable, is public organization


performance.

1.8. Limitation of the study

Time: the researcher faced by insufficient time to carry out the study because research study
has done in the same time of learning. To solve this researcher tried the best to work hard and
be vigilant to what received from the field and make it profitable.

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Methodologies, the researcher collected different from what observed sometimes and five
respondents don’t respond to the questionnaires and some others did not return it totally and
saw the questionnaires politically even though orientations have been made. To solve this
researcher asked some of expert in women empowerment to show the accurate findings
related to what researcher observed.

In the collection of data, the researcher found some errors from the primary data collected
and got unrealistic views about women empowerment. To solve this problem researcher used
test-retest method where there was doubt, and stressed about different book, magazine,
newspapers and internet to be consulted.

1.9. Summary

This first chapter is very important, because it seek to explain well why the researcher has
preferred the topic, and in brief the main parts of the research, such as the background of the
study, problem statement, the objectives, significance of the study, the scope of the study, and
limitation of the study.

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CHAPTER TWO:

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1. Introduction

This chapter covered the data of previous research on women empowerment and public
organization in Rwanda and evaluated the response to the information of that research,
starting with definition of key terms related to the topic of the study in order meaningful of
the research accurate information, to find the data the researcher consulted in different book,
magazine, newspapers and to the internet.

2.2. Definition of key terms.

2.2.1. Women empowerment.

Women empowerment means their survival and offering them choice to live their lives in the
way they want. It is also a method to allow greater opportunities to the women to execute the
important decisions which were never carried out by those underprivileged women before. In
other words “it is to create options, acquisition of capabilities and applying negotiating
skills”, protection of desired aspects done by confidence development, women empowerment
entail the right as a controlling mechanism of life and the belief as an individual‘s ability.
(Tamale, 2005).

2.2.2. Public sector

In general terms, the public sector consists of governments and all publicly controlled or
publicly funded agencies, enterprises, and other entities that deliver public programs, goods,
or services. It is not however; always clear whether any particular organization should be
included under that umbrella. Therefore, it is necessary to identify specific criteria to help
define the boundaries. The concept of public sector is broader than simply that of core
government and may overlap with the not-for-profit or private sectors. For the purposes of
this guidance, the public sector consists of an expanding ring of organizations, with core
government at the center, followed by agencies and public enterprises. Around this ring is a
gray zone consisting of publicly funded contractors and publicly owned businesses, which
may be, but for the most part are not, part of the public sector. (Dube, 1941).

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2.2.3. Organization Performance

The accomplishment of a given task measured against set known standards of accuracy,
completeness, cost, and speed. In a contract, organization performance is deemed to be
the fulfillment of an obligation, in a manner that releases the performer from
all liabilities under the contract. (Business dictionary, 2015).

2.3. The role of empowering women in public organization

Empowering women is not only the right thing to do, but also the smart thing to do. A
growing body of evidence shows that utilizing the skills and talent of both men and women is
beneficial for organizations and for society in general. Human capital has become a key for
organization to maintain a competitive edge in economies around the world that are
increasingly based on knowledge and technology. Organization groups and development
actors increasingly view of women empowerment as an important plank for long term
economic growth and development. (Booz, 2012).

Female employees tend to be concentrated in entry or middle level positions, that is, the more
senior the position, the lower the percentage of women. Women occupy a very small minority
of the senior professional managerial or leadership positions. (Sabina et al, 2012).

2.3.1. Overall development of organization

The main advantage of Women Empowerment is that there will be an overall development of
the organization and society. The commitment of women can causing job progressed a lot
and money that women earn does not only help them and or their family, but it also help
develop the society. (Leyden et al, 2000).

Woman may place more value on increased participation in household decision-making,


while the single woman household head, which already has household decision-making
power, may place more value on gaining increased respect from her community. The women
have a higher level of respect from her community compared to a single woman, because
social norms approve of marriage. However, research indicates that a single woman who is a
member of a care Village Savings and Loans group gains increased community respect due
to, among other things, her improved financial position. (Henson et al.2005).

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Yet it is widely stated that women’s empowerment is critical for tackling poverty and social
injustice. This belief underpins many of the U.N. Millennium Development Goals, which aim
to halve the proportion of people living in extreme poverty by 2015. Unfortunately, Ahmed
and many people working in development do not necessarily see any direct correlation
between women’s empowerment and the attainment of such goals. (UN reports, 2015).

2.3.2. Economic Benefits

Women Empowerment also leads to more economic benefits not to the individuals but to the
society as well. Unlike earlier days when they stayed at home only and do only kitchen stuffs,
). Company investment in attracting, retaining and promoting skilled women is likely to bring
advantages to the business. Attaining gender balance in senior management teams and in
company boards has been shown to reap economic dividends. It is well known that diversity
in company boards bring dramatic results in comparison to homogenous boards. Besides the
fact that women are a growing consumer force, there is also serious competition for talent in
the labor market. We have had to change our gender biases so more talented women can be
brought within the fold of the company. (Bindra, 2002).

