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# Fluid Flow Equations

Permeability
Henry Darcy (1856) conducted an experiment in order to study fluid
flow behaviour through a bed of packed sand particles. He observed
that the volumetric flow rate of water through the packed bed is a
function of:
1. Dimension of porous medium
2. The difference in hydraulic head

ℎ1 −ℎ2
𝑞 = 𝐾𝐴 , where 𝐾 is the hydraulic conductivity
𝐿

Darcy's only variation in this experiment was to change the type of sand
pack, which had the effect of altering the value of the constant K;
otherwise, all the experiments were carried out with water and
therefore, the effects of fluid density and viscosity on the flow law were
not investigated.

Darcy’s law is found to be valid for other fluids when the above
equation is modified to include viscosity and density of the fluid:
𝐾𝜌𝐴 ℎ1 − ℎ2
𝑞=
𝜇 𝐿
Permeability

The permeability is the measure of the ease with which a fluid can flow through a rock.

## To make a fluid flow through a porous rock sample , a

pressure differential (∆𝑃 = 𝑃1 − 𝑃2 ) has to be applied
across it. The resulting flow rate through the pipe depends
on the sample dimensions, the fluid viscosity and the
internal pore geometry of the sample.

## Permeability is defined by the Darcy Equation :

𝑘𝐴∆𝑃
𝑞=
𝜇𝐿 q
P1 P2
A = Area of rock sample , m2
L = Length of rock sample , m
∆𝑃 = Pressure differential across the sample, Pa
𝜇 = fluid viscosity , Pa.sec
q = flow rate , m3/sec
k = Permeability , m2
Unit of Permeability

Permeability has the dimension of m2, but it is commonly expressed in Darcy (D) or millidarcy (mD)
Parameter SI System Darcy System Field
In darcy system,
Length m cm ft
Mass kg g lb q cc/sec = q * 10-6 m3/sec
Time sec sec hr A cm2 = A * 10-4 m2
∆𝑃 atm = ∆𝑃 * 101325 Pa
Rate m3/sec cc/sec Stb/d (liq), 𝜇 cp = 𝜇 * 10-3 Pa.sec
Mscfd(gas) L cm = L*10-2 m
Pressure Pascal atm psia
Suppose 1 Darcy = x m2
Viscosity Pa.sec cp cp
K Darcy = K*x m2
Permeability m2 Darcy mD
𝑘𝑥𝐴 ∗ 10−4 ∆𝑃 ∗ 101325
𝑘𝐴∆𝑃 q ∗ 10−6 =
𝜇 ∗ 10−3 ∗ 𝐿 ∗ 10−2
𝑞=
𝜇𝐿
𝑘𝐴∆𝑃
𝑞 = 1.01325 ∗ 1012 𝑥
𝑥 = 0.987 ∗ 10−12 𝜇𝐿
i.e., 1 Darcy = 0.987 ∗ 10−12 𝑚2 ~10−12 𝑚2
Linear Fluid Flow Through Porous Media
Permeability is defined by the Darcy
P2 P1
Equation :

𝑘𝐴 𝜕𝑃
𝑞=−
𝜇 𝜕𝐿

## Integrating between limits of fluid q Cross-

pressure (P2,P1) over the length of sectional
flow path (L,0), a relationship L area = A
between the observed pressure drop
and resulting flow rate for a linear
flow system can be obtained

𝐿 𝑃2
𝑘𝐴
𝑞 න 𝜕𝐿 = − න 𝜕𝑃
𝜇
0 𝑃1

𝑘𝐴
𝑞= ∆𝑃
𝜇𝐿
Linear Fluid Flow Through Porous Media
𝑘𝐴
𝑞= ∆𝑃 P2
𝜇𝐿 P1

## The equation is valid for

assumptions:
• Fluid is incompressible q Cross-
sectional
L area = A
• Flow occurs in laminar
regime without any
turbulence effect
• Only one fluid is present
in the system occupying
entire pore space
• There is no chemical
reaction between the rock
and the fluid
Linear Fluid Flow Through Porous Media
P2 P1

q Cross-
sectional
𝑘𝐴
𝑞= ∆𝑃 (In SI unit) L area = A
𝜇𝐿
Conversion into field units:
1.84 ∗ 10−06 𝑞 5.615∗0.0283168 𝑚3
q stb/d = q ∗
0.987 ∗ 10−15 ∗ 0.093𝐴 ∗ 6894.76∆𝑃 24∗3600 𝑠𝑒𝑐
− 06
= In field units =1.84 ∗ 10 𝑞 𝑚3/𝑠𝑒𝑐
𝜇 ∗ 10 ∗ 0.3048𝐿
−3

k mD = 0.987 ∗ 10−15 𝑚2
𝑘𝐴 ∆𝑃 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑎 = 6894.76∆𝑃 𝑃𝑎
𝑞 = 1.127 ∗ 10−03 ∆𝑃 In field units 𝜇 cp = 𝜇 ∗ 10−3 Pa.sec
𝜇𝐿
A ft2 = 0.093A m2
L ft = 0.3048L m
Linear Fluid Flow Through Porous Media

