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ANTHELMINTIC EFFICACY OF LAGUNDI (Vitex negundo Linn) AND

BANABA (Langrostroemia speciosa Linn) EXTRACTS ON THE


GASTRO-INTESTINAL PARASITES OF GOAT

Norberto N. Tadeo, Jr. D.V.M.

Instructor, Provincial Technical Institute of Agriculture (PTIA),


Isabela State University, Cabagan, Isabela.

ABSTRACT
The study sought to test and evaluate the efficacy of lagundi and banaba fresh leaves extracts against
gastro-intestinal parasites of goat and compare it with the commercial dewormer. The data collected
includes species of gastro-intestinal parasites, parasitic loads, efficacy of the test extracts,
hatchability of parasitic eggs, and return above dewormer costs. The treatments used were as follows:
GT1 (Control) – Grower goats administered with Valbazen (Albendazole); GT2 – Grower goats
administered with Banaba leaves extract (BLE); GT3 – Grower goats administered with Lagundi
leaves extract (LLE); MT1 (Control) – Matured goats administered with Valbazen (Albendazole);
MT2 – Matured goats administered with BLE; and MT3 – Matured goats administered with LLE.
There were five (5) species of gastro-intestinal parasites identified in both stages of goat, the
Cooperia spp., which is the most abundant, followed by Strongyloides spp., Haemonchus spp.,
Monieza spp., and Trichuries spp.. The parasitic loads of the experimental animals were rated as
heavily parasitized. In terms of efficiency of the leaves extracts and commercial dewormer against
Haemonchus spp., the Treatments GT2, GT3 and MT2 were rated effective and Treatment MT1 was
rated highly effective. In Cooperia spp., the efficacy of Treatment GT1 was effective, Treatments MT2,
MT3 and GT3 moderate effective and Treatment GT2 highly effective. Lastly, in Monieza spp.
Treatments GT1 and GT3 were rated as highly effective and GT2 effective. In larval culture, there
were no ovicidal and larvicidal effects of the test extracts and commercial dewormer in parasitic eggs.
It is recommended that immediate anti-parasitic treatment should be administered to the test animals
to control or eliminate parasitism. To reduce the development of dewormer resistant parasites,
interval use of dewormers should be adopted. To prolong the effects of the test extracts and
commercial dewormer, short intervals or frequency of administration should be applied to the test
animals and studies on the different doses, frequency, combination of lagundi and banaba leaves
extracts as dewormer and the use of different species of experimental animals should be conducted to
identify the effects of test extracts.

Keywords: anthelmintic, dewormer, leaves extract, gastro-intestinal parasites, efficacy

INTRODUCTION

Parasitism is the most commonly encountered disease in the rural areas. It is


generally believed by the farmers as one of the most pressing health problems.

Internal parasites damage the health of goat, causing significant production losses.
In our country, internal parasites are major limiting factor to goat production on pasture.
This is one of the major causes of mortality in pre-weaning stage of goat which results to
reduced kid production. With commercial anthelmintics, the problem on parasitism is
reduced, but the frequent use of synthetic dewormers leave residues on goat carcass
thereby resulting to poor carcass quality and possibly detrimental to human health. Thus,
the use of synthetic dewormers should be limited.

Concern over food safety and health issues has resulted in a shift in the
consumers’ preferences towards meat products with good flavour and with minimal
antibiotics or chemical-based feed additives and dewormers (Booner, 2009). These new
preferences have opened opportunities for the rural farmers to engage in goat production
using herbal plants.

The use of the herbal plants like lagundi and banaba is very popular due to its
beneficial effects in human and animals as well. Both lagundi and banaba have an anti
worms property that can be used as alternative for commercial dewormers. In addition,
lagundi and banaba are found to be safe, effective and of less risk to consumers.

Through this research, different species of parasites that affect goat at different
ages are identified. In addition, problems on parasitism will be reduced through the use of
herbal anthelmintics. Likewise, chevon would be freed from harmful residues hence,
production of quality and safe meat can be produced leaving no detrimental effects to end
consumers.