2.3.3. Reduction of psychological violence

Women Empowerment leads to decrease of psychological violence. Uneducated women are


at higher risk for psychological violence than educated women. Among other issues, unfair
discrimination at the work place and care giving responsibilities of women are some of the
reasons why women are pulled back from the workforce nowadays, they roam outside and
also earn money like the male members of the organization. Women empowerment helps
women to stand on their own legs, become independent and also to earn for their family
which grows country’s economy (warren, 2009).

2.3.4. Reduction in corruption

Women Empowerment is also advantageous in case of corruption. Women empowerment


helps women to get educated and know their rights and duties and hence can stop corruption.
(Warren, 2009).

As a consequence of their significantly increased entry into the labor market and the world of
business, women’s purchasing power has shot up. They often control household budgets and

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financial decisions, and an increasing proportion of women, not only that but if women
empowerment progressed men don’t considered women as get something before provide
bribe and make them commit prostitution before get in job.(Leyden et al,2000).

2.3.5. Reduce Poverty

Women Empowerment also reduces poverty. Sometimes, the money earned by the male
member of the family is not sufficient to meet the demands of the family. The added earnings
of women help the family to come out of poverty trap. Women’s empowerment and gender
equality is closely linked with the reduction of poverty and achievement of global targets in
meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). (UN report, 2008)

2.3.6. National Development

Women are increasingly participating in the national development process. They are making
the nation proud by their outstanding performances almost every sphere including medical
science, social service, and engineering. (Marcelle, 2002).

Companies can consider reviewing their human resource management arrangements to ensure
that gender biases are not overtly or subtly at work slowing down women’s career progress.
This involves examining prospection, recruitment, promotion and succession planning
procedures and ensuring that men and women are equally encouraged and considered.
Making such procedures as transparent and objective as possible is also important so that
both men and women understand what is required and what to expect. (Olawoye et al, 1997).

2. 4. The challenges women face in public organization.

Women still face a variety of professional challenges, particularly in traditionally male-


dominated careers such as management, the sciences and other technically oriented roles.
Women remain discriminated against in terms of accessing top management/leadership
positions. Understanding these challenges is a prerequisite to improving the quality of women
leadership and for empowering women in the departmental/organizational position.
According to Kosovo in 2014 had been described the following challenges women faced by
in public organization as well as Informal recruitment and nomination processes
disadvantaged women due to the reliance on male-dominated networks and late timeframe for
recruitment. Women were often recruited at the last minute to meet the minimum number of

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legally required positions. Women in minority communities face greater cultural challenges
to participating in politics, including more cultural resistance to women in politics, and a lack
of educational and employment opportunities. There is a clear segregation of women in
sectors that are generally characterized by low pay, long hours and oftentimes informal
working arrangements. And even within the sectors where women dominate, it is rarely
women who would hold the upper managerial jobs. Then after Brian described others
challenges women are mostly faced by in the work place. (Noreen, 2011).

2.4.1. The Work-Life Balance.

The drive to do it all and do it well is a uniquely female trait. According to the European
Labor Relations Observatory, many women find balancing the responsibilities of their chosen
profession with the traditionally female-oriented duties required at home challenging. Finding
the time to grocery shop, clean house, do laundry and cook dinner never mind taking care of
the kids is difficult even when that's the only job you have. Add a demanding boss, deadlines
and ambition to succeed, and you have a recipe for anxiety that causes many women to feel
overwhelmed and guilty. (Barouche et al, 2009).

2.4.2. Health Issues.

According to studies sponsored by the federal government and performed by the Centers for
Disease Control, women are also more prone to certain types of work-related health issues.
Women who work have higher instances of carpal tunnel syndrome and tendinitis, in addition
to a higher rate of respiratory illnesses and infectious and parasitic diseases, according to the
CDC. Mental health is an area of concern as well; women have higher rates of stress and
anxiety disorders because of concerns over you guessed it balancing a heavy workload with
the demands of family. Sexual harassment also is a noted stressor. (Alkire et al, 2012).

2.4.3. Leadership and the Glass Ceiling.

Despite the number of degrees that women earn and the number of women in the workplace,
there is a shortage of women who raise to top leadership roles. The career website
Monster.com reports that the difficulty women face in breaking what's commonly referred to
as the "glass ceiling" often is attributed to management's concern that an otherwise qualified
woman will leave work to have a baby or focus on family issues. However, it could also

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reflect a woman's conscious desire to avoid high-risk, high-profile and high-paying roles.
(Rahiman, 2010).

2.4.5. Discrimination and Pay.

Many women feel that these gender-based decisions result from discrimination. According to
the Bureau of Labor Statistics, as quoted on Monster.com, women earn approximately 80
cents for every dollar that a man earns performing the same role. Women are also more likely
to become the victim of sexual harassment, which is difficult to prove and embarrassing to
report. Worldwide, women are still victimized by outdated gender attitudes. (Kurchmaier,
2012).