## In a tilted reservoir, the gravitational

force is the other important driving force Cross-
that must be accounted for to determine sectional
the direction and rate of flow. The fluid area = A
always directed vertically downward while
the force that results from an applied
pressure drop may be in any direction. The
force causing flow would then be the net
resultant of these two. The measure of net Definition of psi
resultant is quantified in terms of 1 𝑙𝑏 − 𝑓
1 𝑝𝑠𝑖 =
potential (ɸ). The fluid potential at any 1 𝑖𝑛2
point in the reservoir is defined as the Hydrostatic gradient fluid (psi/ft) =
pressure at that point less the pressure 𝑙𝑏−𝑓
𝜌𝑔 = 𝜌 3 = 𝜌 2
𝑙𝑏−𝑓 1
=
𝜌 𝑙𝑏−𝑓 1
=
that would be exerted by a fluid head 𝑓𝑡 𝑓𝑡 𝑓𝑡 2
144 𝑖𝑛 𝑓𝑡
𝜌 𝜌 𝑝𝑠𝑖
extending to an arbitrarily assigned datum ɸ𝑖 = 𝑃𝑖 − ∆𝑍 144 𝑓𝑡
level. 144 𝑖
The vertical distance zi is assigned as a positive
value when the point i is below the datum level and as a
negative value when it is above the datum level.
Example
Assume that the porous media with the
properties as given in the previous example are tilted with a dip
angle of 5o . The incompressible
fluid has a density of 42 lb/ft3. k= 100 mD, 𝜇=2 cp, A = 6000 ft2.

## Let us select datum level at half the vertical

distance between the two points, i.e., at 87.15 ft.

## Since point 1 is below the datum level,

𝜌
ɸ1 = 𝑃1 − ∆𝑍
144 1
42
ɸ1 = 2000 − 87.15 = 1974.58 𝑝𝑠𝑖
144

## Since point 2 is above the datum level, 𝜌

𝜌 ɸ𝑖 = 𝑃𝑖 − ∆𝑍
ɸ2 = 𝑃2 + ∆𝑍 144 𝑖
144 2
42 The vertical distance zi is assigned as a positive
ɸ2 = 1990 + 87.15 = 2015.42 𝑝𝑠𝑖
144 value when the point i is below the datum level and as a
negative value when it is above the datum level.
Example
Assume that the porous media with the
properties as given in the previous example are tilted with a dip
angle of 5o . The incompressible
fluid has a density of 42 lb/ft3. k= 100 mD, 𝜇=2 cp, A = 6000 ft2.

## Because ɸ2 > ɸ1 , the fluid flows downward from

point 2 to point 1.

𝑘𝐴(ɸ2 − ɸ1 )
𝑞 = 1.127 ∗ 10−3
𝜇𝐿

## 100 ∗ 6000(2015.42 − 1974.58)

𝑞 = 1.127 ∗ 10−3
2 ∗ 2000
𝑞 = 6.9 𝑏𝑏𝑙/𝑑
𝜌
ɸ𝑖 = 𝑃𝑖 − ∆𝑍
144 𝑖
The vertical distance zi is assigned as a positive
value when the point i is below the datum level and as a
negative value when it is above the datum level.
Linear flow of slightly compressible fluids
Relationship between pressure and volume of slightly Choosing upstream pressure as reference pressure
compressible fluid: 𝑃1 = 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑓

## 𝑉 = 𝑉𝑟𝑒𝑓 1 + 𝑐(𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑓 − 𝑃) 1.127 ∗ 10−3 𝑘𝐴

𝑞1 = 𝑙𝑛 1 + 𝑐(𝑃1 − 𝑃2 )
𝜇𝑐𝐿
In terms of flow rate
Choosing upstream pressure as reference pressure
𝑞 = 𝑞𝑟𝑒𝑓 1 + 𝑐(𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑓 − 𝑃) 𝑃2 = 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑓

## In darcy’s equation 1.127 ∗ 10−3 𝑘𝐴 1

𝑞2 = 𝑙𝑛
𝑘𝐴 𝜕𝑃 𝜇𝑐𝐿 1 + 𝑐(𝑃2 − 𝑃1 )
𝑞 = −1.127 ∗ 10−3
𝜇 𝜕𝐿
𝑘𝐴 𝜕𝑃
𝑞𝑟𝑒𝑓 1 + 𝑐(𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑓 − 𝑃) = −1.127 ∗ 10−3
𝜇 𝜕𝐿
𝐿 𝑃2
𝑞𝑟𝑒𝑓 −3
𝑘 𝜕𝑃
න 𝜕𝐿 = −1.127 ∗ 10 න
𝐴 𝜇 1 + 𝑐(𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑓 − 𝑃)
0 𝑃1
1.127 ∗10−3 𝑘𝐴 1 + 𝑐(𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑓 − 𝑃2 )
𝑞𝑟𝑒𝑓 = 𝑙𝑛
𝜇𝑐𝐿 1 + 𝑐(𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑓 − 𝑃1 )
Example
An slightly compressible fluid flows in a linear porous media with the following properties:
L = 2000 ft, k = 100 md, p1 = 2000 psi, h = 20 ft, φ = 15%, p2 = 1990 psi, width = 300 ft, μ = 2 cp.
calculate the flow rate at both ends of the linear system. The liquid has an average compressibility of
21 × 10−5 psi−1.

