Journal of Dental Research

http://jdr.sagepub.com Cemental Annulation as an Age Criterion in Forensic Dentistry
G.G. Stott, R.F. Sis and B.M. Levy J DENT RES 1982; 61; 814 DOI: 10.1177/00220345820610063401 The online version of this article can be found at: http://jdr.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/61/6/814

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Over the past 30 years. Texas 77025 Intact teeth were obtained from three cadavers of known age 57. Freshly-cut sections were rinsed with distilled water and stained from one to two min with 1% Alizarin Red S solution. IL 60204 § Fisher Scientific.19 and two primates .3 For simplicity. Rochester. The number of annulations remaining after the last full count of ten was recorded on the photograph (Fig. so either 450 or 500 jim of tooth root were removed with each cut.sagepub. dentistry. Buehler. to scan the cementum around the total perimeter of Received for publication July 20. only the dark lines were counted.12-14 bison. and/or differences in growth rates of cemental tissues at different times of the year. Individual sections were stained. Texas A&M 814 Downloaded from http://jdr. STOTT. The micrometer dial on the saw was set for 450 or 500 jim. The existence and relevance of cemental annulations in numerous mammalian genera are well-documented. LEVY2 1Department of Veterinary Anatomy. investigations using using Permount.com by on June 23.1 and B. placed in xylene. Evanston. namely.21. Isomet Low Speed Saw.91l0 elk. and that these annulations could be counted and used as aging criteria. Box 20068. Since it is known that cementum in humans increases in thickness with age.F. It is hypothesized that. and mounted J Dent Res 61(6):814-817. 1981 Accepted for publication November 24. the bear. NJ 07410 /Panatomic X. Houston.15 red fox. and 76 years. Evanston. Diamond wafering saw blade. the periodontal membrane was preserved intact while ten teeth were prepared for processing (Table).M.4-7 caribou. Box 1459. Teeth were obtained from three dissection cadavers. Ltd.13 No definitive information has been found in the literature regarding the use of this technique for humans.to 150-jimthick sections were cut and labeled alphabetically from root tip to tooth neck (Table). Ltd. The use of layers of dentin or cementum as criteria for discerning age has been described in 21 species of Pinnipedia. Fair Lawn.1 R. 2010 . 1).§ each tooth section to discern where the cemental annulations were most numerous yet not duplicated.4-7 It was discovered that countable cemental annulations corresponding to known age were found in nonhibernating animals as well. Teeth extracted from patients of local dentists were not suitable for study.. Normal tooth eruption times22 were added to the annulation counts to Sections were studied and photographed on a brightfield microscope.2 The fact that these mammals. College of Medicine. using reduced dispersed light. College Station. H-4244. The saw blade was 300 jum thick.16 coyote. College of Veterinary Medicine. 1981 NY 14650 University tNo. *Department of Anatomy. there have been numerous references in the literature to the use of cemental annulation counts as a criterion for the determination of age in both land and sea mammals. respectively. Eastman Kodak Company. June 1982 Introduction. The usual number of years for the eruption of any particular tooth were added to the annulation count to determine the estimated age for that cadaver.O. Consecutive 100. and that new layers are deposited on the outside of the dentin throughout the life of the individual. Each tenth dark line was marked on the photograph. It was necessary. and photographed on a light microscope. both marine and terrestrial. mounted on glass slides. Some of the earlier investigators felt that the annulations resulted from prominent metabolic alterations induced by the prolonged fasting of the migrating seal20 or the extended hibernation of the bear. Cross-sections 100-150 um thick were taken from the roots using a diamond saw. The teeth which had been fixed in formalin were washed overnight with running tap water and placed in 70% alcohol.18 squirrel. There is some speculation regarding changes in quantities of mineral salts laid down. Texas A&M University.11 deer. IL 60204 $No.BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES Cemental Annulation as an Age Criterion in Forensic Dentistry G. and cross-sections of the tooth were made after approximately 2 mm of the root tip were removed with the first cut./ Cemental annulations as observed on the photographs were counted either directly or through a lighted 10X magnifier.22 it was felt that cemental annulations probably existed in humans as well as in other animals. they may also be found in humans and may be used to determine ages in that genus as well. P. Materials and methods. 11-1180-160. The ability to more accurately estimate the ages of victims of natural or manmade disasters would be a valuable tool in forensic cemental annulations for age determination have been carried out in terrestrial mammals. and 2 The University of Texas Dental Branch. since cemental annulations have been observed in all mammalian genera studied.17 otter. These areas were photographed using black and white film. have cemental rings added annually to their tooth roots is well-documented. the teeth were sectioned intact on a low speed sawt using a precision diamond wafering blade. Therefore. Box 1459. 67. Buehler.4 resulting in the appearance of concentric lines in the cementum which can be equated with years.3 Since the early 1950's.23 A series of rinses with distilled water and blotting on filter paper was carried out to remove excess stain. Texas 77843.8 moose. substituting the 350 jum lost in the cutting process from the 450 or 500 gum advancement of the micrometer results in a wafer 100 or 150 jum thick.G. SIS. This was generally on the labial/buccal surface but in some cases was associated with the contact surface as well. with the large numbers of annulations involved.$ The crown of the tooth was fastened into the saw chuck.Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata)1 and common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). The biochemistry of the metabolism associated with this phenomenon is not known. A minimum of 350 jum (thickness of blade of 300 gm plus at least 50 jum for lateral motion of blade) from each cut was sawdust. since the cementum was always disrupted. Since decalcification is time-consuming. The stained sections were then dehydrated through 95% and absolute alcohol.* In order to avoid disruption of the cementum. FF 135-20. Each light-dark pair of lines is said to constitute one annulation..

