You are on page 1of 53

Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia.

SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler


Operations & Maintenance Manual

SARANGANI ENERGY
CORPORATION

SM200-PROJECT 1×100MW
CFB BOILER

SECTION 1
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CFB BOILERS

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 1 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................ 4
2 PROCESS DESCRIPTION ............................................................................................................... 4
2.1 Principle of fluidized bed boiler ............................................................................................................ 4
2.2 Advantages of the CFB boiler............................................................................................................... 4
2.3 Description of the CFB Compact .......................................................................................................... 4
3 COMBUSTION OF FUELS .............................................................................................................. 6
3.1 Type of combustion ............................................................................................................................ 6
3.2 Requirement for combustion ................................................................................................................ 6
3.3 Principal combustion constituents of a fuel ............................................................................................. 6
3.4 Factors affecting the combustion process ............................................................................................... 7
3.5 The combustion cycle.......................................................................................................................... 7
3.6 Fuel and mixing ................................................................................................................................. 8
3.7 Properties of fuels ............................................................................................................................... 8
3.8 Fuel characteristics ............................................................................................................................. 8
3.9 Coal characteristics ............................................................................................................................. 9
3.10 The combustion of coal ..................................................................................................................... 10
3.11 Coal sizing for the Foster Wheeler CFB boiler ...................................................................................... 10
4 THERMAL CYCLING OF BOILER ............................................................................................... 11
5 FUEL COMPOSITION................................................................................................................... 11
6 EXCESS O2 TRIM CONTROL AND OXYGEN ANALYZERS ........................................................ 13
7 EMISSIONS ................................................................................................................................... 14
7.1 SO2 emissions ................................................................................................................................. 14
7.2 NOx emissions ................................................................................................................................. 14
7.3 Combustible material emissions .......................................................................................................... 14
7.4 Particulate emissions ......................................................................................................................... 14
8 CFB COMPACT BOILER OPERATION SYSTEMS ....................................................................... 14
8.1 CFB Compact boiler ......................................................................................................................... 14
8.2 Boiler water system .......................................................................................................................... 15
9 WATER TO STEAM CONVERSION.............................................................................................. 15
9.1 Properties of steam and water ............................................................................................................. 15
9.2 Pressure and temperature relationship .................................................................................................. 15
9.3 Steam drum internals ........................................................................................................................ 16
9.4 Superheater system ........................................................................................................................... 16
10 SAFETY VALVES.......................................................................................................................... 17
10.1 Function of safety valves ................................................................................................................... 17
10.2 Location .......................................................................................................................................... 17
10.3 Opening Sequence ............................................................................................................................ 18
10.4 Operation ........................................................................................................................................ 18
10.5 Exhaust Piping Arrangement .............................................................................................................. 18
10.6 Inspection ........................................................................................................................................ 18
10.7 Safety ............................................................................................................................................. 18
10.8 Valve Gags OR Locking nut .............................................................................................................. 19
11 COMBUSTION AIR SYSTEM........................................................................................................ 19
11.1 Primary air (PA) ............................................................................................................................... 19
11.2 Secondary air (SA) ........................................................................................................................... 19
11.3 High pressure air (HP air) .................................................................................................................. 19
12 FLUE GAS SYSTEM ...................................................................................................................... 19
13 BOILER COMPONENTS ............................................................................................................... 20
13.1 Combustion chamber ........................................................................................................................ 20
13.2 Grid ................................................................................................................................................ 20
13.3 Lower part of the combustion chamber ................................................................................................ 20
13.4 Upper part of the combustion chamber ................................................................................................ 20
13.5 Separator ......................................................................................................................................... 21
13.6 Wall seal ......................................................................................................................................... 21
13.7 Convection section ........................................................................................................................... 21
13.8 Superheaters .................................................................................................................................... 21
13.9 Economizer ..................................................................................................................................... 21
13.10 Air heaters ....................................................................................................................................... 21
13.11 Seismic stops ................................................................................................................................... 21
13.12 Buckstays ........................................................................................................................................ 22
Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 2 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1
Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

14 FUEL FEEDING SYSTEM ............................................................................................................. 22


15 BURNER SYSTEM ........................................................................................................................ 22
15.1 Inline Duct Burner System ................................................................................................................. 22
15.2 Design Features ............................................................................................................................. 23
16 SOOTBLOWING SYSTEM ............................................................................................................ 23
17 FLY ASH REINJECTION SYSTEM ............................................................................................... 24
17.1 Ash hoppers ..................................................................................................................................... 24
17.2 Dust collector................................................................................................................................... 24
17.3 Ash removal .................................................................................................................................... 24
18 BOTTOM ASH REMOVAL SYSTEM ............................................................................................ 24
19 BED MATERIAL SYSTEM ............................................................................................................ 25
20 LIMESTONE FEEDING ................................................................................................................ 26
21 INSTRUMENT AIR SYSTEM ........................................................................................................ 26
21.1 General design requirements .............................................................................................................. 26
21.2 Mechanical description ...................................................................................................................... 26
21.3 Functional description ....................................................................................................................... 27
22 AUXILIARY STEAM PIPING SYSTEM......................................................................................... 27
22.1 General design requirements .............................................................................................................. 27
22.2 Mechanical description ...................................................................................................................... 27
22.3 Functional description ....................................................................................................................... 27
23 DRAINS, VENTS AND BLOWDOWN ............................................................................................ 27
24 USE OF BED TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER AND BED THERMOCOUPLE MAINTENANCE . 28
25 USE OF BED PRESSURE CONTROL AND BED PRESSURE TAP MAINTENANCE...................... 28
25.1 Bed pressure tap maintenance ............................................................................................................. 29
26 BLACK PLANT TRIP (LOSS OF POWER) .................................................................................... 29
26.1 Purpose ........................................................................................................................................... 29
26.2 Definition ........................................................................................................................................ 30
26.3 General conditions ............................................................................................................................ 30
26.4 Concerns ......................................................................................................................................... 30
26.5 Procedure ........................................................................................................................................ 31
27 GLOSSARY OF TERMS ................................................................................................................ 32
28 GENERAL ..................................................................................................................................... 45
29 SITE CONDITIONS ....................................................................................................................... 45
30 BOILER DESIGN CRITERIA ........................................................................................................ 46
31 FEED WATER QUALITY TO BOILER.......................................................................................... 47
32 COOLING WATER ....................................................................................................................... 47
33 AUXILIARY STEAM ...................................................................................................................... 47
34 PRESSURIZED AIR....................................................................................................................... 47
35 ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS............................................................................................................... 48
36 DESIGN FUELS............................................................................................................................. 48
37 START-UP AND SUPPORT FUELS ............................................................................................... 50
38 LIMESTONE ................................................................................................................................. 50
39 SAND ............................................................................................................................................. 51
39.1 General .......................................................................................................................................... 53
39.2 Heating surfaces ............................................................................................................................ 53

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 3 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler International Trading Company Ltd. SM200-Project 1×410T/Hr CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

1 INTRODUCTION
This document presents the general functional description of the coal fired Foster Wheeler CFB
boiler. The goal of the document is to provide general information about the operating principles of
the CFB technology and the different systems needed for complete boiler plant. The data shown in
the document is a congruent with the design parameters and technical solutions of the SM200 1X
410 t/hr CFB boiler. More detailed and project specific technical information can be found from the
System Descriptions of the SM200 project.

2 PROCESS DESCRIPTION
2.1 Principle of fluidized bed boiler
Fluidizing is achieved by blowing air through the bed material lying on the grid (air distributor).
Fluidizing beds can be divided into four categories. The type of fluidizing bed is dependent on the
air velocity in the bed. As the velocity is increased the bed changes from fixed, through bubbling
and turbulent, to circulating.

Bubbling beds operate at superficial velocities of less than about 2…3 m/s, there is also a distinct
visible bed level.

Above this minimum velocity the bed expands more and particles become entrained in the flue gas
and are carried out of the bed. There is no longer a distinct visible bed level, but the bed become less
and less dense through to the combustion chamber. The coarser entrained particles are separated in a
hot separator and returned back to the bed. This is the circulating fluidized bed (CFB) principle on
which CFB boilers operate. Typical superficial velocities are 4.5...5 m/s. typically combustion takes
place at about 850…900 C bed temperature.

For fuels containing little ash, sand is used to form the bed material. If the fuel contains sulphur,
limestone is often added to capture the sulphur and in this case the limestone together with the fuel
ash may form the bed material.

2.2 Advantages of the CFB boiler


 can burn a wide range of low grade fuels, due to the large heat capacity and mixing of the bed
 high combustion efficiency, due to turbulent mixing and long residence time in the circulating
bed
 low SO2 emissions, due to ease of sulphur retention with limestone at ideal temperatures
 low NOx emissions, due to low bed temperature and staged combustion
 low CO and CxHy emissions, due to turbulent condition and long residence time and mixing in
the separator
 stable operating conditions and boiler response due to the high heat transfer from the circulating
material
 good turn down rates due to heat transfer being approximately proportional to load. No need to
slump section of the bed at low loads
 no need for in-bed tubes which are subject to erosion
 fewer fuel feed points due to better mixing in the bed compared to bubbling beds.

2.3 Description of the CFB Compact


2.3.1 CFB compact Technology

The most essential feature of the CFB Compact design is its unconventional solids separator which
is fabricated with straight panel wall. These straight panels are used in both the hot separator and in
Company: FWPGA Page 4 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1 Section: ONE
Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

the solids return channels. The use of panel walls in the separator is based on its patented rectangular
configuration. Gas and solids flow into the separator from the combustor through an inlet channel,
and gas flows out from the separator through cylindrical vortex finders. The separated solids fall to
the bottom of the device and are returned to the furnace. The gas flow in the separator is a swirling
vortex type despite the rectangular cross section of the separator. Due to the centrifugal effect, solid
particles are swept to the separator walls and continue to flow along the wall surface. In the corners
of the separator, the particle from dense concentrations. This phenomenon promotes particle stream
separation and helps the particles to fall to the bottom of the separator for return to the furnace.

Picture No.1: WALL SEAL

Temperature
measurement

In the return channel, the normal wall seal system is replaced by another patented innovation, the so
called wall seal which allows solids to return to the furnace and effectively prevents the gas flow
upstream. The wall seal openings are fabricated in the straight cooled furnace wall panels which are
protected against erosion with a thin layer of refractory around the openings. The basic structure of a
wall seal is presented in Picture No. 1. As shown in the figure, the wall seal design requires minimal
space and the amount of refractory is minimized.

2.3.2 The Benefits of the CFB Compact


The main benefits of the CFB Compact design are derived from the cooled panel wall structure used
for the whole CFB system. The separator and return channel system are integrated with the furnace
and connected into the same water-steam circuit. This construction saves space and operates at the
same temperature thus avoiding differential thermal expansion. Consequently, no bellows are
required between the furnace and the Compact separator and return channel.

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 5 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

Cooled walls eliminate the need for multilayer, insulating refractories which are exposed to high
temperature gradients and thus may require maintenance. Thin, single layer refractories are used in
the CFB Compact only in the locations that may be susceptible to wear of the metal surface. These
thin refractories are cooled by the panel walls and the design has been proven in long term operation.
This enables fast changes in process conditions and eliminates any limitations of start-up times due
to thick refractories.

The high quality manufacturing of panel walls is routine work that is carried out at most boiler
works. This manufacturing is usually done using automatic welding machines. With the CFB
Compact design most manufacturing can be completed in the shop thus reducing the construction
time and risks of unexpected delays.

3 COMBUSTION OF FUELS
Combustion is defined as the rapid chemical combination of oxygen with combustible elements of a
fuel resulting in the release of heat energy and light.

Analysis for guarantee coal as well as design range for coal and coal PSD are given in section 41 of
this document.

3.1 Type of combustion


Oxidation is the simplest form of combustion. Oxygen combines with elements, such as iron, to
form an oxide we know as rust. Silver tarnishes; copper takes on a greenish coating. This process is
a very slow form of combustion. Oxidation takes place on many parts of the boiler, such as tube
metal surfaces, air and gas ducts, air heaters and ID fans.

Spontaneous combustion is a process where, under some conditions, combustion may be


self-starting. Fires resulting from spontaneous combustion occur occasionally in coal yard piles,
storage bins (silos) and bunkers. Coal piled outdoors combines slowly with oxygen in the air and
moisture, producing a chemical reaction and giving off heat. If the heat does not dissipate fast
enough, temperatures rise and the reaction speeds up until it eventually becomes a burning fire.
Normally, the combustion process begins when you apply heat (ignition energy) to a fuel in the
presence of oxygen. Flammability of a fuel depends on how easy it turns into a gas unless it is in a
gaseous form already.

With the exception of solid carbon, most fuels burn from a gaseous state. Part of the fuel introduced
to a furnace as a liquid or solid will vaporize due to the heat in the furnace. This vapor will ignite
readily and rapidly, and supply heat for the combustion of the solid carbon. The combustion of
carbon will take place at a slower rate and, therefore, requires more time in the presence of heat and
oxygen have complete combustion.

3.2 Requirement for combustion


There are three factors or conditions necessary to produce combustion. These conditions are 1) the
presence of a fuel (a combustible material), 2) enough oxygen to support combustion and 3) enough
heat to bring the fuel to its ignition temperature and keep it there. These three requirements are all
necessary for combustion to occur. If you remove any one, there will no longer be a fire.

3.3 Principal combustion constituents of a fuel


Fossil power plant fuels (coal, oil and gas) have the same basic combustible components: carbon,
hydrogen and sulfur. In combustion, the carbon and hydrogen are the major elements. They burn and
form CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) and water vapor. Sulfur forms corrosive compounds that are released in
the combustion process.
Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 6 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1
Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

SO2, sulfur dioxide, forms an acid when mixed with water. Other elements contained in fuels may be
considered as impurities which can affect ash accumulations throughout the boiler.

Air is the usual source of oxygen for combustion. Air is a diluted source of oxygen and this is of
considerable significance in furnace design and operation. Oxygen makes up about 21 percent of air
by volume. Oxygen is the only active element in air necessary for combustion. A large amount of
nitrogen in air (about 80 percent) performs no useful duty in the burning process. Nitrogen, when
exposed to high temperature, forms NOx (nitrogen oxide), a form of air pollution. Air also contains
a small amount of water vapor.

Heat must be present to cause ignition. Ignition is raising a substance to the minimum temperature at
which combustion becomes self-sustaining. The temperature at which this begins is known as
ignition temperature. Until this point is reached, an external source of ignition energy is needed.
Natural gas or fuel oil is generally the medium for ignition energy on Foster Wheeler CFB boilers.