## Choosing the upstream pressure as the reference pressure gives:

1.127 ∗ 10−3 𝑘𝐴 1.127 ∗ 10−3 ∗ 100 ∗ 6000
𝑞1 = 𝑙𝑛 1 + 𝑐(𝑃1 − 𝑃2 ) = −5
𝑙𝑛 1 + 21 ∗ 10−5 (2000 − 1990)
𝜇𝑐𝐿 2 ∗ 21 ∗ 10 ∗ 2000
= 1.689 𝑏𝑏𝑙/𝑑

## Choosing the downstream pressure as the reference pressure gives:

1.127 ∗ 10−3 𝑘𝐴 1 1.127 ∗ 10−3 ∗ 100 ∗ 6000 1
𝑞2 = 𝑙𝑛 = 𝑙𝑛
𝜇𝑐𝐿 1 + 𝑐(𝑃2 − 𝑃1 ) 2 ∗ 21 ∗ 10−5 ∗ 2000 1 + 21 ∗ 10−5 (1990 − 2000)
= 1.692 𝑏𝑏𝑙/𝑑
Linear flow of compressible fluids
The number of gas moles n at the pressure p, temperature T, and volume V is given by real gas
equation:

𝑃𝑉
𝑛=
𝑧𝑅𝑇

𝑛𝑧𝑠𝑐 𝑅𝑇𝑠𝑐
𝑉𝑠𝑐 =
𝑃𝑠𝑐

## Combining two equations

𝑃𝑉 𝑃𝑠𝑐 𝑉𝑠𝑐
=
𝑧𝑇 𝑇𝑠𝑐

the above relation can be expressed in terms of the reservoir condition flow rate q, in bbl/day, and
surface condition flow rate Qsc, in scf/day, as:
𝑃(5.615𝑞) 𝑃𝑠𝑐 𝑄𝑠𝑐
=
𝑧𝑇 𝑇𝑠𝑐
Linear flow of compressible fluids
𝑃(5.615𝑞) 𝑃𝑠𝑐 𝑄𝑠𝑐
=
𝑧𝑇 𝑇𝑠𝑐

𝑃𝑠𝑐 𝑧𝑇 𝑄𝑠𝑐
𝑞=
𝑇𝑠𝑐 𝑃 5.615

## q = gas flow rate at pressure p in bbl/day

Qsc = gas flow rate at standard conditions, scf/day
Z = gas compressibility factor
Tsc, psc = standard temperature and pressure in ◦R and
psia, respectively.

## From Darcy’s law,

𝑘𝐴 𝜕𝑃
𝑞 = −1.127 ∗ 10−3
𝜇 𝜕𝐿
𝑃𝑠𝑐 𝑧𝑇 𝑄𝑠𝑐 −3
𝑘𝐴 𝜕𝑃
= −1.127 ∗ 10
𝑇𝑠𝑐 𝑃 5.615 𝜇 𝜕𝐿

𝐿 𝑃2
𝑄𝑠𝑐 𝑃𝑠𝑐 𝑇 𝑃
න 𝜕𝐿 = − න 𝜕𝑃
0.006328𝑘𝑇𝑠𝑐 𝐴 𝜇𝑧
0 𝑃1
Linear flow of compressible fluids
For pressure less than 2000 psi, the property 𝜇𝑍 is nearly constant,

## 𝑄𝑠𝑐 𝑃𝑠𝑐 𝑇𝐿 (𝑃12 − 𝑃22 )

=
0.006328𝑘𝑇𝑠𝑐 𝐴 2𝜇𝑧

## 0.003164𝑘𝑇𝑠𝑐 𝐴(𝑃12 − 𝑃22 )

𝑄𝑠𝑐 =
𝑃𝑠𝑐 𝑇𝐿𝜇𝑧

Setting 𝑃𝑠𝑐 = 14. 7 psi and 𝑇𝑠𝑐 = 520oR in the above expression
gives:

0.111924𝑘𝐴(𝑃12 −𝑃22 )
𝑄𝑠𝑐 =
𝑇𝐿𝜇𝑧
In a radial flow system, all fluids move toward the producing
well from all directions.