The general objective of the study was to test and evaluate the efficacy of lagundi
and banaba fresh leavers extract against gastro-intestinal parasites of goat and compare
with the commercial dewormer. Specifically, it aims to identify the species of parasites
prevalent to grower and mature goat; determine what species and life stages of gastro-
intestinal parasites are lagundi and banaba leaves extracts are considered effective; and
determine how economical are lagundi and banaba anthelmintics.

The study focused on the identification of the species of gastro-intestinal parasites


prevalent to grower and mature goats, parasitic loads, efficacy of the fresh leaves extracts
of lagundi and banaba in terms of egg output, hatchability of gastro-intestinal parasites of
the two life stages of goat at single administration of commercial dewormer and two
administrations in the test extracts and to determine how economical to use test extracts
as dewormer.

The study was conducted on January to February, 2009 at the Cagayan Valley
Integrated Research Center (CVIARC) Goat Project, Baligatan, Ilagan, Isabela

METHODOLOGY

A total of 36 experimental native goats positive from internal parasites infestation


of different stages (grower and mature) were used in the study. Experimental birds were
confined with two animals per cage and fed with freshly cut forages with free access of
clean water.

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Fresh mature leaves of banaba and lagundi were collected and used in the study.
Leaves were properly cleaned, chopped, osterized and squeezed with clean cheese cloth.
Extracted juice were placed in a clean amber colored reagent bottle and stored in the
refrigerator.

Positive animals from internal parasites infestation were used in the experiment.
Fecal samples collected were subjected into larval culture to test the viability of the
parasitic eggs. Experimental animals were treated with lagundi and banaba fresh leaves
extracts with a dose of 2 ml. per kilogram body weight and commercial dewormer
(Albendazole) with 1 ml. per 20 kilogram body weight. Herbal and commercial
dewormers were given orally using disposable syringes. The frequency of administration
in the two leaves extracts was once a day for two days and once a day for commercial
dewormer.

After the administration of the test extracts, fecal samples were collected on the
12th, 24th, 48th, 72nd, and 144th hours. Collected fecal samples were subjected for fecalysis
and larval culture. In the identification of gastro-intestinal parasites of goats, two
fecalysis methods were used, the floatation and sedimentation techniques.

The study followed a two factor experiment in a split plot design with Factor A,
dewormers (plant extracts and commercial dewormer) and Factor B, the life stages of
goat (grower and matured) as the sub factor. Each treatment combination was replicated
three times with two goats each and laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD).

The different treatments were as follows:

FACTORS A (Dewormers) FACTOR B (Life Stages of Goat)


T1 – Commercial Dewormer (Albendazole) G – Grower
T2 – Banaba leaves extract (BLE)
T3 – Lagundi leaves extract (LLE) M – Matured

The data collected during the study includes the species of gastro-intestinal
parasites, parasitic loads, efficacy of the test extracts, larval identification, and return
above dewormer costs. The efficacy of the extracts against gastro-intestinal parasites of
goat was evaluated by using the following criteria:

RATING DESCRIPTION
91 % - 100 % Highly effective
81 % - 90 % Moderately effective
71 % - 80 % Effective
70 % below Ineffective
Source: Manuel, et.al (1990)

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The data collected were analyzed using the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for
two factor experiment following split design with Factor A and Factor B as dewormers
and life stages of goat, respectively. The Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was
used to compare the means whether or not there is a significant difference among
treatment means.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Species of Gastro-intestinal Parasites

Prior to the administration of the test extracts, fecal samples of the experimental
animals were examined through the use of floatation and sedimentation techniques to
identify the species of the internal parasites present in the tested animals.

In sedimentation technique, no parasites were observed. On the other hand,


roundworms (nematode) and tapeworms (cestode) were identified in floatation
techniques as shown in Table 1. Table 1 also shows the species, classification and egg
count of internal parasites of goat during fecal examination. There were four (4) species
of nematodes of gastro-intestinal parasites that were identified that includes the
Haemonchus spp., Strongyloides spp., Cooperia spp., and Trichuris spp.. Only one
species of cestode or tapeworm was identified which is Monieza spp..