0 67. PM = periodontal membrane. and Williams. 47 annulations were counted in the cementum. a 57-yearold white female.0 + 2.5 + 0.0 1.5 ± 0.0 53 6. Lines of the cementum indicate annulations by 10 plus 9 for the last interval plus 8 + 1 yr for the eruption factor for a 77 ± 1-yr estimate.0 + 2.0 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 76 76 76 76 2 ta 2 b 2 F2 3 c a 69 65 66 8.5 ± 0. using cross-sections from different levels.0 Known Age (yr) 57 57 57 67 67 1.0 0.5 ± 6.0 1.0 + 8.0 + 19. showed the typical radiating lines in the dentin and a belt of dark staining granules in the dentin at the dentinocenlental junction.0 1.5 + 0.0 66. 1 Cross-section of the lateral lower right incisor from a 76-year-old white male.0 + 12.0 1. A midroot tooth section of the lower right first premolar from the youngest individual of this study. Six of the ten estimates were 67 yr (Table).5 78.0 1. which were as little as 12 mm from root tip to neck. give the estimated age of the individual from whom that tooth was extracted.0 2. As the teeth were being prepared for processing. the lower right first molar. Downloaded from http://jdr.0 + 1.0 1.5 11. Eds. and the lower right third molar.0 + 11.0 10. Fig.0 67.0 6.0 2.. From this junction.0 + 1. 6 CEMENTAL ANNULA TION: FORENSIC DENTAL AGING TABLE CEMENTUM ANNULATION COUNTS WITH RESULTANT AGE ESTIMATES COMPARED TO KNOWN AGES 815 Cadaver No.5 0. A section from the lower right molar of this same individual had a less prominent dentinocemental border and had 5 1 annulations.5 + 1. Saunders Co. and the appropriate eruption factor was added. PA: W.5 + 12. the upper left first premolar. Tooth Root Designation 4 6 Segment f a Number of Annulations 47 Eruption* Range (yr) 11. = The dentition was nearly complete in the second individ- ual.0 2. the upper left second molar.5 + 0.0 66.0 + 1.0 2 White Female 5 6 6 t 8 8 8 3 White Male Fl d 7 7a 7 b bb c 54 47 48 48 70 d 11. such as the third molar.0 ± 2.0 77.0 Age Estimates Range (yr) 58. Philadelphia.5 ± 0. the lengths of the roots were measured. Since some teeth. In some cases.0 + 1.5 yr for eruption time were added. The canine and second premolar teeth had the longest roots.0 + 1. 35th ed. D = dentin. 61 No. up to 18 mm from root tip to the neck of the tooth.0 76.5 ± 0.0 73.0 67.0 66. Fig. Sections were taken from the lower right first premolar.. At least one age estimate was made for each tooth (Table). 2010 .5 1. 1 White Female No. so more teeth were available for study. designated as Number 2 (Table).5 63.sagepub. 1235..0 + 19.0 1.5 + 1. p. yielding an age estimate of 57.com by on June 23.0 + 1. giving an estimated age of 58 + 1 yr for a person with a known age of 57 yr.5 68.0 8.0 + 1. both a median figure plus or minus the time to bridge that span of years was used in designating the estimate of age.5 6. 1973. P. Since premolars erupt from ten to 12 yr of age.5 57.0 6 4 4 d b d b c 51 52 56 59 60 62 55 59.B.5 ± 0. to which 6. resulting in age estimates of from 63 to 70 yr for this 67-year-old individual.5 *Gray's Anatomy. up to three age estimates were made for one tooth. 11 ± 1 yr were added to the 47 annulations. jet dentinocemental junction. C = cementum. Annulation counts were made. R. designated as Number I (Table).0 + 19.0 1. The first premolars and molars had the shortest roots..Vol. may erupt at any time over a five-year span.0 70. Dentition was very incomplete in the third individual. the lower right second premolar.5 67. Warwick.0 1.L.5 yr. Results.

