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AEIJST - January 2018 - Vol 6 - Issue 01 ISSN - 2348 - 6732

Knowledge Management- Issues and Challenges


Abhinaya.G, Monisha.A, Komathi.R
Rajalakshmi engineering college, Thahdalam, Chennai.-602105
Abstract
Knowledge management is a process of sharing, creating, using and managing the knowledge
in the organisation. It includes fields of business administration, Information systems,
management and information science. It focuses on organisation’s objective. In Information
System most of the research in Knowledge management assumes that knowledge has positive
impact on the organisation. Many organisation develop Information Systems designed
specifically to facilitate the sharing the knowledge. Such systems are known as Knowledge
Management System (KMS). The major concerns revolve around achieving the correct amount
of accurate knowledge and support for contributing to Knowledge management systems.
However, knowledge is a double-edged sword: while too little might leads to expensive mistake
and too much might lead to unwanted accountability.
Keywords: Knowledge, Knowledge Management, Knowledge Management System
1. Introduction
Knowledge management is a process were an emerging line of system targets on professional
and managerial activities by focusing on creating, organising, gathering, and disseminating an
organisations knowledge as opposed to ‘data’. This system is referred as Knowledge
Management Systems (KMS).Knowledge management is a process of sharing, creating, using
and managing the knowledge in the organisation. It includes fields of business administration,
Information systems, management and information science. It focuses on organisation’s
objective.
Early in industrial era, the organisation improved the efficiency, effectiveness, and their
competitive edge by automating manual labour and reducing redundancy. However, now in
the age of knowledge workers, many organisations have gone through restructuring to
eliminate redundant workers and jobs. Knowledge Management emerges not only the need to
be cost efficient, decision making, innovation and all other elements needed to maintain and
develop a competitive edge, but also more specifically to capture, preserve, and disseminate
the knowledge which is typically a part of an organisation which resides within it in an
unstructured way.
The process of transmitting knowledge in an organisation is not new: organisation policies,
procedures, routine, training and developing programs have served these functions for years.
For Example: In Dominos pizza restaurant’s operation which includes almost all the activities
of the restaurant management like cooking, marketing, production, and accounting. By
disseminating, creating and gathering all the activities of the management, the company
reduces the level of technical know-how for its managers while improving the effectiveness and
efficiency of its operations (peters 1992). The exciting part in Knowledge Management area is
the potential of using the modern information technology (Example: Internet, Intranet, Data
warehousing, and Data filters) to systemize and facilitate firm-wide knowledge management.
2. Review of Literature
Maryam Alavi et al, (1999) in their paper on Knowledge Management and knowledge
management systems: says that Conceptual Foundations and research, express their views on
implications on Knowledge Management and taxonomies of knowledge, knowledge
management in organisation, organisational knowledge management process by a framework
for analysis of information systems roles in knowledge creation, knowledge storage and
retrieval, knowledge distribution, and knowledge applications. They focus on firm level review,
interpretation and synthesis of a broad range of relevant literature.
Jillinda J.Kidwell et al, (2000) in their paper on Applying Corporate Knowledge Management
practices in Higher education, they focus on knowledge basics and their new trends in
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AEIJST - January 2018 - Vol 6 - Issue 01 ISSN - 2348 - 6732

knowledge with emerging technology solutions like convergence with e-business, from
committed projects to holistic programs, moving from best practices to innovation, advances
in working with tactic knowledge, and applying knowledge management in higher education.
Babita Gupta et al, (2000) in their paper knowledge management: expresses their views on
Practices and challenges, express their views on implications on knowledge management ,
knowledge management trends, knowledge management practices, knowledge management
challenges, measurement on effectiveness of knowledge management, and the future of
knowledge management.
Ulrike Schultze et al, (2002) in their paper on Studying Knowledge management in information
systems research: focuses on Discourses and theoretical assumption, express their view on
implications on Theoretical underpinning: Deet’z Framework, the origin of concepts and
problems: local/ emergent versus Elite/ A priori, a relation to dominant social discourse
dissensus versus consensus, Methods, analysis, Normative discourse on research focus,
knowledge metaphor, theoretical foundation, implications on IS research, and exemplar of the
normative discourse, Interpretive discourse on research focus, knowledge metaphor,
theoretical foundation, implications on IS research, and exemplar of the interpretive
discourse, Critical discourse on Exemplar of the critical discourse, Dialogic discourse on
Exemplar of dialogic discourse, Discussions and implications.
Gunnar Hedlund et al, (1994) in their paper on A model of knowledge management and the N-
form corporation, express their views on implications on A model of knowledge types and
transfer and transformation processes, Incrementalism versus large-step innovation,
assimilation, through pre-existing components, dissemination through products and Tacit
throughput, weakness in large systems designs, Japanese diversification, managing
knowledge from M-form to N-form, combination versus division, middle versus top level,
lateral versus vertical communication, top management catalyst versus monitor, focusing
versus diversifying where the N-form fails, and heterarchy versus hierarchy.
Jenny Darroch et al, (2005) in their paper on knowledge management, express their views on
innovation and firm performance, hypothesis development, research design, and results and
discussion.
Jenny Darroch et al, (2003) in their paper on developing a measure of knowledge management
behaviour and practices, express their views on questionnaire development, sample and
method, scale development, and managerial implications.
Syed Aktharsha et al, (2003) in their paper on knowledge sharing behaviour and innovation
capabilities human resource management practices in hospitals, express their views on
research objectives, recruitment and selection, compensation and reward, performance
appraisal, team work, training and development, knowledge sharing behaviour, innovation
capability, research model, research methodology, respondents, procedure, data analysis, and
model validation.
Heeseok Lee and Byounggu Choi et al, (2003) in their paper on Knowledge Management
Enablers, Processes, and Organizational Performance: expresses their views on An Integrative
View and Empirical Examination, knowledge-creating processes, knowledge management,
knowledge management enablers, organizational creativity and organizational performance. To
study about Knowledge Management they introduce an integrated research framework and
models. They express their views on Knowledge management is Variables (Enablers,
Processes, Intermediate Outcome ad Organisational performance), Hypothesis (Collaboration,
Trust, Learning, Centralisation, Formalization), Organizational Creativity and Organizational
Performance.
Daniel E. O’Leary et al, (1998) in their paper Knowledge Management Systems: express their
views on "Converting and Connecting" that is Converting individual to group-available
knowledge, Converting data to knowledge, Converting text to knowledge and Connecting
people to knowledge, Connecting knowledge to knowledge, Connecting people to people. And