High energy igniters (like spark plugs) electrically ignite small quantities of gas or fuel oil for initial
flame (heat). This ignition then supplies ignition energy to ignite the main flow of natural gas or fuel
oil that increases bed temperatures to the point where solid fuel can be introduced and ignited.

3.4 Factors affecting the combustion process


You must atomize fuel oil into small particles which, when heated and mixed with air (oxygen), will
vaporize into a gas and ignite. Natural gas is very clean burning. Supplied at the proper pressure and
mixed with the correct amount of air, it ignites more easily than oil or lignite. You must dry lignite
and crush it to the proper size. Lignite is burned in suspension within the combustion chamber of the
boiler.

3.5 The combustion cycle


Enough air must be present for combustion to take place in the combustor. Primary and secondary
air fans supply combustion air to the combustion chamber. Primary and secondary air is heated in
the tubular air heater before entering the combustor. On balanced draft boilers, the resulting
combustion gas and any excess air is removed from the furnace by the induced draft (ID) fan.

Air entering and flue gas leaving the combustor are measured in kg/s.

Fuel entering a combustor requires a definite quantity of air to complete combustion. This is the
"theoretical air" required for complete combustion under perfect conditions, also called 100 percent
total air. However, you must use more air than the theoretical amount to assure complete combustion
in the imperfect conditions of the steam generator.

Excess Air is the term used to describe what is more than theoretical air. You would not require
excess air if it were possible to have a perfect mixture of fuel/air for combustion.

Excess air is not involved with the burning process. It merely assures that complete combustion
takes place before leaving the combustor.

Oxygen analyzers measure excess air at the economizer inlet. We usually measure the amount of
free oxygen (O2) in the flue gas product which is the amount of oxygen more than that involved in
combustion.

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 7 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

3.6 Fuel and mixing


Proper mixing of fuel and air is necessary for complete combustion. Combustion is a chemical
process. When you mix oxygen in the air with the carbon, hydrogen and sulfur in the fuel in definite
proportions at the ignition temperature, they will combine to form fire.

Incomplete combustion
Incomplete combustion occurs when a portion of the fuel remains unburned because of not enough
air or improper mixing. To get the greatest efficiency from a boiler, the fuel must burn completely.

If boiler efficiency is rated at 90 percent, then 90 percent of all the heat released when burning a
fuel is absorbed in the various heat absorbing surfaces of the boiler.

Mixing of fuel and air is very important for good combustion. Too much fuel (rich mixture) and not
enough air will cause a high amount of unburned carbon in the ash. Too much excess air (lean
mixture) is not desirable either. It reduces boiler efficiency due to more heat being carried out of the
steam generator by a greater quantity of flue gas. Extra excess air lowers bed temperatures and
reduces heat absorption resulting in less steam output.

The three "T"s of combustion, all necessary for good combustion, are: Time--time to complete the
combustion process; Turbulence--turbulence provides more effective mixing of fuel and air, causes
even heat distribution and fills the entire combustor volume; and Temperature--temperature of the
combustor atmosphere must be kept above ignition temperature. Preheating incoming combustion
air increases temperature of the furnace atmosphere. Ignition temperatures and combustion
temperatures vary with fuel type and preparation.

3.7 Properties of fuels


To be classified as a fuel, a material must contain elements which will combine rapidly with oxygen
to produce combustion. Two of the most common elements found in fuels are carbon and hydrogen.
A common solid fuel for use in steam generation is coal/lignite. The constituents of lignite are
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur nitrogen, moisture and ash. Lignite is formed through geological
changes of vegetal matter. The greater the geological changes the greater amounts of carbon will be
found in the coal.

Coal is classified by grades. The hardest coal is anthracite. Anthracite is very slow to ignite, but
burns very bright at a high temperature. It is rarely used in steam generators. Bituminous coals are
best suited for use in steam generators due to low cost and being very plentiful. Lignite coal usually
has a high ash and moisture content and low heating value.

Natural gas is nearly the perfect fuel since it is free of non-combustibles and any ash products.
Methane and ethane are its principal parts. Hydrogen sulfide is removed at the well due to its
potential to cause pipe line corrosion. Since natural gas is a mixture of several combustible gases, it
ignites rapidly and burns with a short flame.

Engineers design coal fired boilers to burn a specific coal. Furnace size increases dramatically as
heating values of fuel change. Heating surfaces are sized, positioned and spaced according to the
fuel and ash characteristics that will be used at that site.

3.8 Fuel characteristics


To determine various aspects of a fuel, such as its burning characteristics, heating value and amount
of air required for combustion, you must analyze the fuel to find its components or general
composition.

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 8 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

Two types of fuel analysis are proximate analysis and ultimate analysis. Proximate analysis
determines the physical characteristics of solid and liquid fuels, such as the percent of moisture,
volatile material, fixed carbon and high heating value.

The proximate analysis shows, to a certain extent, the behavior of the fuel in the furnace and the best
method of firing such a fuel. In a proximate analysis, three separate fuel samples are heated at
different temperatures to remove separately moisture, volatile materials, fixed carbon and ash.

A more detailed type of analysis is known as an ultimate analysis. An ultimate analysis is a must to
carry out combustion calculations by chemically breaking down the fuel into is elements, such as
carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen and sulfur. By knowing the amounts of carbon, hydrogen and
sulfur contained in a fuel, the heat value can be determined.
3.9 Coal characteristics
Various tests and methods of analysis express coal qualities in figures instead of words. The
following is a brief description of what these terms mean.

Moisture:
All coal contains moisture, from 1 to 5 percent in eastern coals, up to 45 percent in some lignites.
Moisture is in two forms on and in coal. Surface moisture is the moisture that must be evaporated
during crushing to maintain high efficiencies. Inherent moisture is locked in the coal and part of its
molecular structure. It is burned off (vaporized) in the furnace.

Volatile Matter:
Is that portion of combustible gases, such as methane, hydrogen and other hydrocarbons. Since the
quantity of volatile matter shows the amount of gaseous fuel present, it affects firing mechanics,
furnace volume and arrangement of heating surfaces. The speed with which the fuel and air mixture
ignites after leaving the fuel nozzle is affected by the quantity of volatiles present. Heat released by
burning volatiles accelerates the rate of vaporization of fixed carbon to the ignition point.

Fixed Carbon:
The combustible residue left after the volatile matter distills off is called fixed carbon. It is the
carbon portion of coal that requires the most time to burn in the combustor.

Sulfur:
When you burn coal, sulfur oxides are released into the combustion gas stream. In addition to its air
polluting properties, sulfur plays a part in corrosion of air heaters, economizers, ID fans and stacks.
When sulfur oxides combine with water vapor, sulfuric acid is formed. You must keep the flue gas
temperature above the dew point to prevent water vapor from condensing and combining with sulfur
to form acids which are corrosive to metals.

Ash:
Ash is the incombustible mineral matter left behind when coal burns completely. Ash must be
removed from the heat absorbing surfaces and the furnace area. Usually 80 percent of ash formed
during the combustion process of coal leaves the boiler furnace as fly ash. The remaining 20 percent
is called bottom ash.

Higher Heating Value, HHV:


When coal is burned, energy is released. Heating value affects firing rate or quantity of fuel being
burned in the combustor.

Grindability:
Is the ease of crushing a particular type of coal. The Hardgrove Grindability Index is an index or
scale from 20…100 where 20 would be given to very difficult coals to grind and 100, coal that is
very easy to grind. Moisture content and desired fineness affect crusher capacity and performance.

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 9 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

3.10 The combustion of coal


A fraction of a second after you expose a crushed particle of coal to heat, its temperature rises and
the volatile matter distills off and ignites. Enough air is introduced and is intimately mixed with the
stream of fuel particles, to burn the gases distilled off of each particle of coal.

Volatiles ignite more easily than the carbon parts of coal and heat the latter to incandescence. You
can see this when you look into the combustor through the inspection port of the start-up burners.
The chemical energy of each coal particle is transformed into thermal energy and absorbed by the
heat transfer surfaces of the steam generator.

3.11 Coal sizing for the Foster Wheeler CFB boiler


The size of coal introduced into the Foster Wheeler CFB boiler is critical to attain normal designed
operation. Specific coal sizing for your plant is detailed in the Operation & Maintenance Manuals
provided by Foster Wheeler. Bed quality’s correct particle size distribution (PSD) is a key figure for
the economical and environmental CFB boiler operation.

If fuel PSD is too small/fine, it will burn fast and not have the required residence time in the
combustion chamber, also burning in upper part of the furnace.

If the fuel PSD is too large, the material inside the particles may not burn completely and thus there
leave unburned carbon residue in the ash. The larger-than-normal pieces of partly burned fuel may
be removed with bottom ash before giving up all its energy. The oversize fuel PSD increases also
need for bottom ash (BA) discharge capacity when attempting to keep correct bed quality with
increased make up sand feeding. If the bed quality gets worse i.e. too coarse bed, it causes finally
insufficient bed fluidization and improper burning. The actual range of coal PSD for SM200-Project
1×410T/Hr CFB Boiler is stated in Section 41.1 of this document.

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 10 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

4 THERMAL CYCLING OF BOILER


A thermal cycle on an Foster Wheeler CFB boiler is defined as any cycle of temperature within the
hot loop system from Standard Operating Temperature of C to a temperature of C or
less, as measured by bed temperature and separator inlet/outlet flue gas thermocouples, below
Standard Operating Temperature and a later return to Standard Operating Temperature. A thermal
cycle can also be defined as a drop in steam-side/water-side pressure that results in greater than
C change in the steam-side/water-side saturation temperature.

Hot loop system is defined as the circulating fluidized bed material circuit, ie., combustion chamber
to separator to wall seal to combustion chamber.

Standard operating temperature for Foster Wheeler CFB boilers is C, although actual
operating temperatures may vary from about 820 C to 9 C at full boiler load.

Bed temperature is defined as temperature scheme measured with the following method:
1) bed thermocouples through the grid from bottom (about 400 mm above the grid floor)

Primary concern for monitoring boiler thermal cycling is refractory and effects thermal cycling has
on refractory. Refractory is a hard, concrete-like material that expands and contracts with changes in
temperature. It expands with heat and contracts when cooled. Refractory is held in place by metal
refractory anchors welded to the inside metal that is being protected. A light weight insulating
refractory is applied to insulate the metal from heat. This is covered by a layer of hard surface
refractory.

Stress caused by thermal cycling on refractory and the anchor system will cause cracking. These
cracks appear as the boiler cools down. As temperature decreases the cracks widen. As cracks open
they fill with bed material as material circulates within the hot loop.

After shut down for maintenance or annual outage (a thermal cycle), these cracks begin to close
when refractory is heated and expands. Refractory goes into compression. Compression on
refractory surfaces may exceed compression strength of refractory material. Breaking off or
"spalling" may occur or stress on the anchor system may cause failure of the support system.
Another problem caused by this cycling is lifting or "jacking" of the refractory liner away from the
anchor system leaving a void between refractory and metal exterior. The void created by jacking will
fill with bed material.

When this type of failure occurs the exterior metal that was protected by refractory will eventually
get extremely hot (hot spot) and cause an emergency shut down of the boiler.

Recommended heating and cooling rates are specified primarily to lessen stress on all refractory
areas of the boiler. Exceeding these specific rates will cause damage to refractory and costly repairs
will be needed to return the boiler to service.

Thermal cycling of boiler will also stress the steam-side and water-side pressure parts, such as steam
drum and boiler tubing. Piping spring hangers will also show cycling and should be checked for hot
and cold settings. Do not allow pressure in the boiler to decay too rapidly. Keep steam drum vents
closed until pressure has decayed naturally (bottled up) to 1.53…2.04 kg/cm2 in the steam drum.
Then drum vents may be opened if a nitrogen blanket is not going to be applied.

5 FUEL COMPOSITION
Principal coal analysis characteristics are expressed in two terms known as proximate analysis and
ultimate analysis. Proximate analysis shows exact chemical composition of a fuel without reference

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 11 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

to physical form in which the compounds appear. Ultimate analysis provides data needed for
combustion calculations.

Proximate analysis gives a good picture of coal's (lignite) behavior in a furnace. It determines
percent of moisture, ash and volatile matter. It also calculates percent of fixed carbon. Percent of
these four variables must add up to 100 percent. Sulfur content, ash fusion temperature and fuel
heating values are also calculated. Typically, a good fuel for steam generators is high in carbon and
hydrogen content and low in sulphur and ash content.

Operators should know the type of fuel that is being used and the heating value (calorific value) of
that particular fuel.

Three requirements for efficient combustion of fuel are time, temperature and turbulence. Ignition
temperature is the temperature at which more heat is released by chemical reaction with oxygen than
is lost to surroundings. Combustion becomes self-sustaining. Ignition temperatures of several
substances are:
 sulphur C
 carbon C
 hydrogen 580 C
 carbon monoxide 660 C
 methane C.

All coal contains some moisture. This moisture can be in the form of surface moisture which
produces a wet feel to coal and can cause difficulty in coal handling. Coal also has inherent or "bed"
moisture which is trapped in pores inside the coal.

Ash is incombustible mineral matter left behind when coal burns completely. Ash is an impurity in
coal. Some non-combustible materials in ash are vanadium, iron, soda, silica and manganese. The
presence of ash in fuel decreases the heating value because it takes the place of combustible
material.

Volatile matter is that portion of coal which is driven off in gaseous form when fuel is subjected to
temperature. Volatile matter is combustible gases, such as methane and other hydrocarbons,
hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

Fixed carbon is combustible residue left after volatile matter is extracted. It consists mainly of
carbon, but contains some hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen. Sulfur is present in raw coal in
amounts ranging from trace quantities to as much as eight percent. When coal is burned, sulfur
oxides are emitted from the boiler. Presence of sulphur in fuel not only lowers the heating value, but
also gives off unwanted pollutants following combustion.

Friability is tendency of coal to break or crumble into smaller pieces.

Some advantages of using natural gas are: low sulphur content, low ash content, high volatility and
no plant auxiliary equipment or preparation required.

Some disadvantages are: high hydrogen content and extreme explosive nature. The burning of
hydrogen in natural gas results in moisture which leaves the boiler in vapor for. Latent heat loss
increases due to formation of steam in flue gas and increases heat loss through the stack.

(Natural) gas is highly volatile when mixed with oxygen. If it is mixed with air outside the boiler,
rapid combustion or explosion can occur should the mixture be ignited. For this reason, start-up
burner gas lines are purged before and after use.

Fuel feed systems should be watched for leakage. Possible explosions can be avoided by cleanliness.

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 12 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

6 EXCESS O2 TRIM CONTROL AND OXYGEN ANALYZERS


Increased operating and maintenance costs have forced boiler operators to make the most of
expensive fuel by optimizing efficiency of steam generator equipment. Probably the most
cost-effective means of improving boiler efficiency is by controlling excess air levels as measured in
the flue gas to a minimum.