Table 1. Identified species of internal parasites of goats at different


growth stages through floatation technique

GROWTH
STAGES PARASITE CLASSIFICATIO EGG COUNT RANK
OF GOAT SPECIES N
Haemonchus spp. Nematode 10,200 3rd
Strongyloides spp. Nematode 12,500 2nd
Grower Cooperia spp. Nematode 85,000 1st
Trichuries spp. Nematode 100 5th
Monieza spp. Cestodes 4,300 4th
Haemonchus spp. Nematode 22,100 3rd
Strongyloides spp. Nematode 31,700 2nd
Matured Cooperia spp. Nematode 55,900 1st
Trichuris spp. Nematode 100 5th
Monieza spp. Cestodes 2,200 4th

Among the parasites identified, Cooperia spp. is the most dominant followed by
Strongyloides spp., Haemonchus spp., Monieza spp., Monieza spp. and Trichuris spp..

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The findings on the number of parasites present in the experimental goats agree
with the statement of Urquhart (1987) that the genus Cooperia is the most numerous
Trichostrongyle present in ruminant animals. This was further confirmed by Johnson
(2006) stating that kids/growers are more susceptible to tapeworm (Monieza spp.). This
implies that both grower and matured goats were infested with the same species of
internal parasites.

Parasitic Loads

Parasitic loads of each animal were computed by multiplying the number of eggs
expelled by 100. Parasitic load of animals were categorized into three: light, moderate
and heavy.

Animals with light parasitic load have an egg count of below 500 eggs. Its effect
to animal is lesser, tolerable and do not need any treatment. On the other hand, in
moderate infestation, parasitic eggs are above 500 eggs but less than 1,000 eggs. Parasitic
signs were observed but its effect is not severe. In heavy infestation, parasitic eggs are
above 1,000 eggs and the sign of parasitism are severe. Both moderate and heavy
infestation requires immediate treatment (Frazer, 2001). The parasitic load of the
experimental animals is shown in Table 2.

Table 2. Parasitic loads of experimental goats at different growth stages


prior to the administration of test extracts

CODE TREATMENTS PARASITIC CATEGORY


LOADS
GT1 Grower + Commercial dewormer 3,316.66 Heavy
(Albendazole)
GT2 Grower+ Banaba leaves extract (BLE) 9,233.33 Heavy
GT3 Grower+Lagundi leaves extract (LLE) 6,100.00 Heavy
MT1 Mature + Commercial dewormer 5,750.00 Heavy
(Albendazole)
MT2 Matured+ Banaba leaves extract (BLE) 3,733.33 Heavy
MT3 Matured +Lagundi leaves extract (LLE) 4,600.00 Heavy

Table 2 revealed that all experimental animals were heavily parasitized. In grower
goats, Treatment GT2 obtained the highest parasitic load followed by Treatments GT3
and GT1. In matured goats, Treatment MT1 has the highest parasitic burden followed by
Treatments MT3 and MT2.
The parasitic loads of the different treatments regardless of growth stages
recommend parasitic treatment to the animals.

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Accordingly, the age as well as the weight of animals, determines the
susceptibility to parasites (Bedford.extension.psu.edu/agriculture/goat/goatparasites/html
website, 2007). Young animals do not have a deal of immunity to parasites during their
first year at pasture and adult animals are much less susceptible to most parasites unless
they are placed in poor living conditions.

