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Concepts of targets with and

without a window

Paul Schuurmans
On behalf of the MYRRHA team, CDT & IP Eurotrans
Paul.Schuurmans@sckcen .be

Copyright © 2012
SCK•CEN
GEDEPEON
Accelerator driven system : concept

Sub-critical n n
Fission
material neutron
multiplier

n keff=0.95
Fission

Target Spallation
material source
p n+p
p

Proton
accelerator Spallation
A Spallation target for an (experimental) ADS
 Produce enough neutrons to feed subcritical core
@ keff=0.95
 Irradiation performance/power of ADS
 Target material
 Particle beam :
current (mA) & energy (hundreds of MeV)
 Put neutrons in right position
 “Centre” of core : axial position
 Radial constraints : large hole bad for performance
 Safety & economy
 Applicable to entire machine
 Lifetime
 Reliability
The target window

 Window defines the target interface


 Position of the neutron source
 “Barrier” between target and accelerator vacuum
 Environment
 “Worst” radiation zone
 Can it be made thin enough?
 Beam absorption
 Heating
 Damage
 Integrity of interface
 Does it live long enough ?
 Failure : position loss
 Barrier breach
Windowless target

 Sometimes a Window target is not feasible


 Thermal design
 Radiation damage vs lifetime
 “Low” energy proton beam
 More damage/proton
 More current needed for same neutron yield
 More protons : more damage
 Compact target
 Current density
 “Avoid” target window
 Precautions in case of window failure needed anyway
 Historically : MYRRHA with 350 MeV, 5mA
Windowless target requirements
 Windowless target requires a target loop
 Thermal-hydraulic design
 Free surface formation
 Vacuum interface
 Beam target interaction
 Chemistry control
 Engineering
 Materials, radiation damage
 Mechanical design
 Components
– Pump below the free surface
 Interface with the rest of the machine
 Safety analyses
Windowless spallation target
concept properties

 Produce enough neutrons to feed


subcritical core
 LBE as target material
 Low temperature possible
 Low vapour pressure

 Fit inside hole in subcritical core


 Windowless target
 Avoid most loaded part of system
 Beam current density
 Precautions in case of window failure
to be taken anyway
 3 FA need to be removed (or use very large FA)
 Vertical coaxial confluent LBE flow
Windowless spallation target
concept properties

 Other concepts have beem proposed


 Horizontal flow in PDS-XADS
 Size of hole in core defeats the purpose
 Current density issue
 Thermal-hydraulic design
Windowless spallation target
concept properties

 Access to core needed for experimental


irradiation machine
 Safety & economy
 Off axis unit for loop
 Loop away from high radiation zone
 Leave core free for experiments & fuel
 Interlinking with core
 LBE flow & cooling
 Forced convection
 HEX to main coolant of reactor
 Service by remote handling
 Replaceable loop & components
Windowless spallation target loop layout
Windowless spallation target loop layout
Spallation target thermalhydraulics

 Formation of target free surface


 Feeder head
 Drag enhancer
 Target nozzle
 Forced detachment
 Decoupled inlet-outlet flow
 Buffer during beam transient
 Flow feedback
 Recirculation zone
 Proton beam distribution
Spallation target : radiation damage
3.50E+15 (A)Fuel clad, T91 (B3)Inner tube
(B1)Outer wall, peak
3.00E+15 (B2)Nozzle
(B3)Inner wall
Total flux (/cm2/sec)

2.50E+15 60

2.00E+15 50

1.50E+15
40
1.00E+15

5.00E+14 30

0.00E+00
-30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 (B2)Nozzle 20
Axial position (cm)

10

Core center 0

(B1)Outer wall
-10

-20

-30
Spallation target : radiation damage
Total Fission neutron
Source neutron(0-20) Source neutron(20-200) 8 (A)Fuel clad, T91
Source neutron(200-600) Proton(0-600) (B1)Outer wall, peak
35 7 (B2)Nozzle
Target outer wall, peak (B3)Inner wall
30 6

