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SITEWORKS & SETTING OUT

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SITE ANALYSIS - SITE INVESTIGATION- SITE PREPARATION- SETTING OUT
Prepared By Saurav Shrestha
SITEWORKS & SETTING OUT

Site Site Site Setting


Analysis Investigation Preparation Out

01. Site Analysis Exploration of Site & its characteristics before designing
02. Site Investigation Systematic enquiry with Methodological approach before construction
03. Site Preparation General & Specific considerations before construction
04. Setting Out Laying outline of building on site
2.1. Site Analysis

What ?
 thorough exploration of site

Why ?
 To determine site issues that can
influence proposed development
 To ascertain whether site
characteristics is suitable for proposed
development.

Site Analysis Process (Source : Building Construction Illustrated by Francis DK Ching)


2.1. Site Analysis

Natural Factors

Legal Factors
By Considering

How?
Cultural Factors

Other Factors

Site Analysis Process (Source : Building Construction Illustrated by Francis DK Ching)


2.1. Site Analysis

Natural Factors
 Geology/Soil condition
 Topography
Legal Factors
By Considering

 Vegetation
How?
 Wind direction
Cultural Factors  Climate
 Sunlight
Other Factors  hydrology
2.1. Site Analysis

Natural Factors
 Refer City Blueprint
 Building Codes &
Legal Factors
By Considering

Byelaws
How?  Legal restrictions ?
Cultural Factors

Other Factors
2.1. Site Analysis

Natural Factors
 Existing land use
 Neighborhood Issues
Legal Factors
By Considering

 Socio-economic issues
How?
 Traffic & Movement
Cultural Factors  location

Other Factors
2.1. Site Analysis

Natural Factors
 Views & Vistas
 Orientation
Legal Factors
By Considering

 Service & Infrastructure


How?
 Site boundaries
Cultural Factors

Other Factors
2.2. Site Investigation
How ?
REFER
 Ordinance Maps
Table study  Geological data

What ?  similar previous Projects

 Collection of Necessary data


OBSERVE
 Layout sketch
Site Visit  Existing services

Why ?  Access to site

 To plan the working on site


DOCUMENT
 Detail Report
Site Report  Relevant Data
 Necessary Information
2.2. Site Investigation

Typical data required from site visit


(source ; Building Construction by R.Chudley)
2.3. Site Preparation
 Accessibility of Site > Transport facility ?
Access  Useful to plan transportation of material & labor

 Availability of space for storage


Storage  Useful to plan storage for material and equipment
Consideration

 Availability of space & environment for accommodation


Accommodation  Useful to plan accommodation units in construction site

 Availability of basic services (electricity, water etc)


Services  Necessary for working in site

 Necessary safety precaution


Safety  First Aid, Safety measures, Insurance etc.

 Legal considerations like construction regulation


Other  Cultural considerations & Security of site
2.3. Site Preparation

CONSIDERATIONS PLANNING EXECUTION

Access Listing of Works Obtaining

SETTING OUT
Storage Necessary
Accommodation Scheduling of Permits
Services Works
Safety Clearing of
Entailing Site
Other Requirements
2.4. Setting Out
 Drawing outline of building on site
WHAT ? Process of
 Transferring dimension from layout plant to ground

WHY ?  To ensure construction as per design documentations

 Whole to part
HOW ? Principle of
 Start from large simple shape towards smaller complex ones

OR

Proposed Building Breaking into smaller Taking large rectangle


rectangles and first and detailing
detailing part by part smaller details later
2.4. Setting Out
1. Peg and Rope Method ( common)
METHODS 2. Dumpy Level ( Best for big construction)

1. Timber Profile Board


2. Round poles to act as pegs or steel in hard ground.
3. Nylon Threads
4. Ordinary Nails
ITEMS 5. White Chalk or lime or Spray paint
6. Clear Hose pipe for determining horizontal levels
7. Sledge hammer
8. Measuring table
9. Builders Square
2.4. Setting Out

Builders Square
2.4. Setting Out
Building Construction
By R. Chudley
Page 107 -108
2.4.1 Setting Out of Rectangular Building
00 Clearing the Site

01 Establish Base/Reference Line /Parallel line


02 Setting out first right angle to the frontage line
03 Establish second square line
Clearing the Site
04 Establish other square lines to complete outline.  Removal of topsoil
05 Checking diagonals  Removal of vegetation, rocks
and boulders.
06 Setting Profile & Attached Range lines  Site clearance prepares the
site for doing setting out
07 Locate excavation lines process easily and effectively.
SETTING OUT EXAMPLE OF SIMPLE RECTANGULAR BUILDING