Excess air is necessary in the combustion process. Not only does excess air confirm complete
combustion, it also is required for SO2 capture. It results in a known, but accepted, heat loss.
Excess air is also essential from a safety standpoint.
Without it, the amount of oxygen in the combustor might
drop below theoretical (stoichiometric) air level during There must always
transient conditions, possibly leading to a fuel rich mixture
and possible boiler explosion. be an excess of
Discharge from secondary air fan is distributed around the
oxygen in the boiler
combustion chamber to supply some combustion air at air flue gas for safe
nozzles located at the walls of the combustor.
operation.
Upper secondary air is primarily used for additional
combustion air that helps in "staged" combustion. Staged
combustion is where fuel is ignited at different levels in the combustion chamber. Secondary air is
also used for bed temperature control and excess oxygen trim. Actual secondary air flow to the
combustion chamber is measured by flow elements and transmitters. These values are square rooted,
temperature compensated and summed to provide an equivalent mass flow to the combustion
chamber. Air flow measurement is adjusted by a multiplier to compensate for O2 trim.

Amounts of oxygen in flue gas is sampled and measured by oxygen analyzers located in the back
pass between Superheater 1 and Economizer sections of tube bundles. Each analyzer (if several)
sends an independent signal to the control room where it is checked by the control room operator.
Experienced operators use this information to optimize boiler operations.

These signals are signs of complete combustion and excess air. Safe and cost effective operation
should be the goal of everyone concerned. Oxygen analyzers need to be recalibrated with test gas
regularly. Recalibration should be done at least every three weeks or whenever the O2 split
differential between various analyzers) becomes greater than 0.5 percent and fuel distribution is
determined not to be the root cause of excessive O2 split.

Where applicable, after the analyzers have been recalibrated and the O 2 split has not been corrected,
wall seal return leg temperatures should be compared to determine if coal feed is balanced. First, try
to adjust individual air drop air flows to balance temperatures (air to fuel feed). If this fails,
operators may have to adjust SLIGHTLY the coal proportional distribution valves on the conveyors
(if applicable). This requires cooperation between control room and operator in the field adjusting
proportional distribution valves. Minor adjustments at this location can quickly change coal flows to
the wall seal return leg.

You should make only few complete turns on this valve handle at one time. Control room operator
must be checking this activity. Check change in the wall seal return leg temperatures and excess O 2.
Do not make another adjustment for about 10 minutes to allow boiler operation to stabilize. Adjust
as necessary. Record in the log book which valve was turned, number of turns and in which
direction. You may have to reverse the process and try the other proportional valve.
BE CAREFUL! DO NOT RUSH THIS PROCESS!

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 13 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

7 EMISSIONS
7.1 SO2 emissions
The CFB boiler is ideal for meeting current requirements for SO2 emissions. By feeding limestone
into the bed a high sulphur retention rate is achieved with rather low calcium/sulphur molar ratios.
The chemical reactions may be expressed as:

Calcination of limestone:

Heat + CaCO3  CaO + CO2

Sulphation:

CaO + SO2 + ½ O2  CaSO4 + Heat

Sulphur capture is most efficient at a bed temperature of 850 C.

7.2 NOx emissions


Due to the low combustion temperature "thermal" NO formation by oxidation of molecular nitrogen
in the air is negligible. NOx formation due to nitrogen in the fuel is reduced by "staged" combustion.
That is, in the lower part of the bed, combustion takes place under reducing conditions which leads
to the formation of molecular nitrogen N2, instead of NO as in the case with oxidizing conditions.
Additional secondary air to complete the combustion is introduced at higher levels.

By injecting ammonia into the separator, further lower NOx emission levels can be achieved. By
using 25 % NH3 solution the feeding system is very simple consisting of a storage tank, feeding lines
with necessary valves and nozzles at the injection points.

7.3 Combustible material emissions


CO emissions are low due to the turbulent mixing in the bed and mixing in the separator.

Similarly hydrocarbons CxHy and residual unburnt carbon are minimized due to the turbulent mixing
in the bed and longer residence time in the circulating bed type boiler.

7.4 Particulate emissions


Particulate emissions are reduced in the CFB Compact boiler, as in other boilers, by the use of an
electrostatic precipitator or bag house filters after the boiler. Typically separation efficiencies > 99.5
% are achieved.

8 CFB COMPACT BOILER OPERATION SYSTEMS


8.1 CFB Compact boiler
The CFB Compact boiler operates on the circulating bed principle. At high fluidizing velocities
(about 5 m/s) part of the bed material becomes entrained and is carried through the combustion
chamber with the flue gases.

The coarser entrained particles are separated in a water cooled separator and returned via return leg
to the bed. Finest fly ash is carried through the boiler convection sections and separated from the
flue gases in an electrostatic precipitator or bag filter.

Fuel is fed into the fluidized bed via feeding chute. Combustion takes place in the bed at about
840…880 C at full load. The bed material is formed from the fuel ash and sand. Due to the large

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 14 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

heat capacity of the bed, combustion is stable and no supporting fuels are required. The intense
turbulence ensures good mixing and combustion of the fuel. High heat transfer is obtained through
the circulating material which is approximately proportional to load. That is, the boiler has good
response over a wide range of loads with a relatively small excess air factor.

Heat is recovered from the circulated material and flue gases in the water cooled combustion
chamber.
8.2 Boiler water system
Following the economizer the feed water enters the steam drum where it is mixed with the boiler
water. The boiler is a natural circulation boiler and the tubes are arranged so that as the water is
evaporated to steam it is free to rise up into the drum. Unheated downcomer pipes take the water
from the drum to the combustion chamber inlet headers. The combustion chamber wall tubes are
heated by the flue gases and the water is partly evaporated to steam. Water and steam rise through
these tubes back to the steam drum where the steam is separated from the water in separator
separators and the water is returned to the circulating system.

Note! Feed water only replaces the evaporated steam and the amount of water circulating is
much greater than the feed water flow.
9 WATER TO STEAM CONVERSION
9.1 Properties of steam and water
The working medium in the steam generator thermodynamic cycle is water. Water can exist in three
physical states - a solid, liquid or vapor depending on its pressure and temperature. Steam generation
is only concerned with the liquid and vapor forms of water. Steam results from adding enough heat
to water to cause it to vaporize. This occurs in two steps: 1) the addition of heat to water to raise it to
the boiling temperature 2) a continuing addition of heat to change the state from water to steam.

9.2 Pressure and temperature relationship


When you heat water to the boiling point in a closed vessel the vapor released causes the pressure to
increase in the vessel. With the increase in pressure, the temperature at which the water will boil also
increases. The temperature at which water boils at a given pressure is called the "saturation
temperature." For each saturation temperature there is corresponding pressure called the "saturation
pressure."

There are two types of boiling that can occur in steam generators.

Nucleate boiling:
This is the normal boiling process in a boiler by which water is raised to the boiling point and
individual steam bubbles form as water meets the hot tube surface. As these bubbles form and leave
the heated surface, cooler water is present (with proper circulation) to wet the tube surfaces. This
action keeps tube metal temperatures well within allowable limits.

Film boiling:
This condition is present when not enough flow or circulation exists. When this type of boiling
process takes place, steam bubbles form as water meets the hot tube surfaces. They then collect and
burst, forming a film of steam which blocks the path of cooler water to the hot tube surface. If the
tube metal temperature increases above a safe level, damage to the tubes can result. This
phenomenon is called Depart from Nucleate Boiling (DNB).

Saturated Steam:
Saturated steam is steam drenched with all the heat it can hold at the boiling temperature of water.
Dry saturated steam vapor contains very little moisture and is at saturated temperature for the given
pressure. Its total heat content is equal to the heat of the liquid plus the heat of vaporization.

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 15 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

Superheated Steam:
Steam heated above its corresponding saturation temperature at a particular pressure is called
superheated steam. Superheating of steam takes place in the superheater section of the boiler where
steam is separated from the liquid in the steam drum. Superheated steam contains no moisture and
will not condense until its temperature has been lowered to that of saturated steam at the same
pressure.

Degree of superheat refers to the temperature difference between the actual steam temperature of the
superheated steam and the saturation temperature corresponding to the pressure of the superheated
steam.

Superheated steam has three advantages over steam that is not superheated 1) it increases efficiency
of the turbine, 2) it prevents damaging low pressure turbine blades due to condensation and 3) it can
travel long pipe lines with little or no condensing.

9.3 Steam drum internals


The steam drum is equipped with the following internals:
 feed water distribution pipe
 riser/downcomer tube baffle plates
 steam/water cyclone separators
 steam demisters
 continuous blow down pipe
 overflow pipe

Feed water is distributed evenly throughout the steam drum via a perforated pipe.

The downcomer tubes are separated from the riser tubes by baffle plates. Downcomer tubes transfer
the feed water to the boiler circulation.

The steam water mixture, which is returned via the riser tubes to the drum, enters on the other side
of the baffle plates. Water is separated from the steam in cyclone separators. Water is thrown to the
side and flows back into the circulation system. Steam flows upwards through a demister where it is
further dried.

Before leaving the drum the steam passes through a final dryer, which is also a demister made of
densely packed stainless steel wire mesh.

The drum is equipped with two safety valves.

Continuous blow down is used to control boiler water quality and blow down rate is adjusted based
on boiler water analyses.

Drum overflow is automatically opened in situations when high (H) water level in drum is exceeded,
in order to prevent water droplets entering into steam.

9.4 Superheater system


9.4.1 Cross over Ducts
After leaving the compact separator, the flue gas fly ash mixture is drawn into and through the
steam-cooled refractory-lined crossover ducts. Saturated steam from the steam drum passes through
this crossover section. Building this ductwork using steam piping reduces the weight and the amount
of refractory necessary to protect the area. The crossover ducts connect the compact separators to the
HRA or convection section (back pass) of the boiler.
Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 16 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1
Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

9.4.2 Convection Superheaters: Convection Cage and SH I,III


From the CODs, steam goes to the steam-cooled convection cage side walls, then to front wall and
finally to the roof and rear wall of the convection cage. From there steam flows to the Superheater
tube banks.

The tube banks are separated by sootblower gaps.

9.4.3 Radiative Wing-wall Superheaters: SH II


High-pressure superheaters in the furnace consist of so-called wing-walls, Eight (8) pcs for SH II
and two (4) pcs for Evaporative Wing Wall I. They are plate-like panels located near the furnace
front wall, perpendicular to the wall. Steam flow direction is from bottom end to the top. The
wing-walls are located in the circulating solids flow of the furnace, so their lower parts are protected
with abrasion resistant refractory layer. The wing-walls are completely drainable. There are material
temperature measurements in each wing-wall’s outlet header, totally 14 pcs

9.4.4 Functional Description


Steam is superheated by means of the heat transfer from flue gases and circulating solids.
The steam temperature is controlled by spraying feed water to superheated steam through two (2)
desuperheater (DSH) ventures that are located in the interconnecting pipes between SH I – SH II
(DSH I) and SHII – SH III (DSH II). Spraying water flow is measured with continuous flow
measurement.

There are four silencers for the HP main steam safety valve and drum safety valves, to reduce
operation noise.

Note, that the feed water is converted into steam and this cooling does not constitute a loss in
efficiency It is important that the feed water is pure to prevent scaling of the superheaters and
carryover of impurities with the steam to the turbine. For this reason it is also important that
chemical dosing of the feed water takes place after the spray water take off if the chemical can
precipitate out of the water. Hydrazine can be dosed before because this decomposes to a gaseous
form.

Following superheater III, the steam enters the main steam pipe line. The main steam temperature is
regulated by desuperheater and is kept constant over the range from 100 % MCR to typically 60%
MCR. The main steam stop valve is normally considered the limit of the boiler proper. This valve is
provided with a small by pass valve which is used for warming up the main steam line downstream
of the main stop valve.

10 SAFETY VALVES
10.1 Function of safety valves
Safety valves are devices that protect the steam and water circuits from accidental over-pressurizing.
An over-pressurizing condition can occur, generally, in one of two ways:

1) a gradual increase in pressure due to improper operation or malfunctioning equipment or


2) a sudden and rapid increase in pressure caused by an immediate loss of steam flow.

10.2 Location
There is a total of 3 safety valves on this Foster Wheeler CFB Compact boiler, two located in the
drum, one in the main steam pipeline.

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 17 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

10.3 Opening Sequence


Safety valves opening pressures are arranged so that safety valves open in right order to ensure
steam flow through the superheaters in all situations.

10.4 Operation
Safety valves are designed to remain closed until pressure in the superheater header reaches popping
pressure of that valve. The force of steam pressure under the disc of the safety valve overcomes the
force of the spring holding, the valve closed causing the spindle and attached disc to raise off the
seat.

As the disc moves off the surface of the seat, the reaction force of escaping steam pushes the disc
into the open position. The resulting reaction force holds the valve in the open position for some
time. The design of each valve is to allow a specified amount of flow through it before the valve will
start to close.

In addition to steam discharging between disc and seat, there is also a small amount of steam
escaping past the spindle and out the valve body exhaust vent opening. Opening to the vent chamber
restricts steam leaving the valve body and causes a buildup of back pressure above the valve disc
holder.

With the safety valve open situation, steam pressure will start to reduce in the system. The force of
the spring will once more overcome the force of the reduced steam pressure under the disc. The
valve will return to a clean closed position. Steam pressure trapped in the chamber above the disc
holder exerts a force on the disc assembly and helps the spring in closing the valve.

Force of the spring will overcome steam pressure below the valve seat and valve disc. The spindle
will return to the closed position. During initial boiler start-up, all safety valves must be set and
tested to assure popping and blow down pressure ranges are correct. This process is "setting safety
valves."

10.5 Exhaust Piping Arrangement


Exhaust pipe from the safety valve are not attached to the building construction. It is free to move
inside the exhaust pipe that vents to atmosphere. Proper drainage installation will carry the steam
safely away from the valve body.
10.6 Inspection
Valve that has operated satisfactorily without leakage does not need to be inspected during every
outage. Valves may be tested for movement of parts by hand lifting valve while boiler is still on line.

FOLLOW ALL STATION SAFETY INSTRUCTION !!!

Valve does not have to be removed from the boiler to perform maintenance. But the boiler must be
shutdown, pressure released and for safe maintenance.

10.7 Safety
Gags or locking nuts installed during hydrostatic testing (boiler hydro) should be warm and only
finger tight to allow for metal temperature change. All safety valves installed on the boiler and
associated piping must be in good operating condition.