He appm / DPA
DPA /yr in Fe-56

25 5

20 4

15 3

10 2

5 1

0 0
-30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Axial position (cm) Axial position (cm)
Spallation target : mechanical analyses

 Analyses critical due to


shape of target tube
 3 lobed structure
 Inner tube needed
 Sufficient wall thickness
in high stress paces
 T91 or similar required
(strength)
 Max deflection <0.25
mm
 VM stress ≤ 466 MP

1 MP external pressure, 4mm wall thickness


Summary
 Design of MYRRHA spallation target loop
 Fundamental properties
 No target window
 Compact vertical confluent flow
 Detached flow in target nozzle
 Off axis servicing
 Active pump in feeder line
 Vacuum & cover gas system, Oxygen control unit
 R&D support
 Thermal hydraulics
 Vacuum interface
 Beam target interaction
 Mechanical analyses
 Safety analyses
 Windowless spallation target feasible for MYRRHA…BUT
What about a window target

 Beam energy increase since initial choice for


windowless target

 350 MeV, 5 mA → 600 MeV, 3 mA


 Damage per proton
 Current density
 He production vs dpa damage
 Target window
 Material choice
 Operation temperature
 Cooling
 Replacement scheme
 Mechanical design
 Safety issues
Effects of irradiation on target window
Ferritic-Martensitic steel T91

MYRRHA

TM(a) ca 1700K
TM(f) ca 1800K
* Radiation induced segregation
450°CFM
Red / blue: most prominent in austenitic / ferritic-martensitic steel
Window loopless target…

 Target window possible in FM steel (T91)


 Shape beam to get lowest current density
 Operate at high temperature (around 500°C)
 Short lifetime for corrosion purposes
 Stress as low as possible
 Get rid of the target loop
 Target loop does very little confinement
 Cooling by main flow
 Engineering simplification

 Later : look at other materials…


Production of radio isotopes in different zones
Spallation target with window
and separate loop

 Allows
 Different Target material and coolant
e.g. Liquid target in gas cooled ADS
 Control for cooling
 “Smaller” target material inventory
 Case of window failure
 “Some” additional confinement

 But is needs the loop


 Worth the trouble ?
 (we only make things complicated if really needed)
Design efforts loopless target window

 Thermal hydraulic feasibility of the loopless


window design
 Determine window temperature range & distribution

 Limitations
 LBE maximum velocities (erosion)
 Geometrical boundaries (central assembly)
 Maximum pressure drop over window device 1 bar
 Temperature range around 500°C
 Parameters
 Beam profile optimisation
 Flow distribution
 Non-axial symmetric options
Single assembly position target

 Geometry definition
 Window : hemisphere
 Simple beamtube
 Hexagonal wrapper around tube
 Velocity profiling in 3 concentric tubes
 Pressure drop plates

 Simulation 1/12th of the 1 assembly position


space
Loopless window target for MYRRHA
General design considerations

 Beam tube to be put into the reactor from the top


 Integrated into special wrapper to protect the beam tube
 Specific IPS plug on core cover allowing wrapper passage
 Fit into central core position
 Pressure drop equal to fuel assembly pressure drop

 Window temperature between 410°C to 470°C LBE side


 Modification due to oxygen control preferential
temperature range
 Only achievable at LBE velocity higher than 2 m/s
 Allow local velocities up to 2.4 m/s
 Optimisation window thickness
 Thermal hydraulics
 Erosion allowance, manufacturability
Target zone lay-out
Wrapper, beam tube, core plate

 Above the core plate, the


wrapper is perforated to allow
LBE escape from the target
zone
 The wall thickness of the beam
tube is increased above the
holes into the wrapper
 Increase strength and stiffness
Target zone lay-out
Core plate

 Central hole in core plate


adapted to receive the
beam tube wrapper
 Rounded corners to
reduce stresses
 Inter wrapper flow outlet
Target zone lay-out
Guide tubes for velocity profiling

