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-1968 ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) developed by ARPA of the United States Department of Defense, was the world's first operational packet switching network, and the predecessor of the global Internet. Packet switching, now the dominant basis for both data and voice communication worldwide, was a new and important concept in data communications. Previously, data communication was based on the idea of circuit switching, as in the old typical telephone circuit, where a dedicated circuit is tied up for the duration of the call and communication is only possible with the single party on the other end of the circuit. A form of packet switching designed by Lincoln Laboratory scientist Larry Roberts underlay the design of ARPANET. Robert Taylor -1970 TELNET (TELecommunication NETwork) is a network protocol used on the Internet or local area network (LAN) connections. It was developed in 1969 beginning with RFC 15 and standardized as IETF STD 8, one of the first Internet standards.The term telnet also refers to software which implements the client part of the protocol. TELNET clients have been available on most Unix systems for many years and are available for virtually all platforms. Most network equipment and OSs with a TCP/IP stack support some kind of TELNET service server for their remote configuration (including ones based on Windows NT). Because of security issues with TELNET, its use has waned as it is replaced by the use of SSH for remote access."To telnet" is also used as a verb meaning to establish or use a TELNET or other interactive TCP connection, as in, "To change your password, telnet to the server and run the passwd command".On many systems, the client may also be used to make interactive raw-TCP sessions. It is commonly believed that a telnet session which does not include an IAC (character 255) is functionally identical. This is not the case however due to special NVT (Network Virtual Terminal) rules such as the requirement for a bare CR (ASCII 13) to be followed by a NULL (ASCII 0).
-1972 DARPANET (or DARPANet) is a term sometimes used for the ARPANET, the early network from which today's Internet evolved. The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), the original developers of the early packet-switched network that came to be called the ARPANET, was renamed the (U.S.) Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in 1971. For this reason, it is often assumed that the ARPANET was then called the DARPANET. However, the Internet Society's own history of the Internet, written by its chief inventors, suggests that it continued to be called ARPANET until ownership was transferred to other groups. See ARPANET for more information. -1974 ETHERNET is a family of frame-based computer networking technologies for local area networks (LANs). The name comes from the physical concept of the ether. It defines a number of wiring and signaling standards for the physical layer, through means of network access at the Media Access Control (MAC) Data Link Layer, and a common addressing format. Ethernet is standardized as IEEE 802.3. The combination of the twisted pair versions of Ethernet for connecting end systems to the network, along with the fiber optic versions for site backbones, is the most widespread wired LAN technology. It has been in use from around 1980 to the present, largely replacing competing LAN standards such as token ring, FDDI, and ARCNETEthernet was originally developed at Xerox PARC in 1973–1975. In 1975, Xerox filed a patent application listing Metcalfe and Boggs, plus Chuck Thacker and Butler Lampson, as inventors (U.S. Patent 4,063,220 : Multipoint data communication system with collision detection). In 1976, after the system was deployed at PARC, Metcalfe and Boggs published a seminal paper. -1976 SATNET The first International Connection
-1978 UUCP(A UNIX PROTOCOL) is an abbreviation for Unix to Unix CoPy. The term generally refers to a suite of computer programs and protocols allowing remote execution of commands and transfer of files, email and netnews between computers. Specifically, uucp is one of the programs in the suite; it provides a user interface for requesting file copy operations. The UUCP suite also includes uux (user interface for remote command execution), uucico (communication program), uustat (reports statistics on recent activity), uuxqt (execute commands sent from remote machines), and uuname (reports the uucp name of the local system). Although UUCP was originally developed on and is most closely associated with Unix, UUCP implementations exist for several other operating systems, including Microsoft's MS-DOS, Digital's VAX/VMS, Commodore's AmigaOS, and Mac OS. UUCP was originally written at AT&T Bell Laboratories, by Mike Lesk, and early versions of UUCP are sometimes referred to as System V UUCP. The original UUCP was rewritten by AT&T researchers Peter Honeyman, David A. Nowitz, and Brian E. Redman and the rewrite is referred to as HDB or HoneyDanBer uucp which was later enhanced, bug fixed, and repackaged as BNU UUCP ("Basic Network Utilities"). All of these versions had security holes which allowed some of the original internet worms to remotely execute unexpected shell commands, which inspired Ian Lance Taylor to write a new version from scratch. Taylor UUCP was released under the GNU General Public License and became the most stable and bug free version. -1979 USENET[from ‘Users' Network’; the original spelling was USENET, but the mixedcase form is now widely preferred] A distributed bboard (bulletin board) system supported mainly by Unix machines. Originally implemented in 1979--1980 by Steve Bellovin, Jim Ellis, Tom Truscott, and Steve Daniel at Duke University and the University of North Carolina, it has swiftly grown to become international in scope and is now probably the largest decentralized information utility in existence. As of late 2002, it hosts over 100,000 newsgroups and an unguessably huge volume of new technical articles, news, discussion, chatter, and flamage every day (and that leaves out the graphics...).By the year the Internet hit the mainstream (1994) the original UUCP transport for Usenet was fading out of use — almost all Usenet connections were over Internet links. A lot of newbies and journalists began to refer to “Internet newsgroups” as though Usenet was and always had been just another Internet service. This ignorance greatly annoys experienced Usenetters. -1979 BITNET was a cooperative U.S. university network founded by IBM in 1979 under the aegis of Ira Fuchs at the City University of New York (CUNY) and Greydon Freeman at Yale University. The first network link was between CUNY and Yale. The requirements for a college or university to join BITNET were simple:
• • •
Lease a data circuit (phone line) from a site to an existing BITNET node. Buy modems for each end of the data circuit, sending one to the connecting point site. Allow other institutions to connect to a site without chargeback.