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AEIJST - January 2018 - Vol 6 - Issue 01 ISSN - 2348 - 6732

they also focused in why Organizations use Knowledge management and clearly said that it is
because of Environmental pressures, Technological advancement and creating valuable
information.
Jungpil Hahn and Mani R. Subramani et al, (2000) in their paper on: A framework on
knowledge management systems issues and challenges for theory and practices: focuses on
Information in organizations, knowledge management, knowledge management systems,
organizational behaviour, organizational learning and system selection, they express their
views on Knowledge management support in framework is Locus of Knowledge and Level of A
Priori Structure. Then they said about the issues and challenges of Knowledge management in
their point of view like Knowledge management systems Setup: Balancing Information
Overload and Potentially Useful Content, Knowledge management systems Maintenance:
Balancing Additional Workload and Accurate Content, Long-Term Effects of Knowledge
management systems: Balancing Exploitation and Exploration and Knowledge management
systems Development.
Yogesh Malhotra et al, (2000) in their paper on Knowledge Management and New Organization
Forms: expresses their views on A Framework for Business Model Innovation, focuses on
Knowledge Management Systems, Business Model Innovation, E-Business Models,
Information Systems Practice and Research, Philosophy of Information Systems, they express
their views on Knowledge Management: The Information Processing Paradigm, Philosophical
Bases of the Information-Processing Model, Beyond Existing Myths About Knowledge
Management and Philosophical Bases of the Proposed Model, they also said about the
Knowledge Management for Business Model Innovation.
3. Challenges in Knowledge Management
Knowledge management faces the same problem as many other management labels: it has the
assumption that knowledge is a “thing” which need to be managed by a “manager”. The
analogy is managing culture- seeing culture as independent set of variables. The ability to
create, disseminate, and apply knowledge are the create indicators of an organisation.
Demarest (1997) identified 6key questions to participate in knowledge management effectively:
1. The culture, actions, and beliefs of the manager about the value, purpose and role of
knowledge.
2. The creation, dissemination and use of knowledge within the organisation.
3. The kind of strategies and commercial benefits an organisation can expect by the use of
effective knowledge management.
4. The maturity of knowledge systems in the organisation.
5. How a firm should organize for knowledge management.
6. The role of information technology in the knowledge management program.
Some of the major challenges faced in knowledge management are Lack of training and
development, Incorporation of staff involvement, Correlation between business productivity
and success, Focus is to be needed on maintaining staff training and development practices.
Information and knowledge management plays a vital role in leadership and there is a strong
correlation between variables in leadership perception and the importance of organisational
performance, Power of leaders in influencing knowledge workers.
4. Knowledge Management as a Solution Processes and Systems
The various processes used to manage knowledge include process for applying knowledge,
process for capturing knowledge, process for sharing knowledge, and process for creating
knowledge will be discussed. The important knowledge management processes are:
Knowledge discovery and detection involves combination and Socialization. Knowledge capture
involves Externalization and Internalization. Knowledge sharing involves Socialization and
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AEIJST - January 2018 - Vol 6 - Issue 01 ISSN - 2348 - 6732

Exchange. Knowledge application involves Direction and Routines. It also involves Knowledge
Organization and Assessment, Knowledge Reuse, Knowledge Creation, Knowledge Acquisition.
These are all the backbone of knowledge management processes.
5. Steps in Knowledge Management
Major steps involved in knowledge management are:
1. To Establish Knowledge Management Program Objectives
2. To Prepare for Change
3. Define High-Level Process
4. To Determine and Prioritize Technology Needs
5. To Assess Current State
6. Build a Knowledge Management Implementation Roadmap
7. Implementation
8. Measure and Improve the Knowledge Management Program
6. Knowledge Management Tools and Techniques
In knowledge management, technology plays a vital role in managing people and the
interactions between them. However, tools and techniques also play a vital role. The platform
for implementing knowledge management that you choose must feature fundamental
knowledge management tools and be user friendly and easy to operate by the people in the
organisation. If you make participating in knowledge management as a chore, don’t be
surprised when your employees are less than enthused by the prospect.
7. Conclusion
In this paper, we have presented a discussion of knowledge, knowledge management,
knowledge management practices, knowledge management challenges and knowledge
management systems based on a review, interpretation, and synthesis of a broad range of
relevant literature. Several general conclusions may be done from our work. This paper
attempts to raise awareness of the various discourses of knowledge management. The
literature review revealed the complexity and nature of organizational knowledge and
knowledge management. Different definitions and examples of knowledge management were
reviewed and discussed. Knowledge management requires a major shift in organisational
culture and a commitment at all levels of a firm to make it work. Knowledge management vary
from organisation to organisation.
References
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Gunnar Hedlund, (1994), A model of knowledge management and the N-form corporation,
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AEIJST - January 2018 - Vol 6 - Issue 01 ISSN - 2348 - 6732

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