Efficacy of the Banaba and Lagundi Leaves Extract and Commercial Dewormer

The efficacy of the extracts against gastro-intestinal parasites of goat was


evaluated by using the following criteria:

RATING DESCRIPTION
91 % - 100 % Highly effective
81 % - 90 % Moderately effective
71 % - 80 % Effective
70 % below Ineffective
Source: Manuel, et.al (1990)

1. Haemonchus spp.. The comparison of test extracts and commercial dewormer


against Haemonchus spp. egg output at pre- and post-treatment is shown in Table 3.
There was a remarkable decrease of Haemonchus spp.egg output from pre and post –
treatment. The decrease of egg output ranges from 40 to 91.64 percent based on the
criteria set by Manuel (1990). Treatments GT1 and MT3 are ineffective and Treatments
GT3, GT2 and MT2 were rated effective with 79.57, 78.39 and 71.66 percentage efficacy
and Treatment MT1 as highly effective with percentage efficacy of 91.69 percent.

Table 3. Comparison of leaves extracts and commercial dewormer on


Haemonchus spp. egg output at pre and post treatment

GROWTH PRE- POST-


STAGES TREATMENT TREATMENT TREATMENT EFFICIENCY REMARKS
OF GOAT EGG OUTPUT EGG OUTPUT (%)
GT1 1,000.00 599.99 40.00 Ineffective
Grower GT2 833.33 180.00 78.39 Effective
GT3 1,566.70 320.00 79.57 Effective
MT1 5,666.70 473.33 91.64 Highly
Matured effective
MT2 800.00 226.66 71.66 Effective
MT3 900.00 413.33 54.07 Ineffective
Note: Average of the total egg output from 144 hours post administration of test extracts and commercial
dewormer

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According to Kaplan (2005), female Haemonchus spp. produce approximately
5,000 eggs per day and goats can be infected with thousand worms. Moreover, Toledo
(2004) observed that the consistency of the feces eliminated by the animals is one factor
that influence the number of the parasitic eggs detected in the feces. Diarrheic feces often
contain lower number of eggs per gram than the formed feces, due to the effect of
dilution. In addition, the rise and fall of egg output could reflect the functional changes in
the adult worms which depend on host related factors which in turn lead to increase or
decrease in parasites fecundity, According to Johnson (2006), dewormed goats normally
causes death of great numbers of parasites and are shed in the feces (the goat’s gut is
evicted 24 hours) and those that survived at the first dose are still in the gastro-intestinal
tract producing eggs. However, the statistical analysis reveals that there is no significant
difference among the treatment means.

2. Strogyloides spp. Table 4 shows the comparison of the test extracts and
commercial dewormer against Strongyloides spp. egg output at pre and post treatment. In
the table, it presents a remarkable decrease of Strongyloides spp. egg output from pre and
post treatment in Treatments GT1, GT2, GT3 and MT3, while Treatment MT2 egg output
increased. All the treatments were ineffective based on the criteria set by Manuel (1990).

Table 4. Comparison of leaves extracts and commercial dewormer on


Strongyloides spp. egg output at pre and post treatment

GROWTH PRE- POST-


STAGES TREATMENT TREATMENT TREATMENT EFFICIENCY REMARKS
OF GOAT EGG EGG OUTPUT (%)
OUTPUT
GT1 1,200.00 406.66 66.11 Ineffective
Grower GT2 1,566.66 579.99 62.97 Ineffective
GT3 1,400.00 673.33 51.90 Ineffective
MT1 1,366.66 1,066.66 21.94 Ineffective
Matured MT2 1,100.00 2,566.66 -133.33 Ineffective
MT3 8,100.00 4,426.66 45.34 Ineffective
Note: Average of the total egg output from 144 hours post administration of test extracts and commercial
dewormer

It was noted that there was an increase in egg output in Treatment MT2 which
maybe due to increase in female fecundity as observed by Toledo (2004). Likewise, the
decrease in egg output in Treatments GT1, GT2, and GT3 maybe due to sub-lethal
anthelmintic doses given to the experimental goats (www/medscape.com/
medline/abstract/9413114, 2009). Accordingly, the factors that can influence the
occurrence, recognition or number of helminthes eggs found in a fecal sample include:
fertile females as influenced by host-physiological factors such as stress, lactation and
immunity, chemotherapy can also affect the egg production, e.g. corticosteroid, (increase)
or sublethal anthelmintic dose (decreased), and some feedstuff that are tannin rich

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(decreased). In addition, the concentration of eggs is influenced by the volume of feces
being produced by the host, the rate of passage by the ingesta through the intestine, and
the distribution of eggs throughout the fecal mass.