From a technical point of view, BITNET differed from the Internet in that it was a point-topoint "store and forward" network. That is, e-mail messages and files were transmitted in their entirety from one server to the next until reaching their destination. From this perspective, BITNET was more like Usenet. BITNET came to mean "Because It's Time Network", although the original meaning was "Because It's There Network".
Bitnet's NJE (Network Job Entry) network protocols, called RSCS, were used for the huge IBM internal network known as VNET. BITNET links originally ran at 9600 baud. The BITNET protocols were eventually ported to non-IBM mainframe operating systems, and became particularly widely implemented under VAX/VMS in addition to DECnet.
-1984 MILNETIn computer networking, MILNET was the name given to the part of the ARPANET internetwork designated for unclassified United States Department of Defense traffic. MILNET was split off from the ARPANET in 1983: the ARPANET remained in service for the academic research community, but direct connectivity between the networks was severed for security reasons. Gateways relayed electronic mail between the two networks. BBN Technologies built and managed both the MILNET and the ARPANET and the two networks used very similar technology. It is also known as "Military Net." During the 1980s the MILNET expanded to become the Defense Data Network, a worldwide set of military networks running at different security levels. In the 1990s, MILNET became the NIPRNET.
1986 NSFNET A wide-area network developed under the auspices of the National Science Foundation (NSF). NSFnet replaced ARPANET as the main government network linking universities and research facilities. In 1995, however, the NSF dismantled NSFnet and replaced it with a commercial Internet backbone. At the same time, the NSF implemented a new backbone called very high-speed Backbone Network Service (vBNS), which serves as a testing ground for the next generation of Internet technologies. In 1985, the NSF began funding the creation of five new supercomputer centers: the John von Neumann Center at Princeton University, the San Diego Supercomputer Center on the campus of the University of California at San Diego, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the Cornell Theory Center at Cornell University and the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center. The NSFNet connected these five centers and allowed access to their supercomputers over the network at no cost. -1987 CREN The Corporation for Research and Educational Networking better known as CREN was a not-for-profit corporation originally comprised of the higher education and research organizations participating in BITNET and CSNET. Its corporate name was adopted at the time of the merging of these two networks in 1989. CREN corporation had existed prior to that as a purely Bitnet body, and this would continue to be its dominant identity. (It discontinued CSNET services in 1991.) CREN supported the email-based services and applications that are a prominent feature of BITNET, and latterly a Public Key Infrastructure for Higher Education. In 2003, active CREN services were transitioned to other organizations and the corporation dissolved itself. : -1991 NREN A National Research and Education Network (NREN) is a specialised internet service provider dedicated to supporting the needs of the research and education communities within a country. It is usually distinguished by support for a high-speed backbone network, often offering dedicated channels for individual research projects. NRENs are usually the places where new Internet protocols are introduced before deployment within the Internet. Two examples of these protocols are IPv6 and IP multicast. 1991 HYTELNET (sometimes rendered Hytelnet or HyTELNET) was an early attempt to create a universal or at least simpler interface for the various Telnet-based information resources available before the World Wide Web. It was first developed in 1990 by Peter
Scott, then at the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon, Canada. Using a client written by Earl Fogel, HyTelnet offered its users a primitive terminal-based GUI that allowed them to browse a directory of Telnet-based resources and then access them in a relatively standardized manner. On-line help was available, and there were frequent updates made available to its database which sites could download. HyTelnet's chief inadequacy was that it was not centralized, i.e., every HyTelnet installation used its own separate copy of the master directory. While beneficial early-on, as it ensured no dependence on a central server, HyTelnet's user experience could vary widely as local installations might not have the same version of the client or might have obsolete information. This became a greater liability as more institutions had reliable, "always-on" Internet access. Finally, when the World Wide Web gained pre-eminence, many of the services that HyTelnet pointed to were gradually retired, increasingly limiting its relevance. HyTelnet's final database update was in 1997.
: -1994 INTERNET (1st PROPOSED IN 1974) The Internet is a worldwide, publicly accessible series of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). It is a "network of networks" that consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and government networks, which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked web pages and other resources of the World Wide Web (WWW). : -1956 Herbert Marshall McLuhan, C.C. (July 21, 1911 – December 31, 1980) was a Canadian educator, philosopher, and scholar — a professor of English literature, a literary critic, a rhetorician, and a communications theorist. McLuhan's work is viewed as one of the cornerstones of the study of media theory. McLuhan is known for coining the expressions "the medium is the message" and the "global village". McLuhan was a fixture in media discourse from the late 1960s to his death and he continues to be an influential and controversial figure. Years after his death he was named the "patron saint" of Wired magazine. -ROBERT W. TAYLOR PITCH (born 1932) was director of ARPA's Information Processing Techniques Office (1965-69), founder and later manager of Xerox PARC's Computer Science Laboratory (CSL) (1970-83), and founder and manager of Digital Equipment Corporation's Systems Research Center (1983-96). Taylor is currently retired and living in California. Career in Computer Networking.J.C.R. Licklider and Taylor co-authored the seminal paper, "The Computer as a Communication Device" . Taylor worked on the creation of ARPANET, which later became the modern internet. As Taylor's work on computer networks shows, surviving a nuclear attack was not a primary design goal in the construction of ARPANET. Rather, Taylor wanted to network expensive mainframe computers together. The first three he had in mind were at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), System Development Corporation (SDC) in Santa Monica, and the University of California at Berkeley. His reasons to network the machines were primarily practical: networking was a more efficient way to maximize the use of expensive computing resources, and to reduce the amount of redundant work. This communication was impossible in the time-sharing framework of the day. So, along with the graphical user interface (GUI) revolution, Bob Taylor gave the go-ahead, and the money, to head start a second computer revolution: from time-sharing to networking.
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