2.4.6. Inequality between men and women.

It is likely to the work place shown participate unjust through the recruitment especially for
leading case because people believe that there some work not deserve to women , by this
ideas of some making some of employment providers not concentrate through hired ladies for
that post by considering that they are people who don’t adequate capacity. (Barouche et al,
2009).

2.4.7. Under-employed and unemployed.

Women population constitutes around 50% of the world population. A large number of
women around the world are unemployed. The world economy suffers a lot because of the
unequal opportunity for women at workplaces. For this many women are suffers poverty a lot
to the world compared to men. (Alsop et al, 2005).

2.4.8.. Sexual persecution.

Women as well the girls suffering nowadays sexual persecution against by them in various
business, region, and countries women are faces by maltreatment, men think off women to
obtain a job first there must be happen sexual relation with the fellows that being some of
what harming their life some of them contaminated by HIV\AIDS unexpectedly and
unwillingly. (Zehtabi et al, 2010).

12
2.5. The strategies to overcoming the challenges women face in organization.

Research demonstrates that women’s ever increasing participation in the labor market has
been the biggest engine of organization growth and competitiveness. Most of these issues
affect women as well as girls. However, in most cases women and girls suffer additional
disadvantage on account of their gender. The critical challenges are: Work life balance,
health issues, Unemployment, Poverty, Gender Based Violence, Discrimination pay, sexual
persecution, Lack of skills, the impact of HIV and AIDS. (UN report, 2008).

UN demonstrated the following strategies for handling the above challenges.

2.5.1. Capacity building

Women’s and girls’ ability to participate in organization, productive, and civic activities and
thus to empower themselves economically and politically is often limited by a household
division of labor that assigns to women and girls the bulk of the responsibility for everyday
household maintenance tasks. For poor women and girls this responsibility is made more
onerous by the underinvestment in public infrastructure that characterizes most low-income
countries. The probability that girls attend school also increases their capacity to defend for
themselves, this is best way for it allow them to feel having capabilities of making decision.
(Warren, 2009).

2.5.2. Gender mainstreaming

Discussing the effectiveness of gender mainstreaming showed that gender mainstreaming has
been associated with more successes, while advocates of gender mainstreaming envisioned
both organizational and social transformation, in practice, bureaucracies have not proven to
be effective agents of social transformation. (Henson et al, 2005).

Yet gender mainstreaming is neither a clear agenda for institutional transformation nor a clear
agenda for gender transformation and social change. Thus, in practice, gender mainstreaming
has often involved adopting a gender policy, creating a gender unit to work on organizational
programs, mandatory gender training, and increasing the number of women staff and
managers. In the worst cases, gender mainstreaming has been used to stop funding for
women’s empowerment work, and to dismantle many of the institutional mechanisms such as

13
women’s units and advisors created to promote women in development in the name of
integration. (UN report, 2015)

2.5.3. Eliminate gender inequality in employment

Women’s work, both paid and unpaid, is critical to the survival and security of poor
households and an important route through which households escape poverty. Moreover,
paid employment is critical to women’s empowerment. In settings where women’s mobility
is restricted, increased employment opportunities can improve women’s mobility and enable
women to seek and access reproductive health care. It can also expose them to new ideas and
knowledge and broaden the community with which they engage. Having access to paid work
is critical to family survival, but it is not sufficient for reducing poverty or empowering
women. Decent, productive work for all should be the goal. (Noreen, 2011).

At the international level, a framework exists for promoting equal access to and treatment in
employment the International Labor Organization (ILO) Decent Work Initiative. This
initiative has four interrelated objectives: fostering rights at work and providing employment,
social protection, and social dialogue. The primary goal is “to promote opportunities for
women and men to obtain decent and productive work, in conditions of freedom, equity,
security, and human dignity. The gender sensitivity of the decent work framework, and the
sex-disaggregated indicators it proposes for monitoring country performance, make it suitable
for tracking a country’s progress toward eliminating gender inequalities in labor
markets. The task force recommends that the ILO be given the resources and authority to
take the leadership in providing data and monitoring progress for this initiative.(seruka,1999).

2.5.4. Combat violence against women at the workplace

Violence against women has serious health and development impacts and is a gross violation
of women’s rights. Its continued existence is thus fundamentally inconsistent with
Goal However; violence against women is prevalent in epidemic proportions in many
countries around the world. Violence against women has many health
consequences. Worldwide, it is estimated that violence against women is as serious a cause
of death and incapacity among reproductive-age women as is cancer, and it is a more
common cause of ill-health among women than traffic accidents and malaria
combined.(Moskal et al,2000).

14
Physical and sexual abuse lie behind unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections,
including HIV/AIDS, and complications of pregnancy. Studies around the world have found
that one woman in four is physically or sexually abused during pregnancy. (UN report, 2008).