Paolini (2003) also observed that the administration of tannins was associated
with a significant decrease in egg excretion due to significant decrease of female parasite
fecundity. In the study of Johnson (2006), he concluded that dewormed goats normally
causes death of great numbers of parasites and are shed in the feces (the goat’s gut is
evicted in 24 hours) and those that survived at the first dose are still in the gastro-
intestinal tract producing eggs.

The statistical analysis of the study reveals that there is no significant difference
among the treatment means.

3. Cooperia spp.. The comparison of the test extracts and commercial dewormer
against Cooperia spp. egg output at pre and post treatment is shown in Table 5. In the
table, it shows that there was a remarkable decrease of Cooperia spp. egg output from pre
and post administration of dewormers. Based on the criteria set by Manuel (1990), the
Treatments’ percent efficiency ranges from 58.86 to 95.28 percent, with Treatment MT1
as ineffective and Treatment GT2 as highly effective. The statistical analysis however,
reveals that there is no significant difference among the treatment means.

Table 5. Comparison of leaves extracts and commercial dewormer


on Cooperia spp. egg output at pre and post treatment

GROWTH PRE- POST-


STAGES TREATMENT TREATMENT TREATMENT EFFICIENCY REMARKS
OF GOAT EGG EGG OUTPUT (%)
OUTPUT
GT1 4,333.33 1,046.66 75.84 Effective
Grower Highly
GT2 15,966.67 753.33 95.28
Effective
GT3 8,033.33 1,419.99 82.32 Moderately
Effective
MT1 4,100.00 1,686.66 58.86 Ineffective
Matured Moderately
MT2 5,400.00 9,133.33 83.08
Effective
MT3 9,133.33 1,613.33 82.33 Moderately
Effective
Note: Average of the total egg output from 144 hours post administration of test extracts and commercial
dewormer

The decrease in egg output in all treatments was due to sub-lethal anthelmintic
doses given to the experimental goats (www/medscape.com/medline/abstract 9413114,
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2009). This is confirmed by Paolini (2003), stating the administration of tannins was
associated with a significant decrease in egg excretion due to significant decrease of
female parasite fecundity.

4. Monieza spp.. The comparison of the test extracts and commercial dewormer
against Monieza spp. egg output at pre and post treatment is shown in Table 6. It shows a
remarkable decrease of Monieza spp. egg output in grower goats from pre and post
treatment. The percentage efficacy range from 75 to 100 percent and rated as effective to
highly effective. This is in contrast to matured goats whose percentage efficacy ranges
from -219 to 19.19 percent with ineffective effects based on the criteria set by Manuel
(1990).

Table 6. Comparison of leaves extracts and commercial dewormer on


Monieza spp. egg output at pre and post treatment

GROWTH PRE- POST-


TREATMENT EFFICIENCY REMARKS
STAGES TREATMENT TREATMENT
OF GOAT EGG EGG OUTPUT (%)
OUTPUT
GT1 133.33 0.00 100.00 Highly
Grower Effective
GT2 133.33 33.33 75.00 Effective
GT3 Highly
1,166.66 46.66 96.00
Effective
MT1 366.66 433.33 -18.18 Ineffective
Matured MT2 166.66 133.33 19.99 Ineffective
MT3 200.00 639.99 -219.99 Ineffective
Note: Average of the total egg output from 144 hours post administration of test extracts and commercial
dewormer

It was observed in grower goats that the effect of the test extracts and commercial
dewormer ranges from effective to highly effective. This was possible because the
parasites present in the grower goat were not yet resistant to the dewormer administered.
The effects of the test extracts to matured goats were ineffective. This is due to the
development of drug resistant parasites. According to Urquharts (1987), there is an
increasing prevalence of drug resistant strains of many parasites which means frequent
used of commercial dewormers will no longer be effective to internal parasites. These are
commonly observed in matured animals; that is, certain parasites have developed a
resistance to such deworming products as Benzimidazole, Levamisole and even
Ivermectin because of too frequent use. The statistical analysis however, reveals that
there is no significant difference among the treatment means.