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 18 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

10.8 Valve Gags OR Locking nut


 A valve gag is a device attached to the valve spindle to prevent the valve from opening.
Dresser Consolidated Ltd. uses for example this type of construction.
 A locking nut (tightening) construction prevents valve from opening, where locking can be
operated outside of the valve spindle.
Gags OR locking nuts are used for protection of the safety valves during hydrostatic tests of the
boiler when above normal operating pressure will be used. Safety valves locking with a gag or
locking nut are also used during initial setting of valve pressure to prevent lower pressure valves
from opening while testing higher pressure valves. Gag or locking nut tightening should be used to
prevent accidental lifting when you are adjusting any safety valve.

Gag OR locking nut keep the valves closed by applying force at the top of the valve spindle. Gags
OR locking nut must not be installed too tightly on valves. Over-tightening of locking system will
bend valve spindle or damage the seating surfaces. Hand tight force is necessary to close the valve.

Safety valves are not allowed ever be locked during normal boiler operation !!!
Safety valves must be set normally in use !!!

11 COMBUSTION AIR SYSTEM


11.1 Primary air (PA)
Primary air is taken from the atmosphere by a primary air fan. The primary air first flows through
the steam coil air preheater and then through the tubular air preheater, located in the boiler back
pass. Finally the primary air is brought to the wind box, located below the furnace, where it flows
through the grid to fluidize the bed and serve as the combustion air.

Note! There is a minimum flow of primary air required to fluidize the bed and prevent back
flow of the material through the nozzles. So at low loads the primary air flow remains
constant and does not vary with load.

11.2 Secondary air (SA)


Secondary air is taken from the atmosphere by secondary air fan.

Secondary air is brought into the furnace at two secondary air levels: ~2.0 meters and ~4.0 meters
from the grid. Secondary air achieves the "staged" combustion explained earlier, and completes the
combustion of the fuel without the formation of excessive NOx.

During start-up secondary air is also used as combustion air for the start-up burners. Part of the
secondary air is brought to the fuel feed points to assist in keeping these points gas tight and as
cooling/transport air.

Secondary air fan pressure controlling is (via fan inlet vane control) according to required air flow.

11.3 High pressure air (HP air)


High pressure air is used for fluidizing the circulating bed material in the wall seal and start up
burners cooling. The quantity of the needed air is very small and it has no effect to the combustion
controls. The high pressure air is produced by means of one high pressure blowers.

12 FLUE GAS SYSTEM


Following combustion of the fuel in the combustion chamber the flue gases first flows through the
separators where the coarser ash is separated and returned to the bed via the return leg, and the finer
Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 19 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1
Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

fly ash is transported through the convection section of the boiler to the back filter where the fly ash
is separated. The gases are drawn through the boiler by means of an induced draft (ID) fan, after
which they are discharged to the atmosphere via the stack.

The boiler is a so called balanced draft boiler and the ID fan is controlled e.g. by frequency
converter or by fan inlet vane control according to the pressure at the top of the combustion chamber
which is the balance point

Flue gas temperatures and pressure differences mainly to indicate the condition of the boiler and the
need for sootblowing. Similarly flue gas is analyzed for O2, CO, NOx and SO2 to indicate the
efficiency of combustion and possible malfunctions in operation as far as emissions are concerned.

 O2 is normally kept around 3 % to ensure proper combustion


 SO2 and particulate are controlled according to the local regulations.

13 BOILER COMPONENTS
13.1 Combustion chamber
As far as the CFB Compact boiler is concerned the combustion chamber together with the separator
may be considered the "heart" of the system.

The basic philosophy of the CFB boiler was explained previously. The principal components of the
combustion chambers are:
 the fluidizing grid
 the water cooled lower part (with refractory lining)
 the water cooled upper part
 the water cooled separator

13.2 Grid
Primary air is brought to the grid via the wind box. The grid consists of water cooled tubes
containing many closely pitched nozzles. The purpose of the nozzles is to fluidize the bed material
evenly and also to prevent the back flow of the material. This requires a minimum pressure drop and
hence a minimum air flow. At lower loads the primary air is not reduced below this minimum.

13.3 Lower part of the combustion chamber


It is in this area that the main combustion and sulphur retention take place. The bed is densest here
and is very turbulent. All combustion air and fuel are brought into the furnace in this area.

In addition to the grid, air is brought in at two levels. Secondary air is fed to the level at ~2.0 and
~4.0 meters above the grid. Secondary air is brought in at levels to complete the staged combustion,
without the formation of excessive NOx.

Start-up burners are located about 2 meters above the grid. All the penetrations for bed temperature
and pressure measurements are located in this area.

Similarly recirculating bed material from the separator is brought back to the lowest part of the
boiler.

13.4 Upper part of the combustion chamber


The upper part of the combustion chamber is made of water cooled membrane walls. This is the area
in which the heat is transferred from the flue gases and bed material to the boiler water which is
partly evaporated to steam. Because the walls are water cooled the temperature of the tubes is
Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 20 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1
Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

constant throughout the combustion chamber and corresponds to the saturation temperature at the
boiler drum pressure.

Water is brought from the downcomer pipes to the inlet headers at the foot of the combustion
chamber and rises through the membrane walls together with steam to the outlet headers at the top of
the combustion chamber.

Evaporative wing wall and SHII (wing walls) are located upper part of combustion chamber. They
are plate-like panels.

13.5 Separator
Flue gas and bed material are drawn into the water-cooled refractory-lined compact separators
from the top of the furnace by a force supplied by the ID fan. The negative draft pulls the flue gas
and bed material into this space between the furnace and the HRA crossover and convection pass.
Coarser material is separated from the flue gases by centrifugal force. The Coarser material falls
down the solids return legs and is returned to the furnace through the wall seals.

The compact separator itself is made of water-cooled membrane waterwall tubes or pipes and are
lined on the inside with refractory.

There is a center pipe (vortex finder) at the outlet to improve the separation efficiency. It is made of
heat resistant steel.

13.6 Wall seal


Ash that is separated in the separator flows down the separator return leg to the wall seal. This acts
as a seal and prevents the back flow of flue gas through the separator. The ash in the seal is fluidized
by air coming through the nozzles located on the bottom of the seal. High pressure air from the
blower is used as fluidizing air.

13.7 Convection section


After leaving the separator the flue gases enter the convection section of the boiler, which consist of
superheaters I,III, economizer and air preheater.

13.8 Superheaters
Firstly gasses pass through SHIII,I tube banks in that order.
13.9 Economizer
After the superheaters the gases enter the economizer. This is a serpentine tube arrangement in
which flue gas flows from top to bottom and feed water from bottom to top. It is supported from the
upper headers.

13.10 Air heaters


The final cooling of the flue gas before the back filter takes place in the air heater. It is a four-stage
counter flow bare tube heat exchanger, in which flue gas flow is outside tubes. Flue gas air preheater
is divided to sections for primary and secondary air. It is supported from bottom. Cleaning is done
with steam sootblowers.
13.11 Seismic stops
In addition to the structural supports there is a system of guides and seismic stops, located at three
levels. These both guide the boiler expansion and in the case of earthquakes transmit the seismic
forces to the steel structure around the boiler.
Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 21 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1
Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

13.12 Buckstays
To prevent the combustion chamber from deforming under adverse conditions of high furnace
pressure, there is a system of buckstays round the combustion chamber. The combustion chamber is
free to expand independent of the buckstays, which are pivoted at the corners.

The casing in the rear section of the boiler is stiffened with beams welded to them, which are
enclosed in the insulation.

14 FUEL FEEDING SYSTEM


The main components of the fuel feeding system are:
- Two fuel day silos with four unloading chutes equipped with automatic
knife gates
- Four gravimetric belt conveyors and feeding lines on the front wall
- Air lines both from hot and cold secondary air for cooling and preventing flue gas entering to the
conveying system

Fuel feeding system consists of four fuel conveying and feeding lines. The feeding lines are located
at front wall of the furnace. All feeding lines consists of chute, expansion bellow, pneumatic
operated slide gate and air bustle. After the air bustle, the fuel is fed to the furnace via feeding
chutes.

Expansion bellows eliminate the stress caused by the thermal movement.

All fuel feeding components shall be specially designed to minimize risks of plugging due to high
surface moistures predicted to occur in the fuel.

As explained earlier the mixing and combustion of the fuel takes place under very turbulent
conditions and part of the material is carried out of the combustion chamber and returned to the bed
via the separators. This ensures very good combustion efficiency.

The flow of fuel is controlled according to the steam demand (pressure) signal.

15 BURNER SYSTEM
For boiler start-up and possibly during upset conditions when solid fuel is not available, there is a
system of burners. Light oil is used for boiler start-up burners.

15.1 Inline Duct Burner System


The purpose of the inline duct burner system is to raise the primary air and bed temperature
sufficiently for solid fuel ignition. Two inline duct burners are provided for boiler startup and
low load operation. The burners will continue in operation until steady state continuous solid
fuel firing has been achieved.
The boiler is started using two inline duct burners that fire in the lower portion of the primary
air ductwork below the boiler. The supplied duct burners fire LIQUFIED NATURAL GAS.
The inline duct burners are controlled to increase the primary air and bed temperature at a
prescribed heat rate that will minimize thermal stress on boiler pressure parts and refractory.
The major components of the inline duct burners include:
- Air flow control dampers (2): These dampers regulate the amount of air that flow
through the duct burners.
- Inline duct burner assemblies (2): each burner consisting of Five (5) horizontal gas
burner elements with a maximum total design heat release of 100 GJ/hr. The burner
elements are mounted on a steel circular frame.

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 22 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

- Individual burner piping trains (2): LNG (Gas) piping trains mounted on a piping frame.
Each train consists of one junction box and the fuel train, pilot gas train, instrument air
train etc.
- Header train (1): The header gas train consist of one junction box and the for burner gas
train, for pilot gas train and instrument air train etc.
- Burner management system (1): One (1) BMS panel for both burners per boiler. This
application has two separate ducts for under bed air and each duct has one inline duct
burner with five gas fired elements and five igniters. Each element includes one flame
scanner. The BMS is a single PLC hardware including single Modicon CPU Model,
single power supply and single Ethernet communication, and the hardware and software
required for the safety and protective functions of the burners

15.2 Design Features

Fuel Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)


Quantity Two (2) Per Boiler
Capacity 100 GJ/hr each
LNG flow - max 2646 Nm 3/hr
LNG supply press 7 kg/cm2
LNG supply temp 16 °C

16 SOOTBLOWING SYSTEM

The boiler is equipped with steam sootblowers (30 pcs) to keep the heat surfaces of the convection
section clean. Sootblowers are only required in the convection section of the boiler.

The general design features of the system are the following:


- The sootblowers are designed in concern with the heat exchanger tube bank dimensions
- High enough sootblowing steam temperature in all designed boiler loads
- Requirements of maintenance and service areas
- Expected material corrosion and erosion behaviour
- Thermal expansion of boiler components with auxiliaries

The sootblowing system consists of the following main equipments:


- Full Retractable type sootblowers (8pcs) with auxiliaries and supports
- Half Retractable type sootblowers (6 pcs) with auxiliaries and supports
- Sixteen (16 pcs)) Rotary Sootblowers with all required accessories
- Steam piping with armatures
- Steam pressure reduction/control station

Steam is used for sootblowing. The sootblowing pipes are designed to withstand the steam
temperature and pressure.

The sootblowing steam flow is measured by a flow meter in addition there are pressure and
temperature indicators.

The sootblowing steam pressure is controlled by a pressure switch and adjusted by means of control
valve. In addition there is a motor driven closing valve at the inlet of the sootblowing steam lines.

There is motor driven drain valve at the outlet of the both sootblowing steam lines. Pipes are sloped,
to be self-draining towards the drain valves. There is an orifice by-pass round the drain valve to
prevent condensate collecting. From the drain valves the pipes are led to the blow down tank.

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 23 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

The steam line is equipped with temperature measuring elements to control automatic drain valve
and to secure the sootblowing steam temperature.

Sootblowers are using pressurised steam impact in cleaning heat transfer surfaces. Sootblowers are
operated while boiler is on line based on pre-programmed sequence.

Sootblowing steam is extracted from SHII outlet header. Additionally there is the manual pressure
reducing valve in each sootblower in order to adjust individually. Adjustment should be checked
annually.
The actual sootblowing sequence and frequency will be determined by operating experience. Flue
gas temperature and pressure differences indicate the need of sootblowing. As a basis for initial
operation the sootblower should be operated once per shift and frequency reduced or increased
according the operating conditions.
Sootblower sequence normally follows the gas flow path, top to bottom of boiler. The sootblowing
is typically executed downstream of the flue gas flow and in the following order:
- Convection section/superheater
- Economizer
- Air preheater

Operators should follow-up the fuel characteristics and balance the cost of sootblowing against the
cost of reduced efficiency (higher exit gas temperature).
Motor closing valves are used during heat up and normal operation of sootblowing. It should be
noted that there will be condensation when heating the piping. The condensate flows to the boiler
flash tank. Only after condensation has ended the steam will be led to sootblowers. The temperature
at the end of pipelines is kept high enough by means of orifice plates.

Ash that is removed by sootblowing is carried away by the flue gases and falls out in the hoppers or
is captured in the ESP.

Note! There will be an increase in fly ash flow during sootblowing periods.

17 FLY ASH REINJECTION SYSTEM


17.1 Ash hoppers
A small part of the fly ash that passes through the separator, falls out of the flue gas as it turns
through the boiler. To remove this ash there is a hopper located under the back pass. The hopper is
made of insulated carbon steel plate and steeply sloped to allow the flow of ash.

17.2 Dust collector


Fly ash is removed from the flue gases by ESP.

17.3 Ash removal


Ash is discharged from the various ash hoppers via rotary valves and then to a system of mechanical
or pneumatical conveyors. The conveyors transport the ash to either the fly ash silo or bottom ash
silo before removal from the site. The fly ash silo is furnished with dry and/or wet discharging
system.

18 BOTTOM ASH REMOVAL SYSTEM


In order to remove ash from the furnace, the ash is drained through bottom ash drains on the bottom
of the combustion chamber. After the drain there is a water cooled screws to cool bottom ash down
The screws have water cooled shaft and shell and they are equipped with a safety valve. The cooled
ash flows to a conveyor, which carries the ash to the container or bottom ash silo.

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 24 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

19 BED MATERIAL SYSTEM


The purpose of the system is to:
 provide the initial sand bed at boiler startup
 maintain bed quantity and quality during continuous operation

The bed quantity needs to be maintained in order to have enough circulation material necessary for
operation of the fluidized bed combustion process.

The quality of the bed material is as important. Too course or too fine circulation material decrease
the CFB performance. Coarse particles will be discharged with the bottom ash system (HDA).
Recommended limit for coarse particle content in bottom ash is less than 20 % > 1 mm.

The bed quality may also be impacted by fuel alkaline, which needs to be purged and fresh sand
added.

