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# COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (CoET)

## SD 675: DESING OF TALL BUILDINGS

ASSIGNMENT NO.3: GROUP WORK

MEMBERS
S/N NAME REGESTRATION
NO:
1 Makala, Simon 2017-06-013941
3 Lori, Yaato C. 2017-06-01393
5 Ngeleja, Joshua K. 2017-06-01392
6 Sanga, Fredy 2016-06-01516

## Date: June, 2018

Group Assignment # 2 M.Sc. In Structural Engineering

## EARTHQUAKE LOAD ANALYSIS .......................................................................................... 3

1. INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................... 3
3. DESIGN CALCULATIONS ....................................................................................... 7
4. APPENDIX-CALCULATIONS ................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

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1. INTRODUCTION
Earthquake Engineering is among the new technology in structural engineering that aims
at safeguarding the structures against ground motions that triggers additional loads that
are hazardous to the structural elements.
The understanding of the earthquake loading system is important for proper design of the
structure to meet the required performance. In most cases, the structural engineer aims at
creating the structural model that tends to simulate the situation that would happen under
a given loading system to achieve such an endeavor one need to have a thorough
understanding of the behavior of the building in response to seismic forces.
There are different ways used to analyze Earthquake loads, namely;
 Time History Analysis
 Pushover Analysis
 Modal Analysis [Dynamics Method] and
 Equivalent Static Force [used in this task]
The analysis of the Earthquake loads using the Equivalent Static Force have been
adopted in this task, knowing that the source of vibrations is dynamic in nature (Seismic

The task under consideration is the 6-story building with two-basement story, the height of
the building above the basement is 19 meters (4 m high first story and 3 m high typical five
storeys) also, and basement surface area is 21 m by 30 m while that of the typical slab
surface area is 30 m by 14 m.
Another feature of importance of the basement is the presence of the four peripheral walls
that provide rigidity of the basement, for the case of the typical floors the lateral load
resisting system is provided by the four shear walls arranged in the y direction making the
strong axis to be y axis as per drawing notations given in Figure 2.1

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Group Assignment # 2 M.Sc. In Structural Engineering

Figure 2.1(a): Structural Layout of the Typical Floor Plan of the Building showing the four

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Figure 2.1(b): Structural Layout of the Basement Plan of the Building showing the four
peripheral walls

Figure 2.1(c): Schematic section of the building showing the floors, basement and the
foundation type used

The task is carrying the analysis to determine the design loads on the building shown in
Figure 2.1 using the Equivalent Lateral Force Method and the structural design of wall
number 4.
It is worth mentioning that the design will base on the South African code of practice for
Seismic actions SANS 10160-4:2010, with the adoption of this standard the structure
under concern have been checked using the preliminary checks that will ensure a high
performance of the building as elaborated hereupon;
Structural Simplicity: the structure’s path of the transmission of the seismic forces
is clear and direct as seen that the four shear walls in the typical floors are
responsible while the four peripheral walls at the basement are also responsible for
seismic forces transmission on the foundation part of the building. A complex load
path would have rendered the structure prone to severe earthquake destruction.

Uniformity, Symmetry and Redundancy: looking at Figure 2.1 it can be seen that
the lateral load resistance system is evenly distributed all over the building hence
enhancing the building to have dynamically independent units .Again the vertical
uniformity have not been maintained due to change in the size of the building just
after basement, our concern is whether the change will results to stress

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Group Assignment # 2 M.Sc. In Structural Engineering

concentration on the top floors of the building and if so a proper design must be
done to cater for that.

The building’s symmetry have not been reached as the basement and the top floor
are not symmetrical, this warrants proper design of the building and finally the
redundancy of the building have been achieved by even distribution of structural
elements hence proper dissipation of energy.

Multi-directional resistance and stiffness: Except for the basement the lateral
load resistance system, upper floors are not multi-dimensional; they are arranged in
a non-orthogonal fashion hence providing the major resistance in y direction only
against the ground motions that are multi-dimensional in nature. However if it is
going to be assumed that the columns participates on lateral load resistance, their
arrangement is orthogonal and hence pass the criteria.

