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May Be Reproduced, Copied,
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Or Transmitted In Any Form
Or By Any Means!
Prepared By :
Pn Norisah bt Mustaffa
( 013-9327266)
6/22/2018 COPYRIGHT RESERVED 1
Chapter 15
Prepared By:
Norisah Mustaffa

TRIGONOMETRY


• Tangent Of An Acute Angle
• Sine Of An Acute Angle
• Cosine Of An Acute Angle
• Using The Values Of Tangent, Sine And Cosine
To Solve Problems.
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Identifying The Hypotenuse, Opposite Side And Adjacent Side

In a right-angled triangle PQR


R the side QR is the longest side,
which is opposite to the right
the side PR with xº angled (P=90º) is called the
respect to angle y hypotenuse side.
is called the
opposite side. y
TRIPLE SET OF
PYTHAGORAS’
P º Q THEOREM
(FREQUENTLY
USED)
the side PQ with respect to angle y
is called the adjacent side. 3, 4, 5
5 ,12 ,13
Pythagoras’ Theorem is frequently 7, 24, 25
used calculating the length of side. 8, 15, 17
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The Three Trigonometric Ratios That Are Best
Remembered Using The Following Mnemonics.

TOA Tan xº = Opposite side


Adjacent side

SOH Sine xº = Opposite side


Hypotenuse side

CAH Cosine xº = Adjacent side


Hypotenuse side

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The value of sine is equal to the value of
cosine in any right-angled triangle.
Cos xº = Sin yº
Respect to x Respect to y
Sin xº = Cos yº
a) Tan xº = 3 a) Tan yº = 4
4 3

xº 5 cm
b) Sin xº = 3 b) Sin yº = 4
4 cm 5 5
c) Cos xº = 4 c) Cos yº = 3
5 5

3 cm
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Tangent Of An Acute Angle
15.1
In A Right-Angled Triangle
Determining And Calculating The Tangent Of An Acute Angle
In a right-angled triangle PQR
The tangent of an acute angle is R
the value of the ratio, hypotenuse
Tan xº = Opposite side xº
TOA Adjacent side

(a) Respect to angle x, y


tan xº = PQ P º Q
PR
(b) Respect to angle y,
tan yº = PR
PQ
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1 In the diagram, ABC is a right-angled triangle.
Find the value of,
(a) tan x (b) tan y
C Solution: (a) Tan xº = AB

xº AC
Tan x = opposite
5 =3 adjacent
4
4 (TOA)
y (b) Tan yº = AC
3 º
A B
AB
=4
3

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2 In the diagram, M is the mid-point of QR. Given
tan xº = 2 , calculate the length of PM
3 From diagram
Solution:
R Tan xº = 12 = 2
12 QR 3 From question
P QR = 12 x 3
15 cm 9 cm 2 _______
M PM = √122 + 92
= 18 cm
_______
= √144 + 81
9 cm ___
= √225
Q PM = 15 cm

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3 In the diagram, PQR and STQ are straight lines.
Given tan xº = 3 , calculate the length of SR.
4
From diagram
Solution:
S Tan x = 6 = 3
From question
QT 4
8 ________
cm QT = 6 x 4
20 cm SR = √12 2 + 162
T 3
________
xº 8 cm = 8 cm = √144 + 256
___
= √400
P 6 cm Q 12 cm R
SR = 20 cm
Pythagoras’ Theorem is frequently
used calculating the length of side.

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4 In the diagram, BCD is a straight line. CD = AC and
tan xº = 12 , calculate tan y.
5
B 5 cm C ll 13 cm D Solution:
xº yº
________
From diagram
12 13 cm AC = √122 + 52
cm From
question
_______
Tan xº = 12 = 12 = √144 + 25
BC 5 ___
A = √169
BC = 5 cm
Tan yº = AB AC = CD = 13 cm
BD
= 12 = 2
18 3

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5 In the diagram, given that tan xº = 1 and tan y = 2.
3
Calculate the value of x.
D Solution:
Tan xº = 8 = 1
AB 3
8
cm AB = 8 x 3
= 24 cm
xº yº
A 24 cm B 4 cm C Tan yº = 8 = 2
x BC 1
x = AB + BC BC = 8 x 1
= 24 + 4 2
= 4 cm
= 28 cm

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6 In the diagram, PQR is a straight line and PQ = QR.
Calculate the value of tan yº. Give your answer as
decimal.
________
S
Solution: PQ = √132 - 122

________
= √169 - 144
___
12 = √25 = 5
cm 13 cm
PQ = QR = 5 cm

yº Tan yº = 12
ll ll 10
P 5 cm Q 5 cm R
= 1.20

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7 In the diagram, ΔPQR is a right-angled triangle.
Given that tan yº = 2 , find the value of x.
3
Solution:

Tan yº = x = 2
R 12 3
yº x = 12 x 2
3
P
12 cm = 8 cm
x
8 cm
Q

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8 In the diagram, PQR is a straight line. Given that QS
= 13 cm and RS = 15 cm. Find the value of tan yº.