−3
𝑘𝐴 𝜕𝑃
𝑞 = 1.127 ∗ 10
𝜇 𝜕𝑟

## The flow rate for a crude oil system is customarily

expressed in surface units, i.e., stock-tank barrels (STB),
rather than reservoir units. Using the symbol 𝑄𝑜 to
represent the oil flow as expressed in STB/day, then:
q = 𝐵𝑜 𝑄𝑜

## where Bo is the oil formation volume factor in bbl/STB.

𝑘𝐴 𝜕𝑃
𝐵𝑜 𝑄𝑜 = 1.127 ∗ 10−3
𝜇 𝜕𝑟
𝐵𝑜 𝑄𝑜 𝑘 𝜕𝑃
= 1.127 ∗ 10−3
2𝜋𝑟ℎ 𝜇 𝜕𝑟
𝐵𝑜 𝑄𝑜 𝑘 𝜕𝑃
= 1.127 ∗ 10−3
2𝜋𝑟ℎ 𝜇 𝜕𝑟

𝑟𝑒 𝑃𝑒
𝐵𝑜 𝑄𝑜 𝜕𝑟 −3
𝑘
න = 1.127 ∗ 10 න 𝜕𝑃
2𝜋ℎ 𝑟 𝜇
𝑟𝑤 𝑃𝑤𝑓
0.00708𝑘ℎ(𝑃𝑒 − 𝑃𝑤𝑓 )
𝑄𝑜 =
𝑟
𝜇𝐵𝑜 ln 𝑟𝑒
𝑤
Example
An oil well in a field is producing
at a stabilized rate of 600 STB/day at a stabilized
bottom-hole flowing pressure of 1800 psi. Analysis of the
pressure buildup test data indicates that the pay zone is
characterized by a permeability of 120 md and a uniform
thickness of 25 ft. The well drains an area of
approximately 40 acres. The following additional data is
available

rw = 0. 25 ft, A = 40 acres
Bo = 1. 25 bbl/STB, μo = 2. 5 cp
Calculate the pressure profile (distribution)

0.00708𝑘ℎ(𝑃𝑟 − 𝑃𝑤𝑓 )
𝑄𝑜 =
𝑟
𝜇𝐵𝑜 ln 𝑟
𝑤
𝑟
𝑄𝑜 𝜇𝐵𝑜 ln 𝑟
𝑤
𝑃𝑟 = 𝑃𝑤𝑓 +
0.00708𝑘ℎ
𝑟
600 ∗ 2.5 ∗ 1.25 ln
𝑃𝑟 = 𝑃𝑤𝑓 + 0.25 = 1800 + 88.28 ln 𝑟
0.00708 ∗ 120 ∗ 25 0.25
Radial flow of slightly compressible fluids
𝑘𝐴 𝜕𝑃
𝑞𝑟𝑒𝑓 1 + 𝑐(𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑓 − 𝑃) = 1.127 ∗ 10−3
𝜇 𝜕𝐿
𝑞𝑟𝑒𝑓 1 + 𝑐(𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑓 − 𝑃) −3
𝑘 𝜕𝑃
= 1.127 ∗ 10
2𝜋𝑟ℎ 𝜇 𝜕𝐿

## 0.00708𝑘ℎ 1 + 𝑐(𝑃𝑒 − 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑓 )

𝑞𝑟𝑒𝑓 = 𝑙𝑛
𝑟 1 + 𝑐(𝑃𝑤𝑓 − 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑓 )
𝜇𝑐 ln 𝑟𝑒
𝑤

## where qref is the oil flow rate at a reference pressure

Pref . Choosing the bottom-hole flow pressure Pwf as the
reference pressure and expressing the flow rate in
STB/day gives

0.00708𝑘ℎ
𝑄𝑜 = 𝑙𝑛 1 + 𝑐(𝑃𝑒 − 𝑃𝑤𝑓 )
𝑟𝑒
𝜇𝐵𝑜 𝑐 ln 𝑟
𝑤
𝑘𝐴 𝜕𝑃 𝑃
𝑞 = 1.127 ∗ 10−3 𝑇𝑄𝑠𝑐 𝑟 2𝑃
𝜇 𝜕𝑟 ln = 0.703 න 𝜕𝑃
𝑘ℎ 𝑟𝑤 𝜇𝑧
𝑃𝑤𝑓
𝑃𝑠𝑐 𝑧𝑇 𝑄𝑠𝑐
𝑞= Where, 𝑄𝑠𝑐 is in scf/d 𝑃 𝑃𝑤𝑓
𝑇𝑠𝑐 𝑃 5.615 𝑇𝑄𝑠𝑐 𝑟 2𝑃 2𝑃
ln = 0.703 න 𝜕𝑃 − න 𝜕𝑃
𝑘ℎ 𝑟𝑤 𝜇𝑧 𝜇𝑧
𝑃𝑠𝑐 𝑧𝑇 𝑄𝑠𝑐 𝑘𝐴 𝜕𝑃 0 0
= 1.127 ∗ 10−3
𝑇𝑠𝑐 𝑃 5.615 𝜇 𝜕𝑟 𝑃 2𝑃
𝑃𝑠𝑐 𝑧𝑇 𝑄𝑠𝑐 −3
𝑘 ∗ 2𝜋𝑟ℎ 𝜕𝑃 The integral ‫׬‬0 𝜕𝑃 is called the
= 1.127 ∗ 10 𝜇𝑧
𝑇𝑠𝑐 𝑃 5.615 𝜇 𝜕𝑟 “real-gas pseudopressure” and it is usually
represented by m(p).
Assuming that Tsc = 520oR and psc = 14.7 psia
𝑃
𝑇𝑄𝑠𝑐 𝜕𝑟 2𝑃 2𝑃
= 0.703 𝜕𝑃 𝑚 𝑃 =න 𝜕𝑃
𝑘ℎ 𝑟 𝜇𝑧 𝜇𝑧
0
𝑟 𝑃
𝑇𝑄𝑠𝑐 𝜕𝑟 2𝑃 𝑇𝑄𝑠𝑐 𝑟
න = 0.703 න 𝜕𝑃 ln = 0.703 𝑚 𝑃 − 𝑚 𝑃𝑤𝑓
𝑘ℎ 𝑟 𝜇𝑧 𝑘ℎ 𝑟𝑤
𝑟𝑤 𝑃𝑤𝑓
𝑇𝑄𝑠𝑐 𝑟
ln = 0.703 𝑚 𝑃 − 𝑚 𝑃𝑤𝑓
𝑘ℎ 𝑟𝑤 The equation can be rearranged as
𝑘ℎ 𝑚 𝑃 − 𝑚 𝑃𝑤𝑓 𝑃𝑒
𝑄𝑠𝑐 = 𝑘ℎ 2𝑃
𝑟
1.422𝑇ln 𝑟 𝑄𝑠𝑐 = න 𝜕𝑃
𝑤
𝑟𝑒 𝜇𝑍
1422𝑇ln 𝑃𝑤𝑓
When 𝑟 = 𝑟𝑒 , 𝑚 𝑃 = 𝑚 𝑃𝑒 𝑟𝑤