Torsional resistance and stiffness: half of the lateral load resistance shear walls
have been located at the peripheral of the building; this configuration enhances the
tensional resistance of the building.

Foundation: the basement have been made of a rigid structural system composing
the shear walls for resisting the lateral loads, the level of embedment of the
structure is
Level -1
Data given;
o Number of storeys- 6 above ground level (level 0)
o Number of basement storeys- 2 below ground level
o Total height of the building- 19.0 m above ground level
o Height of the first storey (between level 0 and 1)- 4.0 m
o Height of the other storeys- 3.0 m
o Peripheral walls for the basement
o Basement floor dimensions- 30 m x 21 m
o Other floors dimensions (above ground level)- 30 m x 14 m
o Structure system is of walls and frames
o Slab thickness- 0.18 m
o Foundation configuration- footings with beams
o Length of shear wall- 4.0 m (varying in thickness from 0.3 m for storeys above
ground level to 0.25 m for basement.

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Group Assignment # 2 M.Sc. In Structural Engineering

3. DESIGN CALCULATIONS

## Reference Calculations Remarks

Slab thickness = 180 mm
Beam size = 250 mm x 500 mm
Beam wedge size = 250 mm x 320 mm
Column sizes[C1 to C6] = 300 mm x 700 mm
Column sizes[C11 to C16] = 300 mm x 700 mm
Column sizes[C7 to C10] = 500 mmx 500 mm
Basement column sizes
Column sizes[C12 to C17] = 300 mm x 700 mm
Column sizes[C7 to C10] = 500 mm x 500 mm

## Building Importance Class

SANS 10160-
4:2010, Clause
The building importance is assumed to be class IV
[Hospital]
γi = 1.4
7.6,Table 3

Imposed floor load ( Qm)= 2 kN/m2
Partition load = 1.5 kN/ m2
Roof load = 1.5 kN/ m2

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Group Assignment # 2 M.Sc. In Structural Engineering

Typical floors
Slab = 0.18 m*24 kN/ m3
= 4.32 kN/ m2
Beam Wedge = 0.25 m*0.32 m* 24 kN/ m3
= 1.92 kN/m
Peripheral Shear wall from roof to level 1
= 0.3 m*4 m*3m*24 kN/ m3
= 86.4 kN
Peripheral Shear wall from level 1 to level 0
= 0.3 m*4 m*4m*24 kN/ m3
= 115.2 kN

## Inner Shear wall from roof to level 1

= 0.25 m*4 m*3m*24 kN/ m3
= 72 kN
Inner Shear wall for from level 1 to level 0
= 0.25 m*4 m*4m*24 kN/ m3
= 96kN
Channel shaped core wall from roof to level 1
= 0.25 m*7.2 m*3m*24 kN/ m3
= 129.6kN
Channel shaped core wall for from level 1 to level 0
= 0.25 m*7.2 m*4m*24 kN/ m3
= 172.8kN
Peripheral column from roof to level 1
= 0.3 m* 0.7 m*3m*24 kN/ m3
= 15.12 kN

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Group Assignment # 2 M.Sc. In Structural Engineering

## Peripheral column for level 1 to level 0

= 0.3 m* 0.7 m*4m*24 kN/ m3
= 20.16 kN
Inner column from roof to level 1
= 0.5 m*0.5 m*3m*24 kN/ m3
= 18 kN
Inner column for level 1 to level 0
= 0.5 m* 0.5 m*4m*24 kN/ m3
= 24kN

Basement floors
Slab = 0.18 m*24 kN/ m3
= 4.32 kN/ m2
Beam Wedge = 0.25 m*0.32 m* 24 kN/ m3
= 1.92 kN/m
Level 0
Inner square column
= 0.5 m*0.5 m*3m*24 kN/ m3
= 18 kN
Inner rectangular column
= 0.4 m*0.7 m*3m*24 kN/ m3
= 20.16 kN
Level -1
Inner square column
= 0.5 m*0.5 m*3m*24 kN/ m3
= 18 kN