S Solution: ________
SP = √132 - 52 ________
_______ PR = √152 - 122
= √169 - 25 _______
___ = √225 - 144
15 cm = √144 __
12 cm
SP = 12 cm = √81
13 cm
PR = 9 cm

yº Tan yº = 12 = 4
P 5 cm Q R 9 3
9 cm

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9 In the diagram, ABC is a straight line. D
Given that tan xº = 4 , and tan y = 1 ,
3 2
Find the length of AB.
Solution: 12 cm

Tan xº = 12 = 4
BC 3 yº xº
A 15 cm B 9 cm C
BC = 12 x 3 24 cm
4 Tan yº = 12 = 1
= 9 cm AC 2
AC = 12 x 2 AB = 24 – 9
1 = 15 cm
= 24 cm

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10 In the diagram, ABCD is a trapezium.
Find the value of tan yº. C

Solution: 13 cm yº
5 cm
______ 9
DE = √132 - 52 D 12 cm E cm
_______ 4 cm 4 cm
= √169 - 25
___ A B
Tan yº = DE
= √144 CE
DE = 12 cm = 12
5
=22
5

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Sine Of An Acute Angle
15.2
In A Right-Angled Triangle
Determining And Calculating The Sine Of An Acute Angle
In a right-angled triangle PQR
The sine of an acute angle is the R
value of the ratio, hypotenuse
Sine xº = Opposite side xº
SOH Hypotenuse side

(a) Respect to angle xº, y


sin xº = PQ P º Q
QR
(b) Respect to angle y,
sin yº = PR
QR
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In the diagram, ABC and BDE are straight lines.
1 Calculate the value of sin aº. Give your answer in 2
decimal places.
Solution:
7 cm B 5 cm C ________
A
BE = √252 - 72
12 cm 13 cm
_______
ll

aº = √625 - 49
25 cm ___
D = √576 = 24
12 cm
BD = DE = 12 cm
ll

Sin aº = 5
13
E
= 0.38

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2 In the diagram, ABC is a straight line.
Given that sin xº = 1 , find the value of y in cm.
D 2

16 cm Solution:
10 cm y ________
8 cm DB = √102 - 62
xº _______
A 6 cm B C = √100 - 36
Sin xº = 8 = 1 __
y 2 = √64

y = 8 x2 DB = 8 cm
1
= 16 cm

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In the diagram, BCE is a straight line. C is the mid-
3 point of BE. Find the value of sin xº.

Solution:
E 8 cm D
______ ______
xº CE = √102 - 82 AB = √132 - 122
_______ ________
6 cm 10 cm = √100 - 64 = √169 - 144
13 __ __
cm C = √36 = √25
CE = BC = 6 cm AB = 5 cm
6 cm
Sin xº = AB = 5
AE 13
A 5 cm B

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In the diagram, JMK, KML and JNM are right-angled
4 triangles. JK = KL = JN = NM = 2 cm. Find the value
of sin xº.
Solution:
M ______ _____
2 cm MJ = √22 + 22 MK = √22 + 8
N _ ____ __
xº = √4 + 4 = √12
√8 cm
__ 4 cm __
______
ll

2 cm √12 cm = √8
ML = √22 + 12
__
J = √16
2 cm L =4
K 2 cm
Sin xº = KL = 2 = 1
ML 4 2

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5 In the diagram, ABCD is a quadrilateral. Find the
value of sin xº.
Solution:
C
______
26 cm xº BD = √62 + 82 _______
D ______ CD = √242 + 102
= √36 + 64 _______
24 cm
6 cm 10 cm ___ = √576+100
= √100 ___
= √676
A 8 cm B BD = 10 cm
CD = 26 cm

Sin xº = BD = 10 = 5
CD 26 13

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In the diagram, PRQ is a chord of the circle with
6 centre O. Given that sin xº = 5 , find the length of PQ.
13
S Solution:
Sin xº = 2.5 = 5
OP 13 _________
O PR = √6.52 – 2.52
OP = 2.5 x 13 __________
6.5
cm 2.5 cm 5 = √42.25 – 6.25
xº = 6.5 cm ___
P 6 cm Q = √36
R
PQ = 6 x 2 PR = 6 cm
= 12 cm

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7 In the diagram, JKL is an isosceles triangle. Find
the value of sin xº.