## 𝑘ℎ 𝑚 𝑃𝑒 − 𝑚 𝑃𝑤𝑓 Flow equation can be simplified for different

𝑄𝑠𝑐 = pressure regions:
𝑟
1.422𝑇ln 𝑟𝑒
𝑤
• High Pressure Region − 𝑃𝑒 >
When 𝑄𝑠𝑐 is in MScf/d 3000 𝑝𝑠𝑖 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑃𝑤𝑓 > 3000 𝑝𝑠𝑖
• Intermediate Pressure Region − 2000 < 𝑃𝑒 <
𝑘ℎ 𝑚 𝑃𝑒 − 𝑚 𝑃𝑤𝑓
𝑄𝑠𝑐 = 3000 𝑝𝑠𝑖 𝑎𝑛𝑑 2000 < 𝑃𝑤𝑓 < 3000 𝑝𝑠𝑖
𝑟
1422𝑇ln 𝑟𝑒 • Low Pressure Region −𝑃𝑒 <
𝑤
2000 𝑝𝑠𝑖 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑃𝑤𝑓 < 2000 𝑝𝑠𝑖
High Pressure region
𝑃𝑒 Intermediate
High Pressure
𝑘ℎ 2𝑃 Low
Pressure
Region
𝑞𝑠𝑐 = න 𝜕𝑃 Pressure
Region
𝑟𝑒 𝜇𝑍
1422𝑇ln 𝑟 𝑃𝑤𝑓
Region
𝑤 𝑃
𝑘ℎ 𝑃𝑒 − 𝑃𝑤𝑓 2𝑃 𝜇𝑍
𝑞𝑠𝑐 = (𝑝𝑠𝑖/𝑐𝑝)
𝑟𝑒 𝜇𝑍
1422𝑇 ln
𝑟𝑤
From the definition of 𝐵𝑔 ,
0.00504𝑍𝑇 2000 3000
𝐵𝑔 =
𝑃 𝑃 (𝑝𝑠𝑖)
𝑃 0.00504𝑇
=
𝑍 𝐵𝑔
High Pressure region
𝑃 Intermediate
Substituting for , Pressure
High Pressure
𝑍 Low Region
Region
𝑘ℎ 𝑃𝑒 − 𝑃𝑤𝑓 0.1008𝑇 Pressure
𝑞𝑠𝑐 = Region
𝑟𝑒 𝜇𝐵𝑔 𝑃
1422𝑇 ln
𝑟𝑤 𝜇𝑍
(𝑝𝑠𝑖/𝑐𝑝)
7.08 ∗ 10−6 𝑘ℎ 𝑃𝑒 − 𝑃𝑤𝑓
𝑞𝑠𝑐 =
𝑟𝑒
𝜇𝐵𝑔 ln
𝑟𝑤 2000 3000
𝑃 (𝑝𝑠𝑖)
Intermediate Pressure region
When the bottom-hole flowing Intermediate
Pressure
High Pressure
Low Region
pressure and average reservoir Pressure
Region

## pressure are both between 2000 Region

𝑃
and 3000 psi, the pseudo-pressure
gas pressure approach should be 𝜇𝑍
(𝑝𝑠𝑖/𝑐𝑝)
used to calculate the gas flow rate.