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Group Assignment # 2 M.Sc. In Structural Engineering

## Inner rectangular column

= 0.4 m*0.7 m*3m*24 kN/ m3
= 20.16 kN
Inner Shear wall for basement
= 0.25 m*4 m*3.0m*24 kN/ m3
=72 kN
Channel shaped core wall for basement
= 0.25 m*7.2 m*3m*24 kN/ m3
= 129.6 kN

## Channel shaped core wall for basement

= 0.25 m*7.2 m*3m*24 kN/ m3
= 129.6 kN
Basement shear wall
(i) (0.3 m*30 m*3m*24 kN/ m3 )*2 = 1,296kN
Clause 8.3 (ii) (0.3 m*21 m*3m*24 kN/ m3 ) *2 = 907.2kN
Total =2,203.2 kN

𝑊𝑛 = 𝐺𝑛 + ∑ 𝜑𝑖 ∗ 𝑄𝑛𝑖
𝑖 𝑊𝑛 = 31,636𝑘𝑁
Details for sustained vertical load are given as Appendix,

Clause 8.5.2
Fundamental Period of Vibration
0.075
𝑇 = 𝐶𝑇 ∗ ℎ𝑡 3/4 for Concrete building 𝐶𝑇 =
√𝐴𝐶

𝐿
Again 𝐴𝑐 = ∑ [𝐴𝑖 ((0.2 + ( ℎ𝑤𝑖 )2 )]
𝑡
𝑇 = 0.602 𝑠𝑒𝑐
Lastly 𝑇 = 0.602 𝑠𝑒𝑐

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Group Assignment # 2 M.Sc. In Structural Engineering

## Table 4 Behavior Factor

For building frame system with reinforced concrete shear
walls
q=5
𝑞=5

## Pseudo-acceleration𝑺𝒅 (𝑻)from the response spectra

With an assumption that the building is founded in ground
type 2
𝑆 = 1.2 ,𝑇𝐵 = 0.15, 𝑇𝐶 = 0.5 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑇𝐷 = 2.0
𝛽 = 0.2
Behavior factor, q = 5
Fundamental period of vibration, T = 0.602sec
Peak ground acceleration for building of IV class of
importance, ag= 0.1g

𝑇𝐶 ≤ 𝑇 ≤ 𝑇𝐷 :
2.5 𝑇𝑐
𝑆𝑑 (𝑇) = 𝑎𝑔 ∗ 𝑆 ( ) ∗ [ ]
𝑞 𝑇
𝑆𝑑 (𝑇) = 0.5𝑎𝑔 > 𝛽 ∗ 𝑎𝑔

## Design base shear

𝑉𝑛 = 𝑆𝑑 (𝑇) ∗ 𝑊𝑛
𝑉𝑛 = 0.05 ∗ 31,636.08𝑘𝑁
𝑉𝑛 = 1,581.8𝑘𝑁 𝑉𝑛 = 1,581.8 𝑘𝑁

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Group Assignment # 2 M.Sc. In Structural Engineering

## Clause 8.5.1 Vertical Distribution of Seismic Forces

𝐹𝑥𝑛 = 𝐶𝑣𝑥 ∗ 𝑉𝑛 Again

𝑊𝑥 ∗ ℎ𝑥
𝐶𝑣𝑥 =
∑𝑛𝑖=1 𝑊𝑖 ∗ ℎ𝑖

## Details for Vertical load distribution are given as appendix

Clause 8.5.3

Redundancy Factor, 𝜌
6.1
𝜌 =2−𝑟 ; 𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑚𝑎𝑥(𝑟𝑖 )
𝑚𝑎𝑥 √𝐴𝐵