In the past decade evidence has shown that violence against women is an important
development constraint. National governments, women’s organizations, and the United
Nations now recognize violence against women as a basic human rights abuse; atrocities such
as rape committed against women during armed conflict are acknowledged as a “weapon of
war” and a gender-based crime; and social violence in the home is correlated with economic
crime outside the home, as well as with political and institutional violence at the local and
national levels. The health system is often the first entry point for victims of abuse. Most
female victims of partner or sexual violence visit healthcare service providers but often resist
contact with the police or other services. A range of interventions can be identified in the
health sector to provide victim support and to deter additional violence. Education provides
another important entry point for combating or preventing gender-based violence. (Alsop et
al, 2005).

Educational interventions include both school-based programs and broader communications


campaigns aimed at raising community awareness about the damaging effects of
violence. Communications media such as pamphlets, radio, television, and theater serve to
educate and promote change, as they can reach large audiences. Because violence often
occurs in unsafe public spaces, interventions to improve public infrastructure can contribute
to reducing violence against women. (Juggins etal, 1997).

2.5.5. Advocacy

UN believes that women’s political involvement and economic power are complementary. As
she explained: “On the one hand, women are more likely to take on leadership roles if they
have some degree of economic autonomy; while on the other hand, greater numbers of
women in leadership positions increases their ability to secure policies that advance women’s
economic empowerment in different sectors.” Though progress has been made in this area,
women hold only one in five senior management positions globally. One reason mentioned
for this disparity is the “economy of care,” meaning women are often limited professionally
by their duty as caregivers. (UN report, 2009).

15
2.6. Summary

This chapter shows the meanings of the key terms of the research, the mainly theories
discussed theories relevant to women empowerment and public organization performance.
The role of women empowerment was discussed in this chapter in details, while its impacts
were also established as equally competent and intelligent, talented, Overall development of
society ,economic Benefits, reduction in domestic violence, reduction in corruption ,reduce
poverty, National development, The chapter discussed possible discrimination women faces
in their daily work and lives and has the strategies such organization might use to tackle those
all problems in order to execute equality between men and women, Furthermore specification
attention was given to the significance of women empowerment by considering the
performance of all employees and show that the women work the same as for their brothers,
which is the case study of Rwanda Revenue Authority Kigali branch.

16
CHAPTER THREE:

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1. Introduction

This chapter presents the methodology which was in the research. It gives the information
roughly how research was conducted. It shows the research design, the study population, the
selection of the population sample, the sample techniques used for data collection, the
techniques of presentation, analysis and interpretation of data.

3.1 .Research design

The study is descriptive in nature because it portrayed the importance of empowering women
in public organization in Rwanda. A descriptive survey research design was utilized in the
study to assess the effect of empowering women in the performance of public organization.
The reason for using this design is that enabled to describe the different way of how
empowerment affect positively the performance of RRA.

3.2. Population and selection of the sample

The study populations were 250 respondents from RRA in Kigali branch in Rwanda were
targeted to respond to the study. Researcher chose 71 respondents from total population use
as sample size to represent the whole population, included 25 of managements and 46
employees working in different department from the total population.

3.2.1. Sample selection technique

The researcher used simple random and purposive techniques to select the study respondents.
Researcher picked managers and employees of RRA Kigali branch. Purposive sampling
techniques used only to the managers because they were familiar to what occurred to women
in Rwanda Revenue Authority. While simple random sampling used to select employees of
RRA Kigali branch in different departments.

17
3.2.2. Sample size

The whole population might not be used of 250 due to aspect like funds, time and the
N
researcher used this formula to determine sample size (Yamane, 1970), n = 1+N(e)2 and

came up with 71 as final respondents to answer the questionnaires. After selected employees
of RRA Kigali branch by using simple random sampling and purposive to the managers, the
researcher came up with the sample of 71 managers and employees of Rwanda revenue
authority Kigali branch.

N: the total population is 150

n: the sample size

E: error rate =5%

150
n = 1+150∗0.05∗0.05 =109

3.3. Tools for data collection.

In order to collect data the researcher used questionnaires, documentation and observation.

3.3.1. Questionnaire

The researcher used closed ended questionnaires to gather information from managers of
RRA Kigali branch. Where in closed ended questionnaires, the questionnaires provided to the
respondents who are expected to read and choosing what is correct, the study offered to the
respondents a broader thinking aptitude at the same time as responding to the questionnaires.

3.3.2. Documentary

The researcher consulted from other related writing particularly from, news papers, books,
journal, internet and some articles of Women empowerment. By using documentary design,
the researcher was competent to collect data from the already accessible sources.

3.3.3 .Observation

The researcher used this technique to observe by an eye when collecting information. The
researcher was very insightful when gathering using observation methods to stay away from

18
asking questions that could aggravate the respondents particularly when the information
asked can be observed. Through the study there were subject which were accessible to ask or
the researcher would not comprise them into questionnaires.