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Hatchability and Identification of Parasitic Eggs and Larva

Before and after the administration of the test extracts and commercial
dewormers, fecal samples were subjected to larval culture for the duration of seven days
to identify the parasitic larva and at the same time, the effect of the different dewormers
in the eggs of parasites. Based on the larval culture done before and after the
administration of the test dewormers, it reveals that the eggs of Haemonshus spp. and
Strongyloides spp. hatched from both matured and grower goats while the Cooperia spp.
and Monieza spp. eggs failed to hatched. This means that the test extracts and the
commercial dewormer have no ovicidal and larvicidal effects. According to Urquhart
(1987), hatching of parasitic eggs is controlled by factors such as temperature and
moisture of the environment. In addition, the three layers of the egg shell include the
inner, middle, and outer membrane that are impermeable, tough, rigid, thick and sticky
which prevents the penetration of the dewormers.

Return Above Dewormer Costs

The costs of dewormers administered to the test animals were computed. Initially,
the weights of the animals were taken to identify the amount of dewormers administered
to the animals. The dose of commercial dewormer (Albendazole) was 1 ml/20 kg. body
weight and in banaba and lagundi leaves extracts is 2ml/kg. body weight. The cost of
commercial dewormer per millilitre is Php 10.00 while in leaves extracts is Php
10.00/1000 ml. of extracts. Table 7 shows the cost of dewormer consumed in every
treatment.

Table 7. Cost of test extracts and commercial dewormer in the study

GROWTH TREATMENTS COST/ANIMAL TOTAL RANK


STAGES OF COST
GOAT
GT1 3.35 20.10 1st
Grower GT2 1.33 8.00 3rd
GT3 1.36 8.20 2nd
MT1 9.33 56.00 1st
Matured MT2 3.36 20.20 2nd
MT3 3.33 20.00 3rd

In all the treatments, GT1 and MT1 both commercial dewormers are more
expensive compared to the two treatments on lagundi and banaba leaves extracts.

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CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This study sought to test and evaluate the efficacy of lagundi and banaba fresh
leaves extract against gastro-intestinal parasites of goat and compare it with the
commercial dewormer. Specifically, it aimed to identify the species of parasites prevalent
to grower and mature goat, determine what species and life stages of gastro-intestinal
parasites are lagundi and banaba leaves extract considered effective, find out the effects
of the test extracts on the fluid and forage consumption of goat, and determine how
economical are lagundi and banaba as anthelmintics. The data collected includes species
of gastro-intestinal parasites, parasitic loads, efficacy of the test extracts, hatchability of
parasitic eggs, fluid and feed consumption and return above dewormer costs. This was
analyzed using the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for two-factor experiment, following
split design with Factor A as dewormers and Factor B, the life stages of goat and the
Duncans’ Multple Range test (DMRT) were used to find out whether or not there is a
significant difference among treatment means.

The treatments used were as follows: GT1 (Control) – Grower goats administered
with Valbazen (Albendazole); GT2 – Grower goats administered with Banaba leaves
extract (BLE); GT3 – Grower goats administered with Lagundi leaves extract (LLE);
MT1 (Control) – Matured goats administered with Valbazen (Albendazole); MT2 –
Matured goats administered with BLE; and MT3 – Matured goats administered with
LLE.

There were five species of gastro-intestinal parasites were identified in both


stages of goat, these include the Haemonchus spp., Strongyloides spp., Cooperia spp.,
Trichuries spp., and Monieza spp.. Among the parasites identified, Cooperia spp. is the
most abundant followed by Strongyloides spp., Haemonchus spp., Monieza spp., and
Trichuries spp.. The parasitic loads of the experimental animals were rated as heavily
parasitized. However, no significant differences were noted in terms of egg output in
Haemonchus spp., Strongyloides spp., Cooperia and Monieza spp..