The general design features of the system are the following:


 System is designed for capacity needed during boiler start-up and continuous operation with
design fuels.
 System is designed in order to minimize the wearing of components.

The Bed Quality Management executed by the Plant operators is extremely important. The bed
quality needs to be followed and kept within design specification in order to prevent disturbances
and unavailability. Good bed quality is essential in maintaining stable boiler operation and low flue
gas emissions. In addition to avoid excess amount of coarse particles in bed by performing sieve
analysis on daily basis, it is important to visually follow bottom ash quality to notice any
agglomerates or sintered particles. If such bigger particles are observed, it is necessary to improve
bed maintenance by increasing make-up sand feeding rate.

The main components of the bed material feeding system are:


- Bed material silo
- Silo connections for
 the incoming sand filling piping
 exhaust gas piping
- Pressurized fluidization air piping with valves and nozzles for silo discharge hopper
- Silo overpressure relief pipe
- Silo weight measuring equipment
- High level switch to prevent overfilling
- Sand conveyors including sand feeding pipe followed with pipeline to furnace
- Sand filling piping

Make-up sand is typically delivered into the bed material silo from a lorry equipped with pressurized
discharge system. Silo fill-in connection is typically provided at a ground level. The exhaust from
the conveying air entering the silo during filling is led to the flue gas duct.
The silo is furnished with silo weight measuring equipment and high surface level switch to prevent
overfilling.
The silo hopper is furnished with the pressurized air nozzles to prevent bed material from bridging in
the silo hopper. The make-up material is fed with pressurized air through a feeding pipe.
Down-stream the feeding pipe there is a vertical pipeline to the lower furnace.

Bed material is needed to form proper quantity and quality of circulation material during start up of
the boiler. There are certain coal grades, which contain ash with suitable properties to form bed and
thus additional and continuous make-up sand feed during operation may not be needed.
The bed pressure (inventory) is controlled by bottom ash removal.

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 25 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

Agglomeration problems may occur with alkaline rich fuels and fresh make-up sand needs to be
used. Feldspar sand is typically better make-up material than quartz sand because it contains less
free SiO2 (quartz). SiO2 tends to react with alkali to form low melting compounds, which can form
sintered deposits. SiO2 also has a tendency to fracture at higher temperatures and/or during thermal
cycles resulting in higher required make-up rates. Feldspar sands are chemically and structurally
more stable at high temperatures. The use of crushed make-up sand shall be avoided due to its
tendency to cause erosion and crack down further into smaller fractures.

Correct make-up sand quality is given in section 42 of this document.

20 LIMESTONE FEEDING
The limestone feeding system shall meet the following general requirements:
The feeding system shall utilize the proper limestone / air ratio.
The system shall be designed for the 100% MCR of boiler capacity and for fuels specified in the
contract.
The feeding pipelines shall include one Y-branch, as maximum per line, and each pipeline shall have
own air blower

Limestone is delivered pneumatically into the limestone silo. The exhaust gas pipe including filter
bags is balancing pressure in the silo. The silo is furnished with pressure air connection to purge the
filter bags after filling.
The limestone silo is furnished with surface level switch to prevent overfilling. The silo hoppers are
furnished with the pressurized air nozzles to prevent limestone bridging in the silo hoppers.
Both feeding lines from the limestone silo to combustion chamber includes rotary feeder and piping,
which divides to two lines before entering into the combustion chamber. The air for the feeding is
generated with the positive displacement blowers.

The limestone silo is filled pneumatically. During filling, the vent line to the silo filter shall be open.
As soon as the filling is completed, the filter will be purged with pressurized air.
The limestone flow into the boiler is typically controlled based on the fuel mass flow and correction
to limestone flow is made according to SO2 emission level signal. Mass flow rate of the limestone is
controlled by the rotation speed of the rotary feeder. The frequency converter controls the rotation
speed. The limestone transfer air blowers produce constant air flow for the feeding.

Correct limestone quality is given in section 41 of this document.

21 INSTRUMENT AIR SYSTEM


21.1 General design requirements
The general design requirements of the instrument air system are as follows:
- The production and conditioning of instrument air is in client’s responsibility.
- Dried and filtered pressurized air will be used, dew point-40°C, pressure 550-700KPa

21.2 Mechanical description


The instrument air system consists of the following pipes:
- Instrument air piping with valves

The main instrument air pipe is divided and led to both sides of the boiler furnace. The vertical
distribution lines are located on opposite corners of the boiler for portable consumers. The
distribution lines are equipped with connections including shut off valves on each level.

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 26 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

21.3 Functional description


The function of instrument air system is to distribute pressurized instrument air to consumers in
proper and safe manner.

22 AUXILIARY STEAM PIPING SYSTEM


22.1 General design requirements
General design requirements:
- The production and distribution of auxiliary steam to steam coil air preheaters.

22.2 Mechanical description


The auxiliary steam piping system consists of the following main equipment:
- Heating steam piping for steam coil air preheater
- Necessary valves

22.3 Functional description


The auxiliary steam piping system delivers steam to the combustion air system (HL) for air
preheating in steam coil air preheaters.

23 DRAINS, VENTS AND BLOWDOWN


By means of the continuous blow down the impurities in the boiler water is reduced. Blow down
water is taken from the drum and led to the continuous blow down tank,
The boiler is supplied as mentioned previously with a Blow Down Tank (BDT), which is fitted with
a manifold for the various drains and blow downs. Each line has a check valve to prevent blowback
of steam.

Connections are provided for:


 blow downs from bottom of combustion chamber, drum, downcomer pipes and economizer
 blow downs from steam drum level gauges
 blow down from steam drum level controller
 blow down from continuous blow down tank
 overflow pipe from steam drum
 superheater header drains
 sootblower piping drains
 auxiliary steam condensate drains
 steam air preheater condensate

In addition miscellaneous drains are brought to the BDT, such as


 drains from economizer
 vents from upper headers and high points in pipework
 steam drum vent
 drains from safety valves’ lines and silencer

Blow down valves are grouped together for ease of operation. The first valve acts as the shut-off
valve and the second as the blow down valve. Combustion chamber header valves should not be
blown down while the boiler is operating, because this may affect circulation in the boiler tubes.
Other blow downs are made intermittently on a shift basis.

Vents and drain valves are also arranged in groups, at convenient points for operation.

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 27 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

The BDT is provided with a spray water connection for cooling purposes, normally the tank is kept
at about 40…60 C, depending about power plant bottom canal system construction and where it is
led. Exhaust steam from the tank is exhausted to the atmosphere through the vent pipe.

24 USE OF BED TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER AND BED THERMOCOUPLE


MAINTENANCE
Output of bed temperature controller is transmitted to control loops for primary and secondary air.
This causes each of them to respond to maintain bed temperature at a desired value. As bed
temperature increases the amount of primary air to grid increases and the amount of secondary air
decreases maintaining the same total air flow required for combustion air. As bed temperature
decreases, the amount of primary air to grid decreases while the amount of secondary air increases to
maintain the total air flow.

Use of the bed temperature controller will result in actual bed temperature control of about ten to
twenty degrees on either side of actual bed temperature. The primary influence in bed temperature is
proper bed quality maintenance. Bed quality is a term used to indicate the bed inventory (amount of
bed material) and bed particle fineness as it relates to desired operation of the Foster Wheeler CFB
combustion process. Incorrect bed inventory, too coarse or fine bed particles, will affect furnace heat
transfer and combustor temperature that the bed temperature controller cannot correct.

Bed Temperature Thermocouple Maintenance:

Bed thermocouples are located through the grid from bottom

 This type of thermocouple has cover tube from outside the bottom of the windbox until above
the grid, which is resistant for high temperatures and erosion.
 Thermoelement is installed to inside of cover tube by pushing it all the way to the top of the
measurement. Inner thermoelement wire diameter variation is between 3…6 mm. Thicker
diameter thermoelement wire is little bit easier to install.
 It is important, that this type of measurement thermoelement is installed correctly so, that wire is
pushed to the top touching the inner top of the cover tube. It is recommended to X-Ray each
installed bed temperature measurement after installation to realize, that inner thermoelement is
installed all the way to the top of the cover tube inner end.
 During boiler shutdown bed temperature measurement should checked, that their surrounding on
the grid is free (measurement is not rounded with metal wires or other foreign subjects).
Otherwise this type of measurement is maintenance free, only if thermoelement wire and
transmitter are ok.

25 USE OF BED PRESSURE CONTROL AND BED PRESSURE TAP MAINTENANCE


Purpose of bed pressure control is to manage the amount of bed material in the combustor of an
Foster Wheeler CFB boiler. Amount of bed material in the combustor is directly proportional to bed
pressure. Both bed pressure and bed quality have a direct effect on bed temperature and heat transfer
rate. In addition, this can affect SO2 removal efficiency.

Bed pressure is measured by bed pressure taps, actual number of taps will be specified on your
boiler. Usually, one is installed on the front wall, one on the right hand side wall and the other on the
left hand side wall, more for large combustors. Each pressure tap is installed through combustion
chamber refractory, flush with the refractory, about 250 mm above the grid floor. Bed pressure taps
extend outside the combustion chamber and are connected to a constant purge air source to prevent
plugging. Individual air regulators are installed at each bed pressure tap to confirm positive,
regulated air flow.

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 28 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

Each bed pressure tap is connected to a transmitter that directs a signal to the DCS indicating bed
pressure. What the transmitter is actually measuring is back pressure against a constant purge air
supply caused by gravitational pull upon fluidized bed material against primary air through the grid.

The combustion chamber has center drains through the refractory grid floor. These center drains are
installed for removing coarse material from the floor of the combustion chamber. During normal
operation with lignite and pith feeders and limestone feeders in service, ash gathers in the furnace
and must be removed. Coarse and heavier material gathers at grid level migrating across the slightly
inclined grid to the center drains. Center drains are connected through the windbox, downward,
through a refractory lined pipe to a water cooled bottom ash screw cooler.

The rate of ash removal is controlled by the speed of the auger's rotation inside the bottom ash screw
cooler. This speed is controlled by a frequency controller. Changing speed of the screw cooler can
regulate amounts of bed material (bottom ash) removed from the combustion chamber.

Operators can increase or decrease speed to maintain normal operating bed pressure around
.00357…0.0561 kg/cm2. Normal bed pressure range will be defined during the commissioning
phase with the help of FW supervisor/advisor. The bottom ash screw coolers discharge into the
bottom ash drag conveyor and further into the silo.

Speed control system for bottom ash screw coolers will be run in auto control most of the time. A
close eye must be kept on bottom ash removal system. A rapid removal of bed material could cause
a severe upset in operating conditions and may require a boiler shutdown.

Bed pressure taps must be checked every shift for proper purge air flow rate (determined during
initial start-up by FW commissioning engineers) and proper pressure on supply of purge air.

25.1 Bed pressure tap maintenance


Bed pressure tap tubing must be installed flush with refractory If stainless steel tubing extends
beyond the refractory it will be subject to erosion and distortion which would affect operation of the
pressure tap.

Periodically, the "maintenance" purge air at each pressure tap should be opened to blow away any
build up of material around the tip of the pressure tap. The control room operator should be notified
before starting this air to "clean" the pressure tap. Bed pressure indication in the control room will be
affected. The maintenance purge air must be closed during the normal operation. The leaky or open
maintenance purge air may damage the refractory or/and the furnace wall piping. While performing
normal rounds, operators should check these air valves to make sure they are closed.

Each boiler penetration for a bed pressure tap has a "maintenance" air source and a block valve.
When a bed pressure tap is suspect and requires maintenance, this air must be turned on to seal
combustion chamber pressure inside the boiler. While working on any boiler penetration, personnel
safety must be considered the number one priority. Hot bed material MAY escape out of the
penetration when bed pressure tap tubing is removed. ALWAYS place a shield at that penetration to
deflect hot bed material away from personnel. Protective clothing, face shield and gloves should be
worn by personnel working on the pressure tap.

26 BLACK PLANT TRIP (LOSS OF POWER)


26.1 Purpose
External events beyond the control of plant operating personnel that result in loss of control
capabilities on the steam generator are infrequent, but can occur. Proper responses to these
conditions associated with operating a steam generator require that operating personnel respond to
and follow prescribed rules. These responses are to protect plant personnel and equipment and

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 29 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

reduce down time. This section deals with a condition called a Black Plant Trip. This condition is
also known as "Loss of Power" (LOP).

There are several reasons this condition can occur. This section does not address the reason for loss
of power.

This section will address the protection of the Foster Wheeler CFB boiler and the return to normal
operation during and following a black plant event.

This section does not supersede your plant's safety and operating precautions for the balance of plant
equipment, but should be used as a guide in the development of your specific plant procedures.

26.2 Definition
BLACK PLANT TRIP (LOSS OF POWER): The complete loss of electrical alternating current to
the plant and all equipment in the plant is in a "tripped" condition.

26.3 General conditions


The following conditions occurs typically during a Black out (Plant Trip):

A. No steam generator support equipment can be placed in service until the external power
supply is reestablished.

B. The DCS is operating on emergency power or not functional. Inputs and outputs may not be
functional in all cases, if powered from an external source.

C. The steam drum has low water level or no visible drum level.

D. Bed material is slumped in the combustion chamber and wall seal.

E. Pressure in the steam generator is "bottled up," slowly decaying after initial increases in
pressure following the trip. Safety valves may have lifted and reseated one or more times.

F. All auxiliary equipment has shut down on loss of power and cannot be restarted until external
power is restored.

26.4 Concerns
Whenever there is an interruption of normal operation, protection of personnel and equipment is the
first consideration.

Plant personnel must be familiar with safe response to loss of plant electrical power. Your plant's
back up power supplies and safety lighting must be checked frequently and maintained in operating
condition.

Plant equipment components are designed to trip or fail in a safe condition. This means that valves,
dampers, etc., will fail to a position or mode that prevents equipment damage and personnel hazards.
Equipment malfunction can occur and may, in some cases, allow components to fail in a position or
condition other than the designed fail safe mode. For this reason you must learn the fail safe mode
for all plant components and understand the purpose of these modes.

Specific concerns on the steam generator during a black plant condition are:

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 30 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

A. Combustible fuel solids and/or gases may exist in the combustion chamber, convection pass,
flues and ducts.

B. Steam drum water level may be low or not visible and there may be no way to maintain the
level depending on your plant's design.

C. Steam-side/water-side pressure should be at or near the pressure that existed just before the
trip. It is desirable to prevent rapid depressurization which results in rapid cooling of pressure
parts and stress cycles.

D. There will be no steam or water flow through any boiler circuit to cool boiler tube metals
while gas-side solids (bed ash), refractory and gases remain at high temperatures following the
trip. This concern primarily affects the superheater and any dry water circuit tube metals.