3.4. Collection of data

Data was collected through two different steps such as primary data and secondary data.

3.4.1. Primary data

According to George panter 2013, define primary data as the data which are collected from
the field under the control and supervision of an investigator, primary data means original
data that has been collected specially for the purpose in mind this type of data are generally
afresh and collected for the first time.

3.4.2. Secondary data

Secondary data means data that are already available such as they refer to the data which
have already been collected and analyzed by someone else. When the researcher utilizes
secondary data, then he will look into various sources from where he can obtain them. In this
case the researcher is certainly not confronted with the problems that are usually associated
with the collection of original data. Secondary data may either be published data or
unpublished data. Usually published data are available in various publications of the central,
state are local governments, various publications of foreign governments or of international
bodies and their subsidiary organizations, technical and trade journals, books, magazines and
newspapers;

3.5. Analysis of data

This section shows the methods which were used by the researcher to present, analyze and to
interpret data from field.

3.5.1. Data analysis

The researcher examined the response from the questionnaires, documentation and
observation by using table of frequencies percentage.

19
3.5.2. Data processing

This method assisted the researcher to present the collected data in a way which is more
understandable. The researcher collected and processed data in the following way:

3.5.2.1. Coding

The researcher used Coding for assigning numerals or other symbols to answers so that
responses can be put into a limited number of categories or classes. Such classes should be
appropriate to the research problem under consideration and employed the master sheet,
which was in shape of a general tabulation with some columns on the questionnaire. The
researcher used codes in order to transform collected data in preparing data to be entered into
table.

3.5.2.2. Editing

The researcher makes sure that, all information was accurate, consistent, and there are no any
omissions throughout the study. The researcher checked all responses to keep away from
ambiguity that they are significant for coding intention.

3.5.2.3. Tabulation

This method helped the researcher to collect data into tables to allow them to be statistically
well presented and examined.

The researcher set the data into tabular figure after classifies them. Nonetheless, the
researcher designed this in form of tables and percentages, so that this assisted the researcher
to express a clear conclusion of the research findings.

3.6. Validity and reliability

3.6.1. Validity

According to Moskal (2001), validity refers to how well a test measures what it is purported
to measure. To know that the information offered by respondents is totally correct measure to
what were planned to measure and consistency, the researcher confirmed the respond by
considering to the questions asked and all have been completed stand on the study objectives.

20
3.6.2. Reliability

The researcher attained the information using test re-test method used as universally strategy
of estimating the reliability of the responses to questions in questionnaires. To ensure that
information given by respondents are reliable and consistency, the researcher used test retest
method this means that the questionnaires have been administered two times to the same
sample for students and the researcher compared the findings of the test re-tests.

3.7. Ethical consideration.

All cited source of information in this dissertation is acknowledged and talked the truth and
in Honesty with professional and colleagues not only that also findings must be reported in a
complete and honest fashion, excluding misrepresenting what would be done or intentionally
misleading others as to the nature of it. Data may not be fabricated to support a particular
conclusion.

3.8. Summary

This chapter described the methodology and it show how research was conducted, showed
research design, population and selection of the sample, sample selection technique, sample
size, tools for data collection, collection of data, analysis of data, validity, reliability and
ethical consideration.

21
CHAPTER FOUR:

DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTEPRENTATIONS

4.1. Introduction

This chapter presents the study findings. The researcher presents the research findings from
the respondents involved in the research study.

The general objective of the study was to analyze the impact of women empowerment in
public organization performance.

As such study responded to the following questions:

1. What is the role of empowering women in public organization?


2. What are the challenges organizations faces as regards to women empowerment?
3. What are the strategies to overcoming the challenges women faces in organization?

4.2. Bio data of the respondents

4.2.1. Gender of Respondents

Due to the nature of the study, the researcher had a vested interest in the gender of
respondents. The findings were as shown below.

Table 1: Characteristics of respondents by gender


Gender Frequency Percentage (%)
Female 50 70
Male 21 30
Total 71 100

Source: Field data 2016.

The findings showed in table 1 above among 71 respondents consulted the biggest percentage
of respondents were female on 70% of the whole respondents and the male on number of
30%, This showed that all gender was presented by both males and females and therefore
there was no bias in the research study.

22
4.2.2. Marital status of Respondents

Interpretation according to marital status, Responses are as presented in the table below.

Table 2: Marital status according to the respondents


Marital status Frequency Percentage (%)
Married 45 63
Single 20 28
Widow 6 9
Total 71 100

Source: Field data 2016.

Table 2 showed that married employees top up with 63% and describe that the high numbers
of participants were married; single employees were 28%, while 9% was widowed. This
proves that the researcher has gathered the views of different groups of the target population
and difference views roughly women empowerment and public organization performance in
RRA Kigali branch.