2 Annulations in these species (as in humans) were generally most prominent on the labial or buccal aspect'of the root. Annulations counted from a photograph provide a close estimate of the actual age of the individual from which the tooth was extracted. Springfield. 1).W. OHTAISHI.E. Once the ideal areas of cementum were located and photographed. the grinding was not necessary. This technique may be extremely valuable in forensic medicine. but also total perimeter evaluation at that cross-sectional level. G.: Age Determination of Black Bears by Cementum Layers.. 1967. In one.: Cementum Layering in the Canine Tooth of a 28-year-old Captive Black Bear. Varying the light and using even microprojection are other means that have been used to study annulations. for making the cadaver teeth available. this prominence in the cemental annulations did not generally extend completely across the labial/buccal aspect but often occurred near and/or extended onto one of the contact surfaces. NY Fish and Game J 13:233-234. 7. Thomas H. Canad J Zool 41:111-113. 1966. where roots come close together at the base.C /" jct. it was found that.: Age Determination in the Black Bear.5 yr estimate. FREE. cemental annulations are present and are indicative of age. and Drs. 1963. Any tooth or series of teeth can be used as long as the cementum is intact. Sampson and Dr. A. R.5 yr for the eruption factor for a 76. 1966. S. in a study on nonhibernating bears in captivity. however. Age estimates varied from 73 to 78 yr. FREE.5 ± 1. S. B. 5. a common. Dr. S. and HACHIYA.. that cemental annulations can be an accurate means of age determination in nonhibernating mammals such as monkeys. Since the labial/ buccal aspect of a midsagittal plane did not consistently have the most prominent cemental annulations. N. who live on a relatively constant diet throughout the year. jet dentinocemental junction. Wagner.5 but. R. Serial cross-sections provided not only an evaluation of the changes in cementum along the root (as would a longitudinal section).P. JMed Primatol 9:274-285.S. Once the sections were prepared. year after year.. 1966. Hall for providing extracted teeth for initial phases of the study. The use of a low speed diamond saw on intact.F. E. This was also a problem in studying teeth from the bear6 and the marmo- Discussion. Acknowledgments. = = Downloaded from http://jdr. The authors thank Dr. 4. lasting a few months of each year. Fig. KLEVEZAL. For years it was reported that cemental annulation counts were of value only in hibernating animals such as the bear.. G. was made that the cemental annulations were inconsistent and of no value for determining age. while in the other. K. Texas A&M University. It is nearly impossible to get a representative annulation in these areas. the right lower lateral incisor (Fig. 2 . C cementum. SAUER.6 It has been found. The most prominent feature of the cementum was the clarity and sharpness of the annulations. fixed human teeth to provide cross-sections which are stained and mounted gives a rapid economical means of identifying age in human cadavers.. Cross-sections through undecalcified tooth roots can be properly stained and mounted so that cemental annulations can be photographed through a light microscope. Department of Commerce. S. 2. forensic dentistry. in the present study. they were equally as prominent but with more cementocytes and short wavy disruptions set.5 + 1. prominent nutritional/metabolic change. P.4-7 or in migrating animals such as the seal. PM = periodontal membrane. Through proper processing and with the use of light microscopy and photography.6 It is most important when evaluating such thick sections to remove or lower the condenser and reduce the light in order to be able to observe the elusive cemental annulations.: Seasonal Annuli in the Cementum of the Teeth of Barren Ground Caribou. it was necessary to locate the area to be photographed. 1966. H.sagepub. a 76-year-old white male.W. 1980.: Age Determination of Mammals from Annual Layers in Teeth and Bones (translated from Russian by J.2 Similarly. the cementum is much thicker. WADA.Cross-section of the lower left canine from a 76-year-old white male. STONEBERG.2'6 In the human.J. 1978. Davis and Robert A. NY Fish and Game J 13:125-139.: Age Determination in Black Bears from Canine Tooth Sections.816 STOTT ET AL.: Determination of Age in the Japanese Monkey from Growth Layers in the Dental Cementum. the annulations were very even and parallel. STOTT. P. 128 pp.A. in humans. crosssections rather than longitudinal sections were used. and ERICKSON. Countable cemental annulations are present in human teeth.R. REFERENCES 1.J WldlfMngmt 30:411-414. the left lower canine tooth. 2010 . it was relatively easy to make the counts on enlarged photographs. Lines on the cementum indicate annulations by 10 plus 6 for the last interval plus 10. and BROWNE.G.W. N. 1969). S. was evident.com by on June 23. Tina (Rothen) Clarkson for consultation on the use of the low speed diamond saw for cutting the teeth.20 In both cases. J. 8. and LEVY. and KLEINENBERG. In studying annulations of teeth with more than one root. U. J WldlfMngmt 30:389410. Areas where there is an "apparent" duplication of some of the annulations can provide false counts and must be avoided. MARKS. and anthropology.: Cemental Annulation as an Age Criterion in the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).. Salkind. 2). McEWAN. Primates 19:775-784. counts of cemental annulations can be a means of age determination.A.H.M. However. and SAUER. VA 22151. College of Medicine. Sawing of intact bear teeth to make sections which were then ground thin has been described. 4. SIS. Number 3. C. the conclusion Conclusions. 3. JDent Res June 1982 (Fig. and JONKEL. D =dentin.R. 6.