26.5 Procedure
Once external electrical power supply is restored, start the balance of plant auxiliary equipment, ie.,
air compressor(s), closed cooling water pump(s), condensate pump(s) and boiler feed pump. Prepare
to add feed water to the steam generator.

Before adding water to the boiler:

A. See if there is a water level in the steam drum at the drum sight glasses.

B. Determine temperature of feed water at the discharge of the boiler feed pump and economizer
discharge.

Using the feed water valve, slowly admit feed water through the economizer section.

Once you have established water level in the boiler steam drum, reset all boiler trips.

You must walk down and externally inspect the steam generator and related components before
starting any equipment. Check for any abnormal conditions.
The operator in the control room will reset all boiler controls to their start-up condition.

Before starting the ID fan, the operator must be aware of all bed temperature indications. Note if
some thermocouples are hotter than the average. Some thermocouples may be buried in hot bed
material. These, along with other combustor and separator flue gas temperature indications, must be
checked closely as all fans are restarted and air flows established.

Slight bed and/or convection pass temperature increases may occur while restarting the fans. This is
an indication of fluidizing hot bed material and/or the presence of combustibles. Proceed with
caution and check bed and convection pass temperatures closely. Purge the boiler in the normal way
until all evidence of combustibles are gone.

Begin the boiler start-up procedure. This would typically be the "hot restart" mode of operation
referred to in the Foster Wheeler Operation Manual (O&M).

All temperatures in the hot loop and convection pass should show a decrease when normal air flow
is established.

If necessary to satisfy interlocks, purge the boiler in the normal manner and proceed with your
plant's hot restart procedure.

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 31 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

When you start the solid fuel feed system, you must remember the fuel conveyors are loaded with
fuel. Start the solid fuel feed system by the pulsing or "burping" method described in the normal
operation section of this manual.
27 GLOSSARY OF TERMS
This segment of this manual is not intended to provide a complete listing of words used in
conjunction with Foster Wheeler CFB boiler technology. Use it as a tool to better comprehend
C.F.B. boiler technology and method of operation.

ABSOLUTE PRESSURE - pressure measured from the condition of absolute zero pressure.

ACID CLEANING - the process of cleaning the interior surfaces of a steam generator by filling the
boiler with a diluted acid accompanied by an inhibitor to prevent corrosion, and by later draining,
washing and neutralizing the acid by a further wash of alkaline water.

AGGLOMERATION - the process of forming larger particles from the combination of smaller
particles by means of high temperature melting and adhesion.

AIR FOIL - a device installed in ductwork to accurately measure air flow passing through that
section of ductwork. One method of calibrating the differential pressure is by measuring the air flow
with a Feicheimer probe in a grid pattern. Calculations are then made knowing ductwork area and
pressure drop across air foil.

AIR/FUEL RATIO - the ratio of air flow to fuel flow.

AIR HEATER - a heat transfer apparatus through which air passes and is heated by a medium of
higher temperature, such as the products of combustion (flue gas) or steam.

AIR PREHEATER (steam coil air heater) - a steam coil or similar heat exchange device used to
keep the temperature of the flue gas above its dew point in order to minimize corrosion o the air
heater.

AIR SPLIT - the ratio between primary air and secondary air.

ALARM - a suitable horn, bell or light or other device which, when operated, will give notice of a
malfunction or an off-normal condition.

ANION - a negatively charged ion.

AS-FIRED FUEL - fuel in the condition as fed to the fuel burning equipment.

ASH - incombustible mineral left behind when coal burns completely.

ASH CONTENT - the amount of ash in a specific fuel after combustion.

A.S.M.E. - American Society of Mechanical Engineers, an organization that develops and sets
standards for design and construction and testing of steam boilers and pressure vessels.

AVAILABILITY FACTOR - the portion of time during which the boiler is in operable condition.

AVERAGE COLD END TEMPERATURE - the average temperature of "air in" and "gas out" of
an air heater controlled to keep temperatures above dew point to eliminate moisture and sulfur
dioxide mixing to form sulfuric acid. Also called "Air Heater Cold End Metal Temperature"
meaning the coldest metal parts of the air heater exposed to flue gas and subject to corrosion if
below the acid dew point.

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 32 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

AVERAGING - the output equals the algebraic sum of the inputs divided by the number of inputs.

BA - bottom ash, used with bottom ash discharge system in order to maintain proper bed quality’s
during boiler operation or empty the grid for shutdown inspection. Bottom ash discharge for proper
bed quality two main characteristics are: bottom ash correct particle size distribution & bed
alkalinity.

BALANCED-DRAFT BOILER - when a gas side induced draft fan and furnace pressure controls
are used to keep forced-draft and induced-draft flow in balance.

BASE LOAD - a term applied to the operation of the boiler where the loading is fixed and constant
rather than varying or cycling.

B.P.S. or BPS - is a short term for Boiler Protection System. Please, see the short term of BSS.

B.S.S. or BSS - is a short term for Boiler Safety System. BBS can include also directly burner
management systems (BMS) or it can be made with separate logic communicating with BBS. BSS is
a primary boiler pressure part (body) protective controlling system, which all interlocking methods
has a higher standards for its execution by the means of hard- and software configurations. BSS and
BMS interlocking(s) are not allowed ever be by-passed, because in this cases Foster Wheeler can not
ensure anymore safe boiler operation. BSS and BMS interlockings and boiler safety valves are tested
during the commissioning phase firstly intern by FW commissioning engineer / supervisors and all
tests are recorded to the so called master test protocol. Secondly BBS, BMS and safety valves’ tests
are repeated with the local authority or authorized third party/agent. Boiler is not allowed to be put
in operation before BSS, BMS and safety valves have been tested.

BED MATERIAL - granular particles which compose the fluidized bed.

BED PRESSURE TAP - a device installed in the lower combustion chamber to indirectly measure
the amount of bed material within the combustion chamber.

BIOMASS - a fuel source based on vegetation remnants.

BLOW DOWN - a small amount of water that is drained from the boiler to keep impurities, such as
TDS (total dissolved solids) and TSS (total suspended solids) in boiler water at an acceptable level.

B.M.S. or BMS - is a short term for Burner Management System, but is occasionally thought by a
mistake as a boiler management system. Boiler safety system is called BSS  see the short term.

BOILER - a enclosed container into which water can be fed and, by the application of heat,
evaporated continuously into steam. Its chief components are a series of metal pipes or tubes that
may circulate either heat from the furnace to raise the temperature of the surrounding water, or water
that is heated directly by the furnace.

BOILER EFFICIENCY - the ratio of the net energy output of the boiler fluid divided by the input
of the primary energy source(s).

BOILER LAY UP - preparation and storage of an out-of-service boiler for an extended period.

BOILING - the process of changing water into steam, usually by adding heat. Boiling in a
thermodynamic phenomenon in which a liquid churns violently and releases vapor bubbles. Water
boils at in atmospheric pressure – but it must be noticed, that water boiling temperature is a
function of pressure. Please, search literature with the name of a saturated steam temperature.

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 33 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

BOILING POINT - the temperature at which a liquid boils. At the boiling point, the vapor pressure
of a liquid is equal to the local atmospheric pressure. The exact boiling temperature is a function of
atmospheric conditions and altitude. The temperature of a boiling liquid remains at the boiling point,
even if more than enough heat to maintain boiling is applied.

BOIL-OUT - an alkaline-based cleaning of a steam generator water-side circuit to remove oils,


grease, organics and fabrication-manufacturing contaminants along with passivation of all
water-side pressure parts by developing a magnetite coating to reduce oxidation.

BOTTOM ASH SCREW COOLER - a device connected to the bottom ash center drain of the
combustion chamber that controls the amount and temperature of coarse bed material removed by
the speed of its rotating auger along with reducing the temperature.

BRITISH THERMAL UNIT (Btu) - a quantity of energy usually associated with the production of
transfer of heat. Before 1929, it was defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature
of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit ( ). In 1929, it was redefined
in terms of electrical units and is equivalent to 251.996 calories, 778.26 ft/lb or approximately
one-third watt-hours. The mean British Thermal Unit is 1/180th of the heat required to raise the
temperature of one pound of water at a constant
atmospheric pressure. It is about equal to the quantity of heat required to raise one pound of water
one degree F.

BUCKSTAY - a structural member connected to a furnace or boiler wall to provide the strength
necessary to resist the negative or positive gas pressures applied to the walls by the operation of the
boiler.

BURPING OR PULSING (Coal feeders) - a method of starting solid (coal) fuel feeders in a safe
manner by starting and stopping the feeder and watching indicated bed temperatures and excess O2
analyzer indications to verify ignition and combustion of fuel being introduced in the combustion
chamber.

CAKING - the property of certain fuels to become plastic when heated and form large masses of
coke.

CALIBRATION - process by which standards of working equipment are checked against standards
of a known higher accuracy and adjusted, as necessary, to assure their compliance; verification of
instruments and equipment to standards.

CALORIFIC VALUE - the heating value of a specific fuel, expressed in MJ/kg "as fired."

CARBON (Element) - the principal combustible constituent of most fuels.

CARRYOVER - the phenomenon of water droplets leaving the steam drum with the saturated
steam caused by foaming, priming, entrainment or the failure of the moisture separator devices in
the steam drum.

CATION - a positively charged ion.

CENTER DRAIN - a pipe that extends from a hole through the combustion chamber grid, through
the windbox, and typically connected to a variable speed bottom ash screw cooler for the removal of
bottom ash to control bed pressure, bed temperature and bed quality.

C.F.B. - see circulating fluidized bed.

CHAR - unburned combustibles in a solid form combined with a portion of fuel ash.

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 34 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

CIRCULATING FLUID BED (C.F.B.) - a fluidized bed in which the fluidizing velocities exceed
the terminal velocity of individual bed particles.

CIRCUIT - a group of connected boiler components having the same medium, ie, steam circuit
would have all steam related piping and pressure parts, water circuit would have all water related
piping and pressure parts, gas circuit would have all flue gas path parts.

CLINKER - a hard, dense, congealed mass of fuel and or ash matter fused together in the furnace, a
most unpleasant and unwanted occurrence.

CO - is the term, when question is about carbon monoxide emission in the flue gas, measured for
example from the stack. Nowadays practically all power plant has a CO emission measurement for
unburned carbon monoxides. CO is can be shown/indicated as a raw measure from the wet flue gas.
CO is shown normally in an unit of mg/Nm3, ppm or mg/MJ. Normally CO is calculated and shown
also in dry flue gas compensating it to 6 or 11 % O2 level.

COKE (Coking) - when coal or oil is heated without air or in an atmosphere deficient in oxygen,
volatile matter is driven off leaving behind a residue of carbon--coke.

COMBUSTION - the rapid chemical reaction between a combustible material and oxygen resulting
in the production of heat.

COMBUSTION CONTROL SYSTEM - the control system that regulates furnace fuel and air
inputs to maintain air/fuel ratio within the limits required for proper combustion throughout the
operating range of the steam generator according to demand.

COMBUSTOR (combustion chamber) - the portion of the boiler in which combustion occurs.

CONDENSATE - condensed water that in another portion of the cycle in question was steam.

CONDENSING - the process of changing steam into water.

CONDUCTION - is the transfer of heat from one part of a material to another or to a contiguous
material by molecular motion.

CONDUCTIVITY - the property of a water sample to transmit electric current under a set of
standard conditions, usually measured in micromhos conductance.

CONTROL VALVE - a power-operated device the modifies the fluid flow rate in a process control
system.

CONVECTION - a transfer of heat taking place by a movement of the heated medium itself, ie.,
flue gas over superheater tubes.

CONVECTION PASS (Convection Sections, Back Pass) - a section of the boiler located at the
outlet of the hot loop separators in the exiting gas path where heat is exchanged by convection
between flue gas and steam/water tubes.

CORROSION (Water side) - a destruction of boiler tube metal when water has a high acid content
or dissolved gases are present in large quantities. Remedies include neutralizing water acidity with
an alkali, removing gases by deaeration followed by a chemical "scavenger," or feeding corrosion
inhibitors together with organic substances.

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 35 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

CORROSION (Gas-side) - a destruction of boiler metal in the flue gas side caused by the attack of
corrosive liquids or gases developed by the firing of the fuel. In the combustion chamber, corrosion
is typically caused by the formation of complex salts of alkali metals.

CRUSHER - a machine to reduce solid fuel to a smaller size distribution.

DAMPER - a device for introducing a variable resistance for regulating the volumetric flow of gas
or air.

D.C.S. - a distributed control system or digital control system.

D.C.I.S. - a distributed control and information system.

D.C.M.S. - a digital control and monitoring system.

DEAERATION - the removal of air and gases from boiler water before its introduction to a boiler;
scrubbing of feed water to remove non-condensable gases.

DEGREE OF SUPERHEAT - the number of degrees between a given steam temperature and
saturation temperature corresponding to the steam pressure.

DEPARTURE FROM NUCLEATE BOILING (DNB) - steam is generated faster than it can be
removed in bubble form so a surface steam film forms on the inner waterwall tube surface causing
increased metal surface temperature; corrosion can occur and tube failure will result.

DERIVATIVE - a control function whose output is proportional to the rate of change of the input

DESIGN LOAD - the steam flow, pressure and temperature for which a steam generating boiler is
designed, usually considered the maximum normal steam generated output.

DESIGN PRESSURE - the pressure used in the design of a boiler for the purpose of determining
the minimum permissible thickness or physical characteristics of the different pressure parts of the
boiler.

DESUPERHEATER (Attemperator) - a device that reduces steam temperature of superheated


steam by injecting water into the steam, or by other means.

DEVIATION - a non-conformance or departure of a parameter from specific requirements.

DEW POINT - the temperature at which condensation starts.

DIFFERENCE - the output of the control function equals the algebraic difference between two
inputs.

DIFFUSER (SUB's) - a device used to distribute air flow at the end of the start-up burner to
promote stable ignition and enhance fuel and air mixing. Also known as an impeller or spinner,
depending on design or manufacturer.

DOWNCOMER - a tube or pipe in a boiler or a waterwall circulating system through which fluid
flows downwards, ie., natural circulating water path, connecting steam drum to lower distribution
headers.

ECONOMIZER - a heat recovery tube section of the convection pass through which incoming
boiler feed water flows to absorb heat from flue gas.

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 36 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

ELUTRIATION - selective removal of fine solids from a fluidized bed by entrainment in up


flowing gas.

EROSION - the wearing away of metal parts or refractory by the action of bed material, ash,
limestone, soot blower steam, etc.

ESP - is a short term for electric participator, which is a mechanical device for cleaning flue gases
from the solid particles. Solid particles are in other separated from the flue gas and collected to the
bottom of ESP from where it is transported to the fly ash silo(s). Flue gas cleanness from solid
particles is measured normally by the term of opacity.