26'-2" 26'-2"

"
9'-7

9'-7
"
18'-10"

PROPOSED BUILDING

FLOOR PLAN (LOAD-BEARING)


32'-2"

32'-3"
33'
22'-5"

-7" 6'-5"

-3"
2

17'-7"
22'

BOUNDARY LINE
22'

-7"

2"
3" 13'-
7'-

FLOOR PLAN (FRAME STRUCTURE)


CENTRE LINE

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SETTING OUT EXAMPLE OF SIMPLE RECTANGULAR BUILDING

STEP 1 : ESTABLISH REFERENCE LI


E D C
1. Break the building shape into
BOUNDARY LINE
two rectangles namely
ABCDGA & EDFG .
2. AB is building front line. Since
REFERENCE LINE F G frontage line AB is parallel to
Road line, It is easier to
A B establish Reference line ( oir
OFFSET DISTANCE

OFFSET DISTANCE
10'-0"
base line or parallel line) alon
the building front line AB.
3. Establish Reference line along
AB by taking equal offset
distance from the road.
4. From Point B, We know
distance of line AB and thus
point A can be located
CENTRE LINE

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SETTING OUT EXAMPLE OF SIMPLE RECTANGULAR BUILDING

STEP 2: SETTING OUT FIRST RIGHT


E D 4 C ANGLE TO THE FRONTAGE LINE
3
BOUNDARY LINE 5
1. From point B , using 3-4-5
method or theodolite produce
squared line towards C
REFERENCE LINE F G
5 4
2. Locate Point C by measuring
A 3 B distance BC from the drawing.
OFFSET DISTANCE

OFFSET DISTANCE
FIRST SQUARE LINE

CENTRE LINE

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SETTING OU T EXAMPLE OF SIMPLE RECTANGULAR BUILDING
BOUNDARY LINE

STEP 3 : ESTABLISH SECOND


SECOND SQUARE LINE E D 4 C SQUARE LINE
3
5
1. In Point C, establish right
angle using 3-4-5 method or
theodolite towards Line EDC
REFERENCE LINE F G
5
of proposed building.
4
A 3 B 2. Locate Point E from C as per
OFFSET DISTANCE

OFFSET DISTANCE
dimension given in the plan.

FIRST SQUARE LINE

CENTRE LINE

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SETTING OUT EXAMPLE OF SIMPLE RECTANGULAR BUILDING
BOUNDARY LINE

STEP 4 : ESTABLISH OTHER


SECOND SQUARE LINE E 3 D 4 C SQUARE LINES TO COMPLETE
4 5 5
3 THE OUTLINE OF BUILDING

5
1. Establish other square line from
3 point E and point F.
REFERENCE LINE F 4 G
5 4
2. Point G can be located as per
A 3 B dimension given for FG .
OFFSET DISTANCE

OFFSET DISTANCE
FIRST SQUARE LINE
3. Now all point A, B, C, D , E, F,
G are located

CENTRE LINE

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SETTING OUT EXAMPLE OF SIMPLE RECTANGULAR BUILDING
BOUNDARY LINE

STEP 5: CHECK DIAGONALS


SECOND SQUARE LINE E D C
1. Check diagonal EG and DF, if
diagonals are equal then all four corn
are in right angle
F G 2. Also, Check diagonal AC AND B
4
, if diagonals are equal then all four
A 3 B cornders are in right angle
OFFSET DISTANCE

CENTRE LINE OFFSET DISTANCE

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SETTING OUT EXAMPLE OF SIMPLE RECTANGULAR BUILDING

STEP 6: SETUP PROFILE AND ATTACH


E D C RANGING LINE

1. Since the corners of building has


already been located, the profile board
can be placed along the corners at an
F G offset that makes it easier to excavate
the trenches.
A B

2. The ranging lines attached to the


pegs are extended by holding the line to
pass over the peg to the profile.

3. The wall position is clearly marked on


the profile using lime or a spray paint.

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SETTING OUT EXAMPLE OF SIMPLE RECTANGULAR BUILDING
E D C
STEP 7 : LOCATE EXCAVATION LINES
Wall Line
1. Excavation is carried out as per
Excavation Line
foundation drawings and type of
structure as shown as in figures .
F G
2. In case of load bearing, foundation is
B
A along wall so excavation is done along
Excavation along wall for foundation in case of load-bearing structure the wall as in fig 1.

Excavation Line
3. In case of frame structure,
E D C foundation is on corners as per grid
lines given in the drawing, so
excavation is done as per foundation
drawings.

F G

A B

Excavation on corners as per foundation details and grid lines

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