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Tutorial V

Speaker: Yu-Han Lyu

December 1, 2006

Journal

•Journal of the ACM (JACM)

•Theoretical Computer Science (TCS)

•Electronic Colloquium on Computational

Complexity (ECCC)

•Theory of Computing (ToC)

Conference

•ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing

(STOC)

•ACM/SIAM Symposium on Discrete

Algorithms (SODA)

•IEEE Symposium on Foundations of

Computer Science (FOCS)

•IEEE Conference on Computational

Complexity (CCC)

Theory of Computing

•Publishers of scientific journals today

actually impede the flow of information

rather than enable it. -- Jeff Ullman

•Knuth sent letter to Journal of Algorithms

On October 25, 2003

–ACM Transactions of Algorithms

•http://theoryofcomputing.org/

Optimization is Impossible!

•Given a program and input, compiler want

to do extreme optimization

If program has redundant computation,

then compiler must eliminate it

•If program has infinite loop, then the result

must be

–L: goto L;

•It decides HALTTM

Oracle Turing Machine

•An oracle Turing machine is a modified

Turing machine that has the additional

capability of querying an oracle

•TA to describe an oracle Turing machine

that has an oracle for language A.

•If TA can decide B, then A is Turing

reducible to B

•There are still some problem are not

decidable by TATM

Reducibility

•Mapping Reducibility

–Many-one reducibility

–A≦m B

•Turing Reducibility

–Oracle Turing Machine

–A≦T B

•Mapping reducibility is special case of

Turing reducibility.

•What is the difference?

Turing vs Many-one Reducibility

B is recognizable X A is recognizable

A is not B is not

X

recognizable recognizable

Self-Reproduce Program

•main(a){printf(a="main(a){printf(a=%c%s%

c,34,a,34);}",34,a,34);}

•Quine

•We can get <M> in M

•Assume H is decider for ATM

•B=“On input w:

–Obtain <B>, via the recursion theorem

–Run H on input <B,w>

–H accept, rejects. Otherwise, accepts.”

HW3 –Problem 1

•Show that single-tape TMs that cannot write on

the portion of the tape containing the input string

recognize only regular languages.

•Myhill-Nerode Theorem

–L is regular if and only if it has finite index

•For any string x, we can find a function

–fx({start}∪Q)→{accept, reject}∪Q

•Any string with the same function are

indistinguishable

HW3 –Problem 2

•Decider is not recognizable

•Suppose a enumerator E that enumerate

all decider <M1>, <M2>….

•D=” On input w:

1. Let i be the index of Σ*, that is si = w.

2. Run <Mi> on input w.

3. If Mi accepts, reject. Otherwise,

accept.”

HW3 –Problem 3

•Let PALDFA={<M>| M is a DFA that accepts

some string with more 1s than 0s}. Show

that PALDFA is decidable

•Let CFL A={x | x has more 1s than 0s}

•T=” On input <M> where M is a DFA:

1. Let B = A∩L(M), so B is CFL.

2. Test whether B is empty.

3. If B is empty, reject. Otherwise,

accept.”

HW3 –Problem 4

•Let C be a language. Prove that C is

Turing-recognizable if and only if a

decidable language D exists such that

C={x|∃y(<x,y>∈D)}

•If D exists

–search each possible string y, and testing

whether <x,y>∈D

•If C is recognizable

–D={<x,y>|M accepts x within |y| steps}

Homework 4

•Due

–3:20 pm, December 15, 2006 (before class)

HW4 - Problem 1

•Define the busy beaver function BB: N→N

as follows.

–For each value of k, consider all k-state TMs

that halt when started with a blank tape.

–Let BB(k) be the maximum number of 1s that

remain on the tape among all of these

machines.

–Show that busy beaver function is not a

computable function.

•Proof by contradiction

HW4 - Problem 2

•Show that AMBIGCFG is undecidable

•PCP Problem

•PCP ≦m AMBIGCFG

HW4 - Problem 3

•Two-headed finite automaton (2DFA)

–two read-only, bidirectional heads

•Show that A2DFA is decidable

•Show that E2DFA is not decidable

•Computation History

HW4 - Problem 4

•Let J = {w | either w = 0x for some x ATM,

or w = 1y for some y ATM}

•Show that neither J nor the complement of

J is Turing-recognizable

•Mapping Reducibility

HW4 - Problem 5

•Rice’s theorem

•Prove that the problem of determining whether a

given Turing machine’ s language has property P

is undecidable.

•Let P be a language consisting of Turing

machine descriptions where P fulfills two

conditions.

–P is nontrivial –it contains some, but not all, TM

descriptions.

–Second, P is a property of the TM’ s language –

whenever L(M1)=L(M2), we have <M1>∈P iff

<M2>∈P. Here, M1 and M2 are any TMs.

HW3 - Problem 5

•Show that the problem of determining

whether a CFG generates all string in 1* is

decidable. In other words, show that {<G>|

G is a CFG over {0,1} and 1*⊆L(G)} is a

decidable language.

•Closure Property?

•Grammar?

•PDA?

•Parse tree?

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