EVAPORATE - to turn a liquid into a gas or vapor.

EXCESS AIR - air supplied for combustion more than theoretical air required for complete
combustion from a chemical standpoint.

EXPANSION JOINT - a designed joint to permit movement caused by expansion without stress
being placed on the connecting parts.

EXTRACTION STEAM (Bleed Steam) - steam that is removed from the turbine before it has
completely passed through the turbine.

FA - fly ash. See the term of fly ash.

F.E. or f.e. - for example

FEED RATE - the measured flow of a substance, ie, fuel or limestone, to the combustion chamber,
expressed kilograms per second (kg/s) or kilograms per hour (kg/h).

FEED WATER - water used in a boiler. Feed water is generally differentiated from condensate by
the location of water in the steam cycle. Condensate is located between the condenser and the
deaerator. Feed water is located between the deaerator and the boiler.

FLAME DETECTOR (Flame Scanner) - a device that shows if the fuel is burning or if ignition is
lost by sensing UV (ultra-violet) rays. This signal is sent to the DCMS or BMS as part of the boiler
fire safety system.

FLASHING - the portion of a superheated fluid converted to vapor when its pressure is reduced; the
process of turning hot water into steam by decreasing the pressure.

FLUE GAS - gas resulting from the combustion process that exits the combustion chamber,
consisting mostly of nitrogen (about 80 percent).

FLUIDIZED BED - a process in which a bed of granulated particles is maintained in a mobile


suspension by an upward flow of air or gas.

FLUIDIZING - the act of blowing air or gas upward through a mass of solid particles at such
velocity that the particles separate and assume some of the properties of a fluid through aeration.

FLY ASH - ash carried by the flue gas out of the combustion chamber, hot separators.

FINES - extremely small particles.

FIXED CARBON - the combustible residue left after volatile matter is extracted.

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 37 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

FLUID - any substance that can flow; applies to both liquids and gases.

FOAMING - the formation of small, stable, non-coalescing bubbles throughout the boiler water, the
skin of the bubble becomes tough and does not break down; this raises the boiler water level and
allows priming and carryover.

FOULING - the accumulation of solid matter in gas passages or on heat absorbing surfaces which
result in undesirable restrictions to the flow of heat or gas.

FREEBOARD - space or volume above the upper surface of a bubbling bed and below the furnace
exit.

FRIABILITY - the tendency of coal to break or crumble into smaller pieces when heated.

FUEL/AIR RATIO - the ratio of fuel to air on a weight or volume basis.

FUEL RICH - a ratio of air to fuel supplied to the combustion chamber which provides less air than
that required for the best air/fuel ratio.

FURNACE - the combustion chamber of a boiler where time, temperature and turbulence produce
ignition to support combustion for the generation of heat.

FUSION - the melting of a solid material such as coal or ash.

FW - Foster Wheeler.

GAGE GLASS (Sight Glass) - a device located outside a container or vessel to display the fluid
level inside that container or vessel.

GENERATING BANK - an arrangement of primarily vertical tubes connecting the steam drum
with a lower drum in which steam is generated.

GENERATING TUBE - a tube in which steam is generated through the absorption of heat.

GRAVIMETRIC - relating to the measurement by weight, ie., gravimetric coal feeder, where coal
passes over a load cell (strain gage) and an actual measurement of coal flow is developed.

H2O - is a chemical short term for moisture. Moisture is one of the measured components from
fuel(s) and flue gas. Higher fuel moisture can be seen as increased moisture in flue gas
measurement, and other way around. Higher flue gas moisture, H2O, can be caused also by running
sootblowing sequence or a tube leakage.

HARDNESS - the concentration of calcium and magnesium salts in water; the presence of scale
forming calcium or magnesium salts in water.

HCL - is the term, when question is about hydrogen chloride (acid) emission in the flue gas,
measured for example from the stack. Nowadays practically all power plant has a HCL emission
measurement for amount of hydrogen chlorides, if combusting fuel(s) has Chlorine –component
included. HCl can be shown/indicated as a raw measure from the wet flue gas, though normally HCl
is shown in an unit of mg/Nm3 or ppm. HCl is calculated and shown also in dry flue gas
compensating it to 6 or 11 % O2 level. Because HCl is a corrosive and polluting component, it is
neutralized from the flue gas with the help of limestone feeding before bag filter/-house from which
it is collected within fly ash.

HIGH LIMITING - the output equals either the input or the high limit value whichever is lower.

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 38 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

HIGH SELECTING - (>) the output is equal to that input which is the greater of the inputs.

HOT LOOP - the circulating path for fluidized bed material including combustion chamber,
separator, separator downcomer and wall seal.

HPB - high pressure blower, the device that supplies a large volume of low pressure air to fluidize
the wall seal, fluidize the center drains and supply sealing air to the bottom ash screw cooler shafts.

HYDROSTATIC TEST (Boiler Hydro) - a strength and/or leak test accomplished by pressurizing
equipment or system with a fluid.

ID –fan or IDF - induced fan, the device pulling negative pressure in other words draft on the
boiler.

IGNITION TEMPERATURE - the temperature at which more heat is released by chemical


reaction with oxygen than is lost to surroundings, ie., hydrogen

INCLINE MANOMETER - an instrument using a liquid column, set at an incline to increase


sensitivity and pressure reading accuracy. It is normally used to measure velocity pressure in a duct.

INTEGRAL - the output varies according to both magnitude and duration of the error; the output is
proportional to the time integral of the error.

INTERLOCK - a device used to prove the physical state of a control device or process
measurement and to then furnish that proof to the primary safety control circuit for the control
sequence to proceed.

I/O - Input/Output.

I.O.W or i.o.w - in other words

ISOLATE - to separate a piece of equipment or a system from another so the parts are independent.

LATENT HEAT: (Heat of vaporization) - the amount of heat it takes to heat water to steam at the
saturation temperature.

LIMESTONE - a composition primarily of calcium carbonate. The two types of limestone are
crystalline with smooth, crystal-like appearance and amorphous with rough, corrugated-like
appearance.

LIQUID - a substance that has a definite volume and takes the shape of its container.

LOGICAL AND - the output is a Logical One only if all of the input signals are Logical Ones. A
logical function having two or more inputs and a single output; the output is true only when all
inputs are true.

LOGICAL OR - the output is a Logical One if there is one or more Logic One inputs. A logical
function having two or more inputs and a single output; the output is true when one or more inputs
are true.

LOGICAL NOT - the output is a Logic One if the input is a Logic Zero. The output is a Logic Zero
if the input is a Logic One. A logic function which produces an output only when the input is NOT
present.

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 39 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

WALL SEAL - a non-mechanical device installed in the circulating hot loop to isolate the positive
pressure in the lower combustion chamber from the slightly negative operating pressure of the
separators.

LOW LIMITING - the output equals either the input or the low limit value whichever is higher.

LOW SELECTING (<) - the output is equal to that input which is the least of the inputs.

MAGNETITE - a black isometric mineral (Fe3O4) that is an oxide of iron; a thin, protective,
magnetic oxidation film that retards further corrosion, a result of the boil out process to protect
water-side pressure parts. It is important to start boiler soon as possible to operation after acid
cleaning to build or/and form a protective magnetite film into tube surface – this procedure is called
as magnetite film formation.

MAIN STEAM PRESSURE (Final Superheater Outlet Pressure) - the steam pressure at the point
where it leaves the final superheater.

MAIN STEAM TEMPERATURE (Final Superheater Outlet Temperature) - the steam temperature
at the point where it leaves the final superheater.

MANIFOLD - a pipe or header for collecting a fluid from or the distributing of a fluid to several
pipes or tubes.

MANOMETER - a U-shaped tube filled with a specific fluid. The difference in height between the
liquid in each leg of the tube gives directly the difference in pressure on each leg of the tube. Used to
check differential pressure.

M.C.R. - Maximum Continuous Rating.

MOISTURE CONTENT - (measured in percent [%]) the weight amount of water in a substance.

NATURAL CIRCULATION (boiler steam/water circuit) - the circulating flow path of water,
water/steam and steam in the steam/water circuit of a boiler resulting from the addition of heat
through waterwall tubes and the formation of steam bubbles in the water solution causing a
difference in water densities between waterwalls and steam drum downcomers, sometimes called
thermal-siphon circulation.

N.D.E./N.D.T. - Non-Destructive Examination/Non-Destructive Testing includes radiographic,


magnetic particle, liquid dye penetrant examination, ultrasonic testing and other methods.

NITROGEN BLANKET - a method of protecting the steam generator's pressure parts from
oxidation during a wet lay up by filling all areas of the water/steam circuit not filled with water with
nitrogen

NOx - Oxides of nitrogen, generated within the boiler during the combustion process, occurs when
molecular nitrogen in the combustion air is oxidized to NO (nitric oxide) or NO 2 (nitric dioxide) at
flame conditions and/or when combined nitrogen in the fuel forms NO or NO2 during combustion.
NOx formation occurs at a high rate when two conditions occur simultaneously: high temperature
and excess amounts of air. Advantage of CFB combusting technology is a lower NOx emission level
compared to other combusting technologies. If NOx emission level is wished to be special low
(customer needs depended normally from the national emission requirements), customer can
purchase a NH3 feeding system to the glue gases to absorb part of the NOx.

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 40 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

OPACITY (Stack) - dust carried through the precipitator and measured by a measured light source
passing through flue gas at the stack or chimney.

OXYGEN ATTACK - Corrosion or pitting in a boiler caused by oxygen.

PAF - primary air fan, the device that supplies fluidizing air to the grid and 60 to 70 percent of the
total combustion air to the combustor.

PART PER BILLION (ppb) - a measure of proportion by weight, equivalent to a unit weight of
solute per billion unit weight, abbreviation for part per billion.

PART PER MILLION (ppm) - a measure of proportion by weight and equivalent to a unit weight
of solute per million unit weight, the abbreviation of part per million.

PEAK LOAD - the maximum load carried for a stated short period.

pH - measuring the ion concentration tells how acid or alkaline a solution is. A pH of 7.0 is
considered "neutral" with lower-than-7.0 being acidic and higher-than-7.0 alkaline.

PITOT TUBE - a device consisting of two tubes used to measure velocity pressure. One tube
measures total air stream pressure, the other measures static pressure. When both tubes are
connected across a differential pressure measuring device, static pressure is compensated and
velocity pressure only is measured.

PITTING - a concentrated attack, usually by oxygen but sometimes by other corrosive chemicals in
a boiler, producing a localized loss of material in the metal surface.

P.L.C. - Programmable Logic Controller.

PLENUM - an enclosure through which air or gas passes at low velocities.

PNEUMATIC CONVEYING - the transportation of a substance, ie., fly ash or bottom ash, through
a conduit through entrainment of air flow through the pipe.

PRIMING - the spouting or surging of water into the steam outlet of the boiler steam drum caused
by too high a water level, uneven firing distribution, load swings or too high a steaming rate.

PROCEDURE - a document that specifies or describes how an activity is to be performed.

PROCESS STEAM - steam used for industrial purposes other than for producing power.

PROPORTIONAL - the output is directly proportional to the magnitude of the error.

PROXIMATE ANALYSIS (of fuel) - an analysis of a specific fuel for exact chemical composition
by weight without reference to physical form in which the compounds appear, ie., moisture, ash,
volatile matter and fixed carbon.

PSD - particle size distribution related mainly to solid fuel and bottom ash particle sizes.

PURGE - a flow of air through the furnace, boiler gas passage and associated flues and ducts that
will effectively dilute any gaseous combustibles to a safe level.

PURGE RATE - a constant flow of not less than 25 percent nor more than 40 percent of the full
load volumetric airflow at the point of measurement.

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 41 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

PURGE OF A BOILER - a flow of air at purge rate through the boiler from the forced draft (FD)
fan [PA & SA fans] to the stack for the greater of either (1) a period of not less than three minutes;
or (2) five changes in volume of the boiler-furnace enclosure.

PYRITES - a compound of iron and sulfur naturally occurring in coal.

QUALITY ASSURANCE (QA) - planned and organized system of all actions required to assure
that all completed items conform to contract and design specifications.

QUALITY CONTROL (QC) - the inspection of the physical characteristics of materials,


components and parts to check and verify acceptance to the standards associated with those
examinations as specified in the contract and design specifications.

RADIATION - heat transfer between two substances of different temperatures using light waves as
the medium.

REFRACTORY - a cement-like insulating and wear-resistant material applied in CFB boilers to


protect metal surfaces from erosion and high temperatures.

RISER PIPE - a non-heated pipe through which the steam/water mixture is carried from an upper
furnace or heat absorbing waterwall header to the steam drum.

SAF - secondary air fan, the device that supplies air for staged combustion, trimming air flow for O 2
control, about 30 percent of total combustion air, fuel feed air bustle, mixing air at the wall seal
return and combustion air for start-up burners.

SAFETY VALVE - a spring loaded valve that automatically opens when pressure exceeds the valve
setting; used to prevent excessive pressure from building up in a steam generator.

SAFETY WARNING TAG - a notice attached to equipment and controls that places a limitation or
restriction on operating that equipment.

SATURATION TEMPERATURE - the temperature at which water boils for a given pressure.

SATURATED STEAM - steam at saturation temperature.

SATURATED WATER - water at the saturation temperature that is not boiling.

SCALE - calcium and magnesium salts, chiefly, dissolved in boiler water and deposited on inner
tube surfaces when water evaporates reducing heat transfer and causing overheating of tube metal.

SEISMIC STOPS (Earthquake Bracing ) - bracing between columns and buckstays on the boiler
designed to withstand violent lateral motion of the structure.

SENSIBLE HEAT - heat measurable by temperature alone.

SEPARATOR A refractory-lined stationary centrifugal device installed vertically using


gravitational acceleration to separate solids from gas leaving the combustion chamber.

SIDE MOUNTED ASH COOLER - a device attached to the sides of the combustion chamber
where bed material is classified, cooled and the coarse material removed while the fines are
reinjected into the combustion chamber to affect bed quantity and quality.

SIEVE - a laboratory apparatus that sifts through screens particles of a substance to separate fine
particles from the coarser particles to determine volume by size and by weight.

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 42 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

SILICA (SiO2) - scale in boilers; insoluble turbine blade deposits due to silica vaporization.

SLAG - in boiler furnaces, the non-combustible ash which has reached fusion temperature.

SOLENOID VALVE - often times referred to as a "pilot valve," it is an electromechanical plunger


energized to either a "normally closed" or "normally open" position to allow for relief of air
pressure. The solenoid valve is normally used to activate a compressed air device.

SOOTBLOWER and SOOTBLOWING- a mechanical device that discharges steam or air to clean
heat absorbing surfaces.