Table 3: Characteristics of respondents by ages


Age group Frequency Percentage (%)
21-35 25 35
36-50 19 27
51-60 27 38
Total 71 100

Source: Field data 2016.

According to age 35% represented age bracket group of (21-35), 27% represented age bracket
group (36-50), 38% represented age bracket group bracket of (51-60) and therefore the
young, the old and mature were all presented.

23
Table 4: Demographic Profile of Respondents by Educational level
Education level Frequency Percentage (%)
Bachelor Degree 49 69
Master Degree 14 20
PhD level 8 11
Total 71 100

Source: Filed Data 2016

The found out that bachelor degree had 69% and showed that more employees were in class
of having bachelor degree, master’s degree had 20% and PHD level had 11%.

Table 5: Research Question One, What is the role of empowering women in public
organization?
Roles Frequency Percentage (%)
Overall development of organization 22 31
Economic benefits 13 18
Reduction of psychological violence 9 13
Reduction in corruption 8 11
Reduction in poverty 7 10
National development 12 17
Total 71 100

Source: Field Data 2016

The respondents showed different views on role of women empowerment in organisation


performance. Respondents equalling 31% said that women empowerment caused overall
development of organization,the respondents said that inclusion of women in boards of
companies and leadership positions, have improved company performance and finances ,
nonetheless Companies with highest representation of women on their top management teams
experienced better financial performance than companies with the lowest women’s
representation, Economic benefits to equalled to 18% since according to respondents, they
agreed that Reduction of psychological violence should be increased had 13% and try to see
how women can enjoy freedom of movement as men, the respondents focused more to
Reduction in corruption on 11%, Reduction in poverty on 10%, and National development on
17%, the respondents said that if organization empower women their also abolish some kind

24
of bribe took place in the recruitment for women and the money earned by women became
significant for the family and country in general.

Table 6: Research Question Two, What are the challenges women faces in public
organization?
Challenges Frequency Percentage (%)
Work life balance 21 30
Health issues 7 10
Leadership and the glass ceiling 3 4
Discrimination pay 25 35
Inequality between men and women 15 21

Total 71 100

Source: Field Data 2016

To the challenges organization faces as regards to women empowerment, work life balance
equal to 30%, the respondents said that women make a huge amount of tasks at home that
causing to them present in the job have an anxiety that causes many women mistaken at the
work place and after feel overwhelmed and guilty, 10% said Health issues as the point affect
the life of women more, women having family disorders and mix together with the job. 4%
said Leadership and the glass ceiling ,the respondents said that women sometimes leave job
due to babies and family care so this reflect a woman’s desire to avoid high risk and high
profile only think to be junior employees regardless of leading. , 35 % quoted Discrimination
pay, the respondents focused on the some organization fail to provide the same salaries
between men and women, while Inequality between men and women had 21%, and the
respondents mentioned that this kind of challenges is the one like to take place in
organization where you found even the organization representative blackmailing women as
incapable compared to men.

25
Table7: Research Question Three, What are the strategies to overcoming the challenges
women faces in organization?
Strategies Frequency Percentage (%)
Capacity building 11 16
Gender mainstreaming 1 1
Eliminate gender inequality in employment 19 27
Advocacy 20 28
Policy development 5 7
Coordination and monitoring and evaluation 15 21
Total 71 100

Source: Field Data 2016

From the table 7 above, the study showed the strategies to overcoming the challenges women
faces in organization, those strategies were the following, the respondents cited Capacity
building 16% under here the respondents said that if organization build women capacity
reduce some kind of discrimination women pay , 1% mentioned Gender mainstreaming and
some of the respondents said that even gender mainstreaming including into strategies of
overcoming those challenges that create problem itself, 27% showed eliminate gender
inequality as also one of this strategies and affect the organization more especially in
recruitment and employees salaries equalization, 28% mentioned Advocacy, some of the
respondents said that advocacy encourage the women to fill they job confidentially and
committed because they think having the voice of shared what they thought, Policy
development equally to 7% since the respondents mentioned that organization should set its
own rules and regulations about women empowerment and try the best to implement all state
policy about women empowerment, 21% mentioned Coordination and monitoring and
evaluation, the respondents said that some it is not easy to coordinate and controlling all
employees with different in they worked department but showed the use of technology by
installing CCTVs as the tool that can help organization to find out the discrimination women
faces and make organization ensure how they should limit those problems, after interrogated
what plans RRA has to continue supporting women after ensuring their importance
mentioned that to tight organization law to empower women, women mobilization to be
brave participate in management and adapt with all system of empower women.

26
CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1. Introduction

This chapter presents the summary of findings, conclusions and recommendations of the
study.