## 𝑘ℎ 𝑚 𝑃𝑒 − 𝑚 𝑃𝑤𝑓 2000 3000

𝑄𝑠𝑐 =
𝑟 𝑃 (𝑝𝑠𝑖)
1422𝑇 ln 𝑒
𝑟𝑤
Low Pressure region
When the bottom-hole flowing pressure Intermediate
High Pressure
𝑃𝑤𝑓 and average reservoir pressure 𝑃ത are Low
Pressure
Region Region
both less than 2000 psi, the pressure Pressure
Region
2𝑃
functions ( ) exhibits a linear relationship 𝑃
𝜇𝑍
with pressure. 𝜇𝑍
(𝑝𝑠𝑖/𝑐𝑝)

## 𝑊ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑃ത < 2000 𝑝𝑠𝑖 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑃𝑤𝑓 <

2000 𝑝𝑠𝑖,
𝑃 2000 3000
= 𝑆𝑙𝑜𝑝𝑒 𝑃
𝜇𝑍 𝑃 (𝑝𝑠𝑖)
1
𝑆𝑙𝑜𝑝𝑒 = = 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
𝜇𝑍
Low Pressure region
𝑃𝑒
𝑘ℎ 2𝑃 Intermediate
High Pressure
𝑄𝑠𝑐 = න 𝜕𝑃 Pressure
Region
𝑟𝑒 𝜇𝑍 Low Region
1422𝑇ln 𝑃𝑤𝑓 Pressure
𝑟𝑤

𝑃 Region

𝑘ℎ 2 𝑃
𝑄𝑠𝑐 = න 𝑃 𝜕𝑃 𝜇𝑍
1422𝑇ln
𝑟𝑒 𝜇𝑍
(𝑝𝑠𝑖/𝑐𝑝)
𝑟𝑤 𝑃𝑤𝑓

2
𝑘ℎ 𝑃𝑒2 − 𝑃𝑤𝑓
𝑄𝑠𝑐 = 2000 3000
𝑟𝑒
1422𝜇𝑍𝑇ln 𝑃 (𝑝𝑠𝑖)
𝑟𝑤
How to evaluate m(P) function
Gas properties can be estimated using standard correlations of 𝜇 and 𝑍 at reservoir temperature.

P (psia) μ (cp) Z
14.7 0.011841 0.998703
100 0.012021 0.991328
200 0.012232 0.983011
300 0.012445 0.975048
400 0.012659 0.967439
500 0.012874 0.960185
600 0.01309 0.953285
700 0.013308 0.94674
800 0.013526 0.940549
900 0.013746 0.934712
1000
1100
0.013967
0.014188
0.92923
0.924102
Create a table of P, 𝜇 and 𝑍. At any
1200 0.014412 0.919329 pressure, the values of 𝜇 and 𝑍 can be
1300 0.014636 0.91491
1400 0.014861 0.910845
estimated using standard correlations.
1500 0.015087 0.907135
1600 0.015315 0.903779
1700 0.015544 0.900778
1800 0.015773 0.898131
1900 0.016004 0.895838
2000 0.016236 0.8939
2100 0.01647 0.892316
2200 0.016704 0.891087
2300 0.016939 0.890212
2400 0.017176 0.889691
How to evaluate m(P) function
Gas properties can be estimated using standard correlations of 𝜇 and 𝑍 at reservoir temperature.

2𝑃
P (psia) μ (cp) Z
𝜇𝑍
14.7 0.011841 0.998703 2486.123
100 0.012021 0.991328 16783.09
200 0.012232 0.983011 33266.27
300 0.012445 0.975048 49445.91
400 0.012659 0.967439 65323.13
500 0.012874 0.960185 80896.84
600 0.01309 0.953285 96165.4
700 0.013308 0.94674 111118
800 0.013526 0.940549 125767.7
900 0.013746 0.934712 140093.6
1000 0.013967 0.92923 154100.4 2𝑃
1100 0.014188 0.924102 167796 At each pressure, can be evaluated
𝜇𝑍
1200 0.014412 0.919329 181140.7
1300 0.014636 0.91491 194165.7
1400 0.014861 0.910845 206854.8
1500 0.015087 0.907135 219203
1600 0.015315 0.903779 231190.9
1700 0.015544 0.900778 242827.8
1800 0.015773 0.898131 254125.7
1900 0.016004 0.895838 265048.6
2000 0.016236 0.8939 275608.1
2100 0.01647 0.892316 285783.4
2200 0.016704 0.891087 295605.2
2300 0.016939 0.890212 305053.9
2400 0.017176 0.889691 314108.7
How to evaluate m(P) function
Gas properties can be estimated using standard correlations of 𝜇 and 𝑍 at reservoir temperature.

2𝑃
P (psia) μ (cp) Z ΔP
𝜇𝑍
14.7 0.011841 0.998703 2486.123 0
100 0.012021 0.991328 16783.09 85.3
200 0.012232 0.983011 33266.27 100
300 0.012445 0.975048 49445.91 100
400 0.012659 0.967439 65323.13 100
500 0.012874 0.960185 80896.84 100
600 0.01309 0.953285 96165.4 100
700 0.013308 0.94674 111118 100
800 0.013526 0.940549 125767.7 100
900 0.013746 0.934712 140093.6 100
1000
1100
0.013967
0.014188
0.92923
0.924102
154100.4
167796
100
100
∆𝑃 is the incremental pressure at each
1200 0.014412 0.919329 181140.7 100 pressure step.
1300 0.014636 0.91491 194165.7 100
1400 0.014861 0.910845 206854.8 100
1500 0.015087 0.907135 219203 100
1600 0.015315 0.903779 231190.9 100
1700 0.015544 0.900778 242827.8 100
1800 0.015773 0.898131 254125.7 100
1900 0.016004 0.895838 265048.6 100
2000 0.016236 0.8939 275608.1 100
2100 0.01647 0.892316 285783.4 100
2200 0.016704 0.891087 295605.2 100
2300 0.016939 0.890212 305053.9 100
2400 0.017176 0.889691 314108.7 100
How to evaluate m(P) function
Gas properties can be estimated using standard correlations of 𝜇 and 𝑍 at reservoir temperature.