SOx - is the term, when question is about sulphur monoxide, -dioxide and -trioxide emission in the
flue gas, measured for example from the stack. Nowadays practically all power plant has a SOx
emission measurement for amount of average sulphur emission. SOx can be shown/indicated as a
raw measure from the wet flue gas, though normally SOx is shown in an unit of mg/Nm3 or ppm.
SOx is calculated and shown also in dry flue gas compensating it to 6 or 11 % O 2 level. Because Sox
is a polluting and in some cases corrosive component, it is neutralized & absorbed from the flue gas
with the help of limestone feeding to the combustion chamber and CFB combusting technology.
SOx is collected either with bag filter/-house or electric participator (ESP) from which it is collected
within fly ash.

SPALLING - breaking off the surface refractory material as a result of internal stresses resulting
from an excessive temperature gradient or pressure.

SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION - ignition of combustible material following slow oxidation


without the application of high temperature from an external source.

STACK EFFECT - hot gas, as in a chimney, that moves upward because it is less dense than the
surrounding atmosphere.

STEAM/WATER DRUM - a pressure chamber located at the upper extremity of a steam


generator's circulatory system in which the steam generated in the boiler is separated from the water
and from which steam is discharged at a position above the water level maintained therein.

STEAM BLOWS - a method of removing weld slag, mill scale and rust scale from steam piping for
turbine blading protection by allowing steam generated in the boiler steam drum to rush through the
piping to atmosphere (usually through a silencer).

STEAM TABLES - a group of tables containing the values of naturally occurring properties of
water and steam.

STEAM QUALITY - the percent by weight of vapor in a steam/water mixture.

STEAM-SIDE CIRCUIT - a term to describe the boiler pressure parts that remain in contact with
steam when the boiler is in normal operation.

STOICHIOMETRIC COMBUSTION - the complete oxidation of all combustible constituents of


a fuel using the exact amount of air necessary to complete the combustion.

S.U.B.(S) or SUB(s)- Start-Up Burner(s).

SUB-STOICHIOMETRIC COMBUSTION - combustion with a deficiency of the theoretical


amount of air to complete combustion.

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 43 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

SUMMING - the output equals the algebraic sum of the inputs.

SUPERHEATED STEAM - steam that has a temperature that is greater than the saturation
temperature of the steam at a given pressure.

SWELL and swelling- the sudden increase in volume of steam or water in the water/steam mixture
which causes an apparent increase in the water level in the steam space.

THERMAL CYCLE - any cycle of temperature within the hot loop system from standard operating
temperature of C to a temperature of 350 C or less, as measured by bed temperature and
separator inlet/outlet flue gas thermocouples, below standard operating temperature and a later
return to standard operating temperature. Or cycle of boiler pressure which results in more than a
150 C change in steam drum saturation temperature.

THEORETICAL AIR (stoichiometric air) - the chemically correct amount of air required for
complete combustion of a given quantity of a specific fuel.

TOTAL AIR - the total quantity of air to the combustor.

TURNDOWN - a ratio expressing the minimum stable operating load for a given boiler. For
example, a turndown ration of 4:1 means a minimum stable operation of 25 percent MCR.

ULTIMATE ANALYSIS (of fuel) - the chemical analysis of a fuel stating carbon, hydrogen,
sulfur, nitrogen, chlorine, oxygen and ash content expressed on a percent by weight basis.

UNBURNED CARBON - the measured amount of carbon in ash (fly ash and bottom ash) that has
survived the combustion process.

VACUUM - a pressure less than atmospheric.

VAPOR - the gas form of a substance that is a liquid at standard temperature and pressure; steam is
the vapor of water.

VENTURI - a device for measuring fluid or gas flow, including a short converging cone succeeded
on the same axis by a long diverging cone.

VOLUMETRIC - involving the measurement of volume, ie., volumetric limestone feeder where
movement by volume results in a calculated weight output if density is also known.

VAPORIZE - the process of turning a liquid into a gas or vapor.

VOLATILE MATTER - that portion of coal which is driven off in gaseous form when coal is
subjected to temperature, producing combustible gases such as methane, hydrocarbons, hydrogen
and carbon monoxide.

WATER HAMMER (Slug Flow) - the flow of a volume of water in a steam pipe, usually during
the heat of that steam line, reaching a change in direction (a turn in the pipe), and causing damaging
vibration and loud noise. Or a sudden increase in pressure of water due to an instantaneous
conversion of momentum to pressure.

WATER-SIDE CIRCUIT - a term to describe all boiler pressure parts that remain in contact with
boiler water when in operation.

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 44 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

WELD - a localized coalescence of metals produced either by heating the materials to suitable
temperatures, with or without application of pressure; or by the application of pressure alone, and
with or without the use of filler material.

WELD OVERLAY - one or more layers of weld metal on the surface of a base metal to get the
desired properties and/or dimensions.

WINDBOX - a chamber below the combustor water-cooled grid plate through which primary air
under pressure from the PA fan is supplied to the combustor for fluidizing bed material and
combustion of fuel.

WING WALLS - angled heat absorbing walls extending into the combustion chamber.

28 GENERAL
Design parameters below will be used as basis of the unit design and therefore they are not regarded
as guarantees.

29 SITE CONDITIONS

Site
- Site location Maasim, Province of Sarangani, South
Mindanao
Philippines

- Elevation above sea level m 4.0

Ambient Air
- Temperature, maximum ºC 40
- Temperature, average ºC 32
- Temperature, minimum ºC 20

Relative Humidity
- Maximum %
- Design % 60
- Minimum %

Wind Velocity
- Maximum wind speed(ASCE705) m/s 42

Seismic
- Seismic Zone(UBC-97) Zone 4
- Base rock acceleration coefficient 0.4g
- Seismic source type A
- Distance to seismic source ≥15km

Soil Profile: Sd

Earthquake Importance Factor : 1.0

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 45 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

30 BOILER DESIGN CRITERIA


General requirements
The steam generator units shall be designed as follows:

BOILER DESIGN CONDITIONS

BMCR
Superheater Outlet
Flow t/hr 410
Pressure Bar (a) 130.76
Temperature ℃ 541 5

Feedwater at Economizer Inlet


Temperature ℃ 215

Ambient Air
Design Temperature ℃ 32
Design Relative Humidity % 60

Blowdown
Percent % 3.0

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 46 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

31 FEED WATER QUALITY TO BOILER

RECOMMENDED LIMITS FOR BOILER FEEDWATER*

Silica 0.02 ppm


Total Hardness CaCO3 0 ppm
Organics 0 ppm
pH 8.8 - 9.2 Copper Metallurgy
9.2 - 9.6 No Copper Metallurgy
Oxygen 0.005 ppm
Iron 0.01 ppm
Copper 0.005 ppm
Hydrazine N2H4 0.02 ppm

* Values at Economizer Inlet

32 COOLING WATER
Adequate cooling water will be made available by the Purchaser as required for
miscellaneous service requirements:
Design
Supply Pressure at terminal point 5 – 7 Bar(g)
Supply/Return Temperature 40/45.8°C (Max.)

It is assumed that there is no back pressure in cooling water line after ash coolers. In case
there is pressurized return line, the minimum supply pressure must increase accordingly.

Cooling water shall have a water quality which precludes concerns of fouling and corrosion
of heat transfer surfaces as a result of dissolved solids, corrosion products, silt, or other
debris.

Cooling Water for blowdown quenching

Design
Supply Pressure at terminal point 2.0 – 3 Bar(g)
Supply Temperature 34.8°C (Max.)

33 AUXILIARY STEAM
Normal operational parameters
Temperature 250°C
pressure 10 bar (a)

34 PRESSURIZED AIR
Plant air:
Pressure 550-700 KPa

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 47 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

Instrument air :

The Purchaser shall supply adequate instrument quality air at the following conditions:

Supply Pressure min./max. 550 - 700 KPa


Dew Point -40 °C

35 ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS
The Buyer shall provide the following sources of electric power in quantities adequate for
boiler operation:

1. AC Motors > 250 KW: 6kV, 3 phase, 60 Hz


2. AC Motors ≤ 250KW: 460V, 3 phase, 60 Hz
3. AC control and operating circuit 230V, 1 phase, 60 Hz or 110V DC
4. Instrument 230V, 1 phase, 60 Hz or 110V DC

36 DESIGN FUELS

The coal specification defining the reference condition for performance test i.e. Guarantee Fuel and
the Design Fuel Range is shown in the table below.

Definitions and abbreviations:


a.d. air dried (only inherent moisture is remaining in fuel)
a.r. as received
d.s. dry solids
d.a.f. dry ash free
Surface moisture (as received) = Total moisture (as received) - Inherent Moisture (air dried).
Design fuel: bituminous coal
Proximate Analysis: Performance Range coal
Coal
- Total Moisture % a.r 25 13 ~ 35
- Surface Moisture % < 10 < 10
- Volatile Matter % ad 37 35 ~ 45
- Ash Content % dry 5.67 1.5 ~ 15
- Sulphur % daf 0.4 < 1.5
- Lower Heating Value (LHV), ar (kcal/kg) 4,700 3,630 ~ 5,450
- Higher Heating Value (HHV), ar (kcal/kg) 5,030

Ultimate Analysis (daf basis):


- Carbon (%) daf 75.25 65 ~ 80
- Hydrogen (%) daf 5.00 3.0 ~ 7.0
- Oxygen (%) daf 18.45 Remainder
- Nitrogen (%) daf 0.90 < 2.0
- Sulfur (%) daf 0.40 < 1.5

Ash Chemistry Analysis:


- Silica, SiO2 (%) 35 20-51
- Iron, Fe2O3 (%) 20 6-36
- Aluminum, Oxide Al2O3 (%) 20 10-30
- Calcium, Oxide CaO (%) 11 2-25
- Magnesium, Oxide MgO (%) 3 1-10
- Sodium Oxide, Na2O (%) 0.3 <2
- Potassium Oxide, K2O (%) 0.7 <2
- Titanium Oxide, TiO2 (%) 1 <2
- Phosphorus, P2O5 (%) 0.3 <3
Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 48 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1
Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

- Sulfur Trioxide, SO3 (%) 9 < 20

Ash Fusion (Reducing):


- Initial Deformation ºC > 1120
- Spherical / Softening ºC > 1150
- Hemispherical ºC > 1170
- Fluidity ºC > 1200

Additional Fuel Requirment


Sizing Refer to figure 2-1 for the coal particle size distribution required at the furnace.

Acid Soluble Alkalis – the fuels fired in the boiler should have a combined acetic acid soluble
sodium(Na) and potassium(K) content less than 0.05%(500 ppm) on a dry basis to mitiate the
potential for bed sintering and agglomeration.

Surface Moisture- Surface moisture of the crushed fuel in the silos shall be below 10% to mitigate
the potential for fuel conveying and feeding hang-ups.

Chlorine- The chlorine level in the fuel should be less than 0.10% to mitigate the potential for
corrosion and agglomeration.

Fuel Management
Purchaser shall sample and monitor fuel quality to ensure that only fuel meeting the specified ranges
are used in the boiler.Purchaser shall give FW or FW nominated representative accesss to all records
and documents relating to fuel sampling and monitoring to confirm compliance

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 49 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

37 START-UP AND SUPPORT FUELS

The auxiliary fuel used for ignition and low load support fuel for this project is light fuel oil.
The property of light fuel oil is as follows:

Parameters Unit Limit. Test Method


Density @ 15°C Kg/l 0.8448 max ASTM D-287
K. Viscosity at 37.8 °C Cst 1.9 ~ 5.8 ASTM D-445
Ash % mass 0.01 max ASTM D-482
Sulfur % mass 0.5 max ASTM D-4297
Flash Point °C 54.4 min ASTM D-93
Sediments & Water % vol 0.1 max ASTM D-2709
Water % mass 0.1 max ASTM D-95
Higher Heating Value (HHV) BTU/lb 19 532 ASTM D-4868
Lower Heating Value (LHV) BTU/lb 18 400 ASTM D-4868

38 LIMESTONE
The boiler has been designed to reduce emissions of sulfur oxides by the injection of
limestone into the furnace. The following analysis has been used for design:

Limestone Analysis % by weight


CaCO3 93.63
MgCO3 4.02
Inerts 2.15
Moisture 0.20

(1) A laboratory analysis of the project specific limestone sample has not been provided.
This proposal is issued based on using a typical limestone with the characteristics as listed
below:

 Reactivity Index per FW Test Procedure: 2.5

Performance data and guarantees are based on the above limestone. Should the actual
limestone vary from these parameters, adjustments to the guarantees will be made.

(2) Limestone moisture shall be  1.0% to accommodate pneumatic feeding.

(3) Limestone particle size distribution shall be in accordance with Figure 2.2.

Chlorine content in the limestone shall be negligible (less than 0.01%).

(5) Alkali content in the limestone shall be less than 2%.

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 50 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

39 SAND

Sand shall be fed with the fuel to support the process conditions.

The recommended sand shall be clean, natural feldspar-type sand which is round, washed,
dry and double screened. Sand will be sieved, not crushed.

Natural sand (feldspar) is used in start-up and make-up bed material. The typical analysis is
as follows:

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 51 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

Typical analysis Typical Range


- SiO2 % 82.2 70 - 85
- Al2O3 % 9.7 6 - 15
- Fe2O3 % 1.8 <2
- CaO % 1.2 0.3 - 2.5
- MgO % 0.4 0.2 - 1
- Na2O % 1.9 1 - 3.5
- K2 O % 2.8 2-6
- H2O % 0.1 < 0.3
- loss of ignition % 0.95 <1
- Density kg/m 3 1500 1300-1600
- Softening point °C 1200 >1100

The recommended sand size is provided on Figure 2.3.

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 52 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1


Foster Wheeler Power Group Asia. SM200-Project 1×100MW CFB Boiler
Operations & Maintenance Manual

SUMMARY OF TECHNICAL DATA


39.1 General
Boiler type Foster Wheeler CFB
Water flow Natural circulation

39.2 Heating surfaces


Convection Boiler Surface sq meter 45
Water Walls in Furnace (Flat projected) sq meter 1321
Including Evap. Wingwalls
Compact Separator Evaporative Surface sq meter 854
Including Wall Seals
Convection Superheater Including PSH, FSH sq meter 3339
Crossover Ducts & HRA Enclosure
Intermediate Superheater sq meter 266
(Wing Wall Superheater)
Economizer sq meter 3496
Including Hanger Tubes
Total Furnace Volume cu. Meter 1853
Total Separator Volume Including cu. Meter 617
The Volume Enclosed By Convection Boiler Surface
Total Furnace and Seperator Volume cu. Meter 2470

Document No.: 418320240-FWS-O&M Page 53 of 53 Date: 9/22/14 Rev.: 1