5.2. Summary of the Study

According to the objectives one about the role of empowering women in public organization,
Respondents equalling 31% said that women empowerment caused overall development of
organization,the respondents said that inclusion of women in boards of companies and
leadership positions, have improved company performance and finances , nonetheless
Companies with highest representation of women on their top management teams
experienced better financial performance than companies with the lowest women’s
representation, Economic benefits to equalled to 18% since according to respondents, they
agreed that Reduction of psychological violence should be increased had 13% and try to see
how women can enjoy freedom of movement as men, the respondents focused more to
Reduction in corruption on 11%, Reduction in poverty on 10%, and National development on
17%, the respondents said that if organization empower women their also abolish some kind
of bribe took place in the recruitment for women.

In relation to objective two about the challenges organization faces as regards to women
empowerment, work life balance equal to 30%, the respondents said that women make a huge
amount of tasks at home that causing to them present in the job have an anxiety that causes
many women mistaken at the work place and after feel overwhelmed and guilty, 10% said
Health issues as the point affect the life of women more for women having family disorders
and mix together with the job. 4% said Leadership and the glass ceiling ,the respondents said
that women sometimes leave job due to babies and family care so this reflect a woman’s
desire to avoid high risk and high profile only think to be junior employees regardless of
leading. , 35 % quoted Discrimination pay, the respondents focused on the some organization
fail to provide the same salaries between men and women, while Inequality between men and
women had 21%, and the respondents mentioned that this kind of challenges is the one alike

27
to take place in organization where you found even the organization representative
blackmailing women as incapable compared to men.

In relation to objective three about the strategies to overcoming the challenges women faces
in organization, those strategies were the following, the respondents cited Capacity building
16% under here the respondents said that if organization build women capacity reduce some
kind of discrimination women pay , 1% mentioned Gender mainstreaming and some of the
respondents said that even gender mainstreaming including into strategies of overcoming
those challenges that create problem itself, 27% showed eliminate gender inequality as also
one of this strategies and affect the organization more especially in recruitment and
employees salaries equalization, 28% mentioned Advocacy, some of the respondents said that
advocacy encourage the women to fill they job confidentially and committed because they
think having the voice of shared what they thought, Policy development equally to 7% since
the respondents mentioned that organization should set its own rules and regulations about
women empowerment and try the best to implement all state policy about women
empowerment, 21% mentioned Coordination and monitoring and evaluation, the respondents
said that some it is not easy to coordinate and controlling all employees with different in they
worked department but show the use of technology by installing CCTVs as the tool help
organization to find out the discrimination women faces and make organization ensure how
they should limit those problems, after interrogated what plans RRA has to continue
supporting women after ensuring their importance mentioned that to tight organization law to
empower women, women mobilization to be brave participate in management and adapt with
all system of empower women.

5.2. Conclusions

Focused to the findings from the field, it is good to conclude that the research objectives have
been achieved; for the researcher found the role of empowering women in public
organization as overall development of organization , Economic benefits, Reduction of
psychological violence; Reduction in corruption, Reduction in poverty , and National
development ,With Challenges found work life balance equal, Health issues , Leadership and
the glass ceiling , Discrimination pay, Inequality between men and women, together with the
strategies were found to be Capacity building , Gender mainstreaming ,eliminate gender
inequality , Advocacy, Policy development , Coordination and monitoring and evaluation.

28
5.3. Recommendations

The study recommends that Organizations should have an internal code to ensure security of
women employees and take measures to ensure that they discharge their job in a secure
atmosphere.
The study recommends that providing self-defense training to women; installing safety
devices and closed circuit televisions at the work place; undertaking police verification of cab
drivers, and security guards.
The study also recommends that the organisations should adopt Flexible timing and
Possibility to work from home are required for working women.

5.5. Areas for Further Researcher

It would be better to affirm that the researcher has fully studied all facets of the present study,
that’s why it is the great time for the researcher to propose to future researchers to do the
following field that researcher could not captured these important areas:

(a) Influence of women empowerment on economic growth.


(b) Factors for assessment of women empowerment in public organization.

29
REFFERENCES

Adams, R.B (2012), “From Female Labor Force Participation to Boardroom Gender
Diversity”, United States. AEA, San Diego.p56

Alkire, Sabina et al. (2012). The Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index. Newdehli,
India: IFPRI.

Alsop, R. and Henson, N. (2005). Measuring Empowerment in Practice: Structuring Analysis


and Framing Indicators, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3510

Avega,A.(1999). Survey on Violence against Women in Rwanda’, Kigali: (unpublished).p32

Barouche and Orlando H. (2009). World Economic Forum and Confederation of Indian
Industries. Gender Gap Review. Bangaradeshis, India: university, Lincoln.

Bertini, C.(2011). Girls Grow: A Vital Force in Rural Economies. A Girls Count Report on
Adolescent Girls”. Chicago: The Chicago Council on Global Affairs publisher.

Gholipour, A.; Rahimian, A. Mirzamani, A; Zehtabi, M. (2010). Impact model of women’s


empowerment, Swaziland: International Business Research publisher

Government of Rwanda, (2001). National Gender Policy Kigali: E.C.A./E.A.-S.R.D.C


publisher.