𝟐𝑷 𝟐𝑷
P (psia) μ (cp) Z ΔP
𝝁𝒁 𝝁𝒁
14.7 0.011841 0.998703 2486.123 0 1243.061
100 0.012021 0.991328 16783.09 85.3 9634.608
200 0.012232 0.983011 33266.27 100 25024.68
300 0.012445 0.975048 49445.91 100 41356.09
400 0.012659 0.967439 65323.13 100 57384.52
500 0.012874 0.960185 80896.84 100 73109.99
600 0.01309 0.953285 96165.4 100 88531.12
700 0.013308 0.94674 111118 100 103641.7
800 0.013526 0.940549 125767.7 100 118442.9
𝟐𝑷 ഥ
𝟐𝑷
900
1000
0.013746
0.013967
0.934712
0.92923
140093.6 100 132930.7 Average of , i.e., can be
154100.4 100 147097 𝝁𝒁 𝝁𝒁
1100 0.014188 0.924102
1200 0.014412 0.919329
167796
181140.7
100
100
160948.2
174468.3
estimated between two consecutive
1300 0.014636 0.91491 194165.7 100 187653.2 pressure steps.
1400 0.014861 0.910845 206854.8 100 200510.2
1500 0.015087 0.907135 219203 100 213028.9
1600 0.015315 0.903779 231190.9 100 225196.9
1700 0.015544 0.900778 242827.8 100 237009.3
1800 0.015773 0.898131 254125.7 100 248476.7
1900 0.016004 0.895838 265048.6 100 259587.1
2000 0.016236 0.8939 275608.1 100 270328.4
2100 0.01647 0.892316 285783.4 100 280695.8
2200 0.016704 0.891087 295605.2 100 290694.3
2300 0.016939 0.890212 305053.9 100 300329.6
2400 0.017176 0.889691 314108.7 100 309581.3
How to evaluate m(P) function
Gas properties can be estimated using standard correlations of 𝜇 and 𝑍 at reservoir temperature.

𝟐𝑷
𝟐𝑷 𝟐𝑷 ∗
P (psia) μ (cp) Z ΔP 𝝁𝒁 ΔP
𝝁𝒁 𝝁𝒁
14.7 0.011841 0.998703 2486.123 0 1243.061 0
100 0.012021 0.991328 16783.09 85.3 9634.608 821832.1
200 0.012232 0.983011 33266.27 100 25024.68 2502468
300 0.012445 0.975048 49445.91 100 41356.09 4135609
400 0.012659 0.967439 65323.13 100 57384.52 5738452
500 0.012874 0.960185 80896.84 100 73109.99 7310999
600 0.01309 0.953285 96165.4 100 88531.12 8853112
700 0.013308 0.94674 111118 100 103641.7 10364171
800 0.013526 0.940549 125767.7 100 118442.9 11844287
900 0.013746 0.934712 140093.6 100 132930.7 13293067 ഥ
𝟐𝑷
1000 0.013967 0.92923 154100.4 100 147097 14709699 Estimate ∗ ΔP
𝝁𝒁
1100 0.014188 0.924102 167796 100 160948.2 16094818
1200 0.014412 0.919329 181140.7 100 174468.3 17446834
1300 0.014636 0.91491 194165.7 100 187653.2 18765321
1400 0.014861 0.910845 206854.8 100 200510.2 20051024
1500 0.015087 0.907135 219203 100 213028.9 21302887
1600 0.015315 0.903779 231190.9 100 225196.9 22519694
1700 0.015544 0.900778 242827.8 100 237009.3 23700934
1800 0.015773 0.898131 254125.7 100 248476.7 24847671
1900 0.016004 0.895838 265048.6 100 259587.1 25958715
2000 0.016236 0.8939 275608.1 100 270328.4 27032838
2100 0.01647 0.892316 285783.4 100 280695.8 28069576
2200 0.016704 0.891087 295605.2 100 290694.3 29069431
2300 0.016939 0.890212 305053.9 100 300329.6 30032957
2400 0.017176 0.889691 314108.7 100 309581.3 30958133
How to evaluate m(P) function
Gas properties can be estimated using standard correlations of 𝜇 and 𝑍 at reservoir temperature.