Solution:
L ______
LM = √302 -182
________
30 cm = √900 - 324
24 cm ___
= √576

LM = 24 cm
J 18 cm 36Mcm 18 cm K
Sin xº = LM = 24 = 4
LK 30 5

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In the diagram, ABC is a straight line. If sin CAD =
8 4 , find the length of BC, in cm.
5
32 cm Solution:
D C
Sin CAD = 32 = 4
AD 5
18 cm
AD = 32 x 5
24 cm 4 _______
40 cm AC = √402- 322
B = 40 cm _________
= √1600-1024
6 cm
___
BC = 24 – 6 = √576
A = 18 cm
AC = 24 cm

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9 In the diagram, JKLM is a rectangle and NML is a
straight line. If tan xº = 5 , Find the value of sin yº.
12
J 6 cm K
Solution:
______
xº Tan xº = NM = 5 JN = √ 52+122
13 cm JM 12 ________
12 cm NM = 5 cm = √ 25 + 144
____
JM = 12 cm
= √ 169

yº JN = 13 cm
Sin yº = JM = 12
N 5 cm M L JN 13

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10 In the diagram, AEC is a straight line. Given that
sin xº = 2 , calculate the length of AE, in cm.
3
Solution:
D
Sin xº = 6 = 2
6 cm EC 3
xº EC = 6 x 3
A 3 cm E 12 cm 9 cm C 2
= 9 cm ______
AC = √ 152- 92
9 cm
15 cm ________
= √ 225 - 81
AE = 12 – 9 ____
B = √ 144
= 3 cm
AC = 12 cm

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Cosine Of An Acute Angle
15.3
In A Right-Angled Triangle
Determining And Calculating The Cosine Of An Acute Angle
In a right-angled triangle PQR
The sine of an acute angle is the R
value of the ratio, hypotenuse
Cosine xº = Adjacent side xº
CAH Hypotenuse side

(a) Respect to angle x, y


Cos xº = PR P º Q
QR
(b) Respect to angle y,
Cos yº = PQ
QR
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1 Find the value of cos x° in the diagram shown.

CAH
______ Cos xº = Adjacent
Solution: AB = √ 152- 92 Hypotenuse
A ________
= √ 225 - 81
xº ____
15 cm = √ 144 Cos xº = AB
12 cm BC
AC = 12 cm
= 12
B 9 cm C 15
=4
5

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In the diagram shown, tan xº = 3 ,
2 4
Find the value of cos yº.
C

10 cm Solution:
6 cm

D xº B ______
8 cm tan xº = BC = 3
AB = √ 152+ 82
BD 4 ________
BD = 4 x 2 = √ 225 + 64
= 8 cm ____
15 cm 17 cm = √ 289
AB = 17 cm
yº Cos yº = AD = 15
AB 17
A
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3 In the diagram, ADC is a straight line. Given
that sin xº = 3 , Find the value of cos yº.
5
C Solution:

6 cm 10 cm sin xº = CD = 3
______
10 5
D 8 cm xº AB = √ 152+ 82
B ________
CD = 10 x 3
21 cm 5 = √ 225 + 64
____
15 = 6 cm = √ 289
cm yº 17 cm
AB = 17 cm
Cos yº = AD = 15
A
AB 17

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4 In the diagram, PQS is a straight line and PQ = PS.
Find the value of cos yº.
T Pythagoras’ Theorem :
Solution:
3 , 4 , 5 is proportional to

10 cm 6 , 8 , 10
6 cm ______
TS = √ 62+ 82
S ________
P ll 4 llcm = √ 36 + 64
4 cm Q
____
5 cm 3 cm
= √ 100

R TS = 10 cm
Cos yº = 6 = 3
10 5

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5 In the diagram, RST is a straight line and. If sin yº
= 5 , find the value of cos yº.
13
Solution:
sin yº = ST = 5
R 13 13
U
xº ST = 5 cm
12 cm yº ______
9 cm
US = √ 132- 52
13 cm
14 cm ________
S = √ 169 - 25
5 cm ____
T = √ 144
Cos yº = SU = 12 US = 12 cm
TU 13