Jiggins, J., Samanta, R. K., Olawoye, J. (1997). Improving women farmers’ access to
extension services, Improving Agricultural Extension, Rome: United Nations publisher.

Klug man, B. (2000).Women's Empowerment and Demographic Processes: Moving Beyond


Cairo, pp. 95-118.

Marcelle, G. (2002). Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and their Impact
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Mckinsey,(2007).women emporment policy.chikago. Company of women publisher

Ministry of Agriculture (MINAGRI) report, (1991) as cited in Re´seau des Femmes, Profil
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Ministry of Gender and Promotion of the Family, (1999). Project ‘Enquête Socioculturelle
sur les Attitudes, les Pratiques, les Croyances en Rapport avec le Genre’, in Grandes
Tendances Socioculturelles: Résultats de la Recherche Documentaire et des Interviews,
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31
APPENDICES

32
APPENDICES I: QUESTIONNAIRE INTENDED FOR RRA KIGALI BRANCH
MANAGEMENT

Dear sir/Madame

My name is NZAYISENGA Adrien a student at University of Tourism Technology and


Business Studies (UTB) and I am carrying out this research which work on: “Women
empowerment and public organization performance” Your answers to these questions will be of
great crucial in the completing of the research project. Please reply to these questionnaires using
the spaces provided in the box below for the closed ended questions. We know that your
answers will be kept confidentially, and it will only used for academic purpose

Thanks for your sincere cooperation.

SECTION A: DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESPONDENT

1. Respondent’s gender

Male Female

2. Respondent’s age

21-30 31-40 41-50 51-60

2. Respondent’s marital status

Married single Widow

4. Respondent’s education level

Bachelor degree Master level PHD level

a
SECTION B: Role of women empowerment in Rwanda Revenue Authority

5. What is the role of empowered women in Rwanda Revenue Authority?

a. Overall development of society

b. Economic benefits

c. Reduction of psychological violance

d. Reduction in corruption

e. Reduce in poverty

f. National development

g. No, other choice, please specify?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………

SECTION C: challenges women face in Public organization.

6. What are the challenges women faces in public organization?

a. the work life balance

b. health issues

c. leadership and the glass ceiling

d. discrimination and pay

e. inequality between men and women

f. Under-employed and unemployed

g. Sexual persecution

h. No, other choice, please specify?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

b
SECTION D: Strategies to overcoming the challenges women faces

7. What do you think about strategies should be used for abolishing the discrimination still
faced by women in the work place?

a. Capacity building

b. Gender mainstreaming

c. Eliminate gender inequality in employment

d. Combat violance against women at the workplace

e. Advocacy

f. Policy development

g. Coordination and monitoring and evaluation

h. No, other choice, please specify?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………

8. What are your plans to continue supporting Women in Rwanda Revenue Authority after
knowing the importance of empowered women?
a. Tight organization law to empower women

b. Women mobilisation to be brave participate in management

c. Adapt with all good system of empower women

d. No, other choice, please specify?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

c
APPENDICES II: QUESTIONNAIRE INTENDED FOR RRA KIGALI BRANCH
EMPLOYEES.

Dear sir/Madame

My name is NZAYISENGA Adrien a student at University of Tourism Technology and


Business Studies (UTB) and I am carrying out this research which works on: “Women
empowerment and public organization performance” Your answers to these questions will be of
great crucial in the completing of the research project. Please reply to these questionnaires using
the spaces provided in the box below for the closed ended questions. We know that your
answers will be kept confidentially, and it will only use for academic purpose.

Thanks for your sincere cooperation.

SECTION A: DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESPONDENT

1. Respondent’s gender

Male Female

2. Respondent’s age

21-30 31-40 41-50 51-60

3. Respondent’s marital status

Married single widow

4. Respondent’s education level

Bachelor degree Master level PHD level

d
SECTION B: Role of women empowerment in Rwanda Revenue Authority

5. Show the significance of empowerment of women to RRA?

a. Overall development of society


b. Economic benefits

c. Reduction of psychological violance

d. Reduction in corruption

e. Reduce in poverty

f. National development

g. No, other choice, please specify?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………

SECTION C: challenges organization faces as regards to women empowerment

6. What are the challenges RRA faces when empowering women?

a. the work life balance


b. health issues

c. leadership and the glass ceiling

d. discrimination and pay

e. inequality between men and women

f. Under-employed and unemployed

g. Sexual persecution

h. No, other choice, please specify?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

e
SECTION D: Strategies to overcoming the challenges women faces

7. What are the strategies used to overcoming the challenges women faces at the workplace?

a. Capacity building
b. Gender mainstreaming

c. Eliminate gender inequality in employment

d. Combat violance against women at the workplace

e. Advocacy

f. Policy development

g. Coordination and monitoring and evaluation

h. No, other choice, please specify?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………