175-176.: Age Determination in Moose from Sectioned Incisor Teeth.: Age Determination in the Harbor Seal.: Aging Grey Squirrels by Cementum Annuli in Razor Sectioned Teeth. International Conference of Pakistan Dental Surgeons An International Conference of Dental Surgeons will be held in Rawalpindi/Islamabad. 22.L. 17. R. Pakistan. E.: A Textbook of Histology. J Wldlf Mngmt 30:197-199. 18.Vol. 1973. G. R.. D. 2010 . 61 No. D..R. 23. 15. and RAUSCH.sagepub. and FISHER.E.D. Organizing Committee. J WldlfMngmt 42:444448.W. 1972. Eye-lens Weight. L.J. W.: Dahl's Method for Calcium. Pakistan. 1968. 19. J WldlfMngmt 23:315321. 1975. PA: W.M. Eds. and PIMLOTT. A.C. 1966. 10th ed. 13. LINHART. Warwick.. Rawalpindi.. RANSOM. Gray's Anatomy. J Wldlf Mngmt 41:692-699. PA: W.: Aging Red Foxes (Vulpes falva) by Counting the Annular Cementum Rings of Their Teeth. 35th ed. J.B. BLOOM. H. DOUGLAS. and KNOWLTON.E.A.W. 1965.A. M. A. FOGL.G. NY Fish and Game J 20:54-61. STONE. Saunders Co. 10. 1978.: Determining Age of White-tailed Deer from Layers in Cementum of Molars. 14.: Further Studies of Dental Annuli for Aging White-tailed Deer. W. New York: McGraw-Hill. J WldlfMngmt 36:46-55.B. Cervus elaphus. AFID. 21. D.F. HARKNESS. and Williams... W. Canad J Zool 43:173-178. LUNA. 1970.: Accuracy of Moose Age Determinations from Incisor Cementum Layers. Philadelphia. Nature 186:92-93. 6 CEMENTAL ANNULA TION: FORENSIC DENTAL AGING 817 9.: Population Status of River Otter in Western Oregon.com by on June 23.. 1978. NZ JSci 13:352-358. D. R. R. Saunders Co. 1983. H. Phoco vitulina L. J. MANSFIELD.G.. J Wldlf Mngmt 31:362365. J WldlfMngmt 42:558-563. KEISS. 20. S. Downloaded from http://jdr. 16. GASAWAY. and WRIGHT.B. LOCKARD. and MOSBY. TABOR. and Dressed Bison Carcass Weight to Age. Philadelphia. 12. 11. In: Histologic Staining Methods for the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. 1960.: Cemental Deposition as an Age Criterion in Bison..S. and the Relation of Incisor Wear.E.: Comparison of Eruption-Wear Patterns and Cementum Annuli as Age Criteria in Elk.B.B.: Determining Age of Coyotes by Tooth Cementum Layers. P. and FAWCETT. J Wldlf Mngmt 33: 175-180.B. M..S. 1977. MONSON. and PARKS..: Dental Cement Layers as Criteria of Age for Deer in New Zealand with Emphasis on Red Deer. 1967. 1973. NOVAKOWSKI. SERGEANT.H. 1969. from March 22-26. pp. H. F.W. Inquiries may be addressed to Chairman. 1959.

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