In terms of efficiency of the leaves extracts and commercial dewormer against


Haemonchus spp., the Treatments GT2, GT3 and MT2 were rated effective and
Treatment MT1 was rated highly effective. In Cooperia spp., the efficacy of Treatment
GT1 was effective, Treatments MT2, MT3 and GT3 moderate effective and Treatment
GT2 highly effective. Lastly, in Monieza spp. Treatments GT1 and GT3 were rated as
highly effective and GT2 effective. The study also revealed that, in larval culture, there
were no ovicidal and larvicidal effects of the test extracts and commercial dewormer in
parasitic eggs.

The cost of commercial dewormer was much higher compared to banaba and
lagundi leaves extracts.

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CONCLUSIONS

Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions were made:
1. Both the grower and matured goats are infested with the same species of internal
parasites namely the Haemonchus spp., Strongyloides spp., Cooperia spp., Trichuries
spp., and Monieza spp.;
2. The lagundi and banaba leaves extracts and commercial dewormer have the same
effects in terms of egg output;

3. The fluid and forage consumption of matured goats is much higher than grower goats;
4. The potential of the adult parasites to lay eggs were reduced but the test extracts and
commercial dewormer have no effects in parasitic eggs and larva; and

5. It is more economical to use lagundi and banaba leaves extracts due to its cost, wide
margin of safety to animals and low risk in terms of drug residues.

RECOMMENDATIONS

The researcher recommends the following:


1. Immediate anti-parasitic treatment should be administered to the test animals to control
or eliminate parasitism;

2. Since development of dewormer resistant parasites were observed, alternate use of


dewormers is highly recommended;

3. With the “see-saw” trend of parasitic egg output, the frequency or the interval of
administration of the test extracts and commercial dewormer should be done in short
intervals to prolong the effects of dewormers; and

4. Further study should be made on:


a. different doses of lagundi and banaba leaves extracts;
b. frequency of administration of lagundi and banaba leaves extracts;
c. combination of lagundi and banaba leaves extracts as dewormers; and
d. the use of different species of test or experimental animals.

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Booner, L. 2009. The essentials of parasite control. Available from Equisearch.com/


horses_care/health/deworming /parasite control_072408. Accessed on January 29,
2009

Frazer, C.M. 1991. The Merck Veterinary Manual, 7th Edition. Merck and Co., Inc.
Rahway N.J. USA.

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Johnson, R. 2006. Observations on goat parasites and their control. Pine Cone Valley
Goats, International Dairy Goat Industry. University of Tennessee at Knoxville.
www.goat-idgr.com/default. Aspx?tabid=93.

Kaplan, R.M. 2005. Responding to the emergence of multiple drug resistant,


Haemonchus contortus: Smart Drenching and FAMACHA. Department of
Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia
Athens, Georgia 30602.

Manuel, V.Y. 1990. Parasitic diseases of ruminant in the Philippines. Philippine Journal
of Veterinary Medicine. Philippines.

Paolin, V., J.P, Bergeaud, C. Grisez., Prevot Dorchies and H. Hoste. 2003. Effects of
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Toledo, R. 2005. Parasitic control in sheep: Biologic approaches for the new millennium.
Available from the homeearthlink.net/fredsheepbreeders/pest/ parasitecontrol
biologic. Accessed on January 29, 2009

Urquhart, G.M. 1987. Veterinary Parasitology. Bath Press Avon. England.

_____2007. Goat parasites. Available from Bedford.extension.psu. edu/agriculture/goat/


goat parasites.html. Accessed on November 15, 2007.

_____2009. A survey of anthelmintic resistance in nematode of sheep. Available from


www.medscape.com/medline/abstract/9413114. Accessed on January 29, 2009

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