 Multi tube concept


 2 guide tubes to create velocity profile
 Additional pressure drop plate to increase central mass
flow rate
 Plate serves to fix the guide tubes
Design efforts target window

 Beam profile optimisation


 Pure Gaussian
 Current density
– (72-40 µA/cm² for each mA current) (s 15-20mm)
 Beam sweeping
 Beamwidth s , sweepradius rsweep

 Beam flattening

 Result : Sweeped beam, 600 MeV, 3.5 mA


 Sigma : 9mm
 Sweeping radius : 21,5 mm
 MCNP calculations for heat deposit
 Hemispherical window
 Dint : 84.3 mm, Dext : 87,05 mm
Beam optimisation
3.5mA s 9mm, rsweep21.5mm
s  9 mm
Instantanuous current density: Time averaged current density:
150 750

135 675

120 600

105 525

it''( r  0) 90 i''( r) 450


 µA  75  µA  375
 2  2
 cm  60  cm  300
45 225

30 150

15 75

0 0
- 44 - 35.2 - 26.4 - 17.6 - 8.8 0 8.8 17.6 26.4 35.2 44 - 44 - 35.2 - 26.4 - 17.6 - 8.8 0 8.8 17.6 26.4 35.2 44
r r
mm mm
Thickness encounter by beam: Power in window:
10 1000

9 900

8 800

7 700

6 ( i''( r)  tw ( r) )  h'' 600


tw ( r)
5 W 500
mm 2
cm
4 400

3 300

2 200

1 100

0 0
- 43 - 34.4 - 25.8 - 17.2 - 8.6 0 8.6 17.2 25.8 34.4 43 - 43 - 34.4 - 25.8 - 17.2 - 8.6 0 8.6 17.2 25.8 34.4 43
r r
mm mm
Beam heat deposition

 Maximum linear power


20 kW/cm/mA

 Penetration depth +-30 cm

 Total heat deposition in target


 1297 kW for 3.5 mA

SCK-CEN Mol May, 2011


Beam heat deposition

 Total heat deposition in target


 1297 kW for 3.5 mA
 Local maximum : radius 19 mm
 Specific window simulation T91
 13.7 kW for 3,5 mA

SCK-CEN Mol May, 2011


Spallation neutrons to the core

 Maximum of the neutrons going


to the core at 8.5 cm from the
hemisphere centre

 Determines window optimal


position with respect to the
core mid-plane

SCK-CEN Mol May, 2011


Beam heat deposition MCNP into CFX

2.3 m/s
First temperature results

SCK-CEN Mol May, 2011


Target zone : TH results

 External diameter internal guide tube 32,1 mm


 External diameter second guide tube 82,1 mm
 Thickness guide tubes 2 mm
 Total mass flow through target zone 49 kg/s
 Mass flow in central guide tubes 11,6 kg/s
 Mass flow between guide tubes 28,5 kg/s
 Results
 Maximum LBE velocity 2.38 m/s
 Maximum window temperature LBE side 480,5 °C
 Minimum window temperature LBE side 412,1 °C
 Maximum wrapper temperature 463,5 °C
 Maximum beam tube temperature (vacuum side) 575 °C
Summary geometry

 Beam wrapper : from reactor cover to core inlet


 Hexagon tube : flat to flat external 101,55 mm
 Thickness : 2 mm
 Beam tube
 Upper part from reactor cover to 100mm above
core support plate Dint 84,30 mm, Dext 94,30mm
 Lower part to window : same diameters as window
 Window : hemispherical
 Internal diameter 84,30 mm
 External diameter 87,05 mm
 Window thickness 1,375 mm
Conclusions

 Thermal hydraulic design


 Many simulations were performed
 Final result fulfills requirements

 Off normal situations still to be analyzed more in


detail

 Mechanical design needs now more attention


 With better view on Above core structures
 Thermal behaviour
 Detailed stress analyses
Copyright notice

Copyright © 2012 - SCKCEN

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