𝟐𝑷 𝟐𝑷
𝟐𝑷 𝟐𝑷 ∗
P (psia) μ (cp) Z ΔP 𝝁𝒁 ΔP 𝒎 𝑷 =෍ ∗
𝝁𝒁 𝝁𝒁 𝝁𝒁 ΔP
14.7 0.011841 0.998703 2486.123 0 1243.061 0 0
100 0.012021 0.991328 16783.09 85.3 9634.608 821832.1 821832.1
200 0.012232 0.983011 33266.27 100 25024.68 2502468 3324300
300 0.012445 0.975048 49445.91 100 41356.09 4135609 7459909
400 0.012659 0.967439 65323.13 100 57384.52 5738452 13198361
500 0.012874 0.960185 80896.84 100 73109.99 7310999 20509360
600 0.01309 0.953285 96165.4 100 88531.12 8853112 29362472
700 0.013308 0.94674 111118 100 103641.7 10364171 39726644
800 0.013526 0.940549 125767.7 100 118442.9 11844287 51570931 𝒎 𝑷
900 0.013746 0.934712 140093.6 100 132930.7 13293067 64863997
1000 0.013967 0.92923 154100.4 100 147097 14709699 79573696
𝟐𝑷
=෍ ∗
1100
1200
0.014188
0.014412
0.924102
0.919329
167796
181140.7
100
100
160948.2
174468.3
16094818
17446834
95668513
1.13E+08
𝝁𝒁 ΔP
1300 0.014636 0.91491 194165.7 100 187653.2 18765321 1.32E+08
1400 0.014861 0.910845 206854.8 100 200510.2 20051024 1.52E+08
1500 0.015087 0.907135 219203 100 213028.9 21302887 1.73E+08
1600 0.015315 0.903779 231190.9 100 225196.9 22519694 1.96E+08
1700 0.015544 0.900778 242827.8 100 237009.3 23700934 2.19E+08
1800 0.015773 0.898131 254125.7 100 248476.7 24847671 2.44E+08
1900 0.016004 0.895838 265048.6 100 259587.1 25958715 2.7E+08
2000 0.016236 0.8939 275608.1 100 270328.4 27032838 2.97E+08
2100 0.01647 0.892316 285783.4 100 280695.8 28069576 3.25E+08
2200 0.016704 0.891087 295605.2 100 290694.3 29069431 3.54E+08
2300 0.016939 0.890212 305053.9 100 300329.6 30032957 3.84E+08
2400 0.017176 0.889691 314108.7 100 309581.3 30958133 4.15E+08
How to evaluate m(P) function
Gas properties can be estimated using standard correlations of 𝜇 and 𝑍 at reservoir temperature.

𝟐𝑷
𝟐𝑷 m(P)
𝟐𝑷vs P ∗ 𝟐𝑷
P (psia) μ (cp) 4.5E+08
Z ΔP 𝝁𝒁 ΔP 𝒎 𝑷 =෍ ∗
𝝁𝒁 𝝁𝒁 𝝁𝒁 ΔP
14.7 4.0E+08
0.011841 0.998703 2486.123 0 1243.061 0 0
100 0.012021 0.991328 16783.09 85.3 9634.608 821832.1 821832.1
200 0.012232 0.983011
3.5E+08 33266.27 100 25024.68 2502468 3324300
300 0.012445 0.975048 49445.91 100 41356.09 4135609 7459909
400 0.012659 0.967439 65323.13 100 57384.52 5738452 13198361
500
3.0E+08
0.012874 0.960185 80896.84 100 73109.99 7310999 20509360
600 0.01309 0.953285 96165.4 100 88531.12 8853112 29362472
2.5E+08
m(P)

## 700 0.013308 0.94674 111118 100 103641.7 10364171 39726644

800 2.0E+08
0.013526 0.940549 125767.7 100 118442.9 11844287 51570931 𝒎 𝑷
900 0.013746 0.934712 140093.6 100 132930.7 13293067 64863997
1000 0.013967 0.92923
𝟐𝑷
1.5E+08 154100.4 100 147097 14709699 79573696
=෍ ∗
1100
1200
0.014188 0.924102
0.014412 0.919329
167796
181140.7
100
100
160948.2
174468.3
16094818
17446834
95668513
1.13E+08
𝝁𝒁 ΔP
1.0E+08
1300 0.014636 0.91491 194165.7 100 187653.2 18765321 1.32E+08
1400 0.014861 0.910845 206854.8 100 200510.2 20051024 1.52E+08
1500 5.0E+07
0.015087 0.907135 219203 100 213028.9 21302887 1.73E+08
1600 0.015315 0.903779 231190.9 100 225196.9 22519694 1.96E+08
1700 0.0E+00
0.015544 0.900778 242827.8 100 237009.3 23700934 2.19E+08
1800 0
0.015773 0.898131 500
254125.7 100 1000
248476.7 1500
24847671 2000 2500
2.44E+08 3000
1900 0.016004 0.895838 265048.6 100 259587.1 25958715 2.7E+08
2000 0.016236 0.8939 275608.1 100 270328.4 Pressure
27032838 2.97E+08
2100 0.01647 0.892316 285783.4 100 280695.8 28069576 3.25E+08
2200 0.016704 0.891087 295605.2 100 290694.3 29069431 3.54E+08
2300 0.016939 0.890212 305053.9 100 300329.6 30032957 3.84E+08
2400 0.017176 0.889691 314108.7 100 309581.3 30958133 4.15E+08