Typical Floors

𝑣𝑤𝑎𝑙𝑙 3 𝑣𝑥
𝑟𝑖 = 𝑚𝑎𝑥 (( ) ∗ (𝐿 )) ;𝑣𝑤𝑎𝑙𝑙 =
𝑉𝑖 𝑤𝑥 4

1 3
𝑟𝑖 = 𝑚𝑎𝑥 (( ) ∗ ( ))
4 4

𝑟𝑖 = 0.1875,
Clause 7.6
Typical floor are expected to have higher setback due to
the fact that the basement is supported laterally by soil
pressure
𝐴𝐵 = 420 m2
6.1
𝜌 = 2−
0.1875√420
𝜌 = 0.4125
But the redundancy factor should be within (𝜌)
1.2≤ 𝜌 ≤ 1.5

𝜌 = 1.2

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Torsional Consideration
Assume 5% deviation of the masses from the CM to the 𝑒𝑥 = 1.5 𝑚
right of
𝑒𝑦 = 2 𝑚
𝑒𝑥 = 1.5 𝑚
𝑒𝑦 = 2 𝑚 from the geometric configuration

## Torsion due to eccentricity(T) = Vxn *𝑒𝑥

T= 1,484.78kN*1.5 m
T = 2,227.17kNm [is the moment acting at level 1 where
the effect of seismic load is taken by four shear wall size of
the typical floor
Concept: The Effect of Torsion is felt as shear force on the
walls hence the Additional Shear force due to torsional
on wall number 4 [Details are attached as Appendix]

## Summary loads on wall number 4 (W4)

𝐸𝑑 = 𝜌 ∗ 𝛾1 ∗ (𝐸𝑥 + 0.3𝐸𝑌 ) + 𝐸𝑣 we drop 𝐸𝑣 because
𝑎𝑔 < 0.25

𝑉 = 3,263.44 𝑘𝑁
𝑀 = 37,698.36 𝑘𝑁𝑚/4
𝑁 = (𝐷𝑒𝑎𝑑 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑𝑠 + 𝐼𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑𝑠)
𝑁 = (1,452.7 + 1,327.2)= 2,779.87𝑘𝑁
𝑁 = 2,779.87𝑘𝑁
𝑉 = 3,263.44 𝑘𝑁
M = 9,424.59 kNm

𝑁 = 2,779.87𝑘𝑁

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Group Assignment # 2 M.Sc. In Structural Engineering

## Design of Wall Number 4

Thickness of the wall(t) = 250 mm
Length of the Wall(L) = 4000 mm
Height of the Wall [Level 1], H = 3000 mm

## BS 8110: Effective Height of the Wall, Heff = 0.75*3000 mm

Table 3.19 = 2250 mm
Slenderness check
𝐻𝑒𝑓𝑓
= 2250/250
𝑡
𝐻𝑒𝑓𝑓
BS 8110: = 9 < 15 Stocky Wall
𝑡

## Clause 3.8.1.3 Hence;

𝑛𝑤 ≤ 0.35𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝐴𝑐 + 0.67𝐴𝑠𝑐 𝑓𝑦

𝐴𝑐 = 106 𝑚𝑚2
BS 8110: 𝑓𝑐𝑢 = 30 𝑁/ 𝑚𝑚2
Equation No. 𝑓𝑦 = 460 𝑁/ 𝑚𝑚2
42.
𝑛𝑤 ≤ 0.35𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝐴𝑐 + 0.67𝐴𝑠𝑐 𝑓𝑦

## 2,779.87 ∗ 103 ≤ 0.35 ∗ 30 ∗ 106 + 0.67 ∗ 𝐴𝑠𝑐 ∗ 460

𝑨𝒔𝒄 = −𝟐𝟓, 𝟎𝟒𝟗. 𝟎𝟗𝒎𝒎𝟐
The Concrete section is bigger than required for reinforcement
and hence design
BS 8110 Table for minimum reinforcement
3.25
𝐴𝑠𝑐 = 0.13% 𝑡𝐿
𝐴𝑠𝑐 = 1300 𝑚𝑚2 /𝑚 Provide
Y20-200c/c (Apr =
1571 mm2) both
ways.

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