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6 In the diagram, ABCD is a rectangle. Calculate the
value of cos xº, give your answer as a decimal.
Solution:
D 12 cm C _______
US = √ 152- 122
________
= √ 225 -144
9 cm 15 cm ____
xº = √ 81
US = 9 cm
A 12 cm B Cos xº = AD = 9
AC 15
Pythagoras’ Theorem :
3 , 4 , 5 is proportional to = 0.60

9, 12 , 15

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7 In the diagram, RSTU is a square. Find the value of
cos yº.
Solution:
U 9 cm V 3 cm T ______
yº RV = √ 122+ 92
________
12 cm 15 cm = √ 144 + 81
____
= √ 225 Cos yº = UV = 9
RV 15
R S RV = 15 cm
=3
5

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8 In the diagram, cos xº = 3. Calculate the length of BC.
5
Solution: ______
AC = √ 152- 92
Cos xº = 9 = 3 ________
D 9 cm C
AD 5 = √ 225 - 81
xº AD = 5 x 9 ____
3 = √ 144
12 cm = 15 cm AC = 12 cm
15 cm _______
13 cm
BC = √ 122 + 52
________
= √ 144 + 25
____
A 5 cm B = √ 169
BC = 13 cm

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9 In the diagram, BCD is a straight line.
Given that cos xº = 4 , calculate cos yº.
7

Solution:
D
Cos xº = AC = 4
AD 7
C
AC = 4 cm
7 cm

xº 4 cm Cos yº = AC = 4
yº AB 8
A 8 cm B = 1
2

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10 In the diagram, PQRS is a square. Given that U
is the mid-point of QR, find the value of cos yº.

______
Solution: TU = √ 82 + 62
4 cm T
_______
S 8 cm R = √ 64 + 36

____
6 cm = √ 100
ll
10 cm
12 cm U TU = 10 cm
6 cm
ll

Cos yº = TR = 8
TU 10
P Q
= 4
5

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The three special angles between 0º and 90º
whose trigonometric ratios are exact.
30° a) 30° b) 45° c) 60°
Angle xº tan xº sin xº cos xº
2
√3 0° 0 0 1
30° 1 1 √3
60° √3 2 2
1 45° 1 1 1
√2 √2
45°
1 √2 60° √3 √3 1
2 2
45° 90°  1 0

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Changing The Measurement Units Of Angles
• The unit of measurement of angle is
degree (º).
• The size of an angle is measured
using a protractor. It small division
on it represents one degree (1º).

1º = 60’ • A sixtieth part of a degree is known


as a minute (1’)
1’ = 1 º • The unit of measurement of angle can
60 be changed
* from degrees to degrees and minutes.
* from degrees and minute to degrees.

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Converting from degrees to degrees and minutes

a) 16.5° c) 56.4°
= 16° + 0.5° = 56° + 0.4°
= 16° + 0.5 x 60 = 56° + 0.4 x 60
= 16° 30’ = 56° 24’

b) 72.8° d) 39.9°
= 72° + 0.8° = 39° + 0.9°
= 72° + 0.8 x 60 = 39° + 0.9 x 60
= 72° 48’ = 39° 54’

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Converting from degrees and minutes to degrees.

a) 45° 24’ c) 68º 18’


= 45° + 24 ÷ 60 = 68° + 18 ÷ 60
= 45° + 0.4° = 68° + 0.3
= 45.4° = 68.3°

b) 32° 36’ d) 18° 12’


= 32° + 36 ÷ 60 = 18° + 12 ÷ 60
= 32° + 0.6° = 18° + 0.2
= 32.6° = 18.2°

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Finding The Values Of Tangent, Sine And
Cosine Using The Scientific Calculator.

a) Sin 40° d) Cos 45.7°


= 0.6428 = 0.6984
b) Sin 65.3° e) Tan 65°18’
= 0.9085 = 2.1741
c) Cos 25°36’ f) Tan 16.3°
= 0.9018 = 0.2924
Scientific calculators can be used to determine the values
of tangent, sine and cosine of an acute angle and the
values of angle θ, if the values of tangent, sine and cosine
are given.
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Finding The Values Of Tangent, Sine And
Cosine Using The Scientific Calculator.

a) Sin x° = 0.8211 d) Cos x° = 0.8660


x = 55°11’ x = 30°
b) Sin x° = 0.5000 e) Tan x° = 1.732
x = 30° x = 60°
c) Cos x° = 0.6428 f) Tan x° = 1.625
x = 50° x = 58°24’
Scientific calculators can be used to determine the values
of tangent, sine and cosine of an acute angle and the
values of angle θ, if the values of tangent, sine and cosine
are given.
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Finding The Values Of Tangent, Sine And Cosine Without
Using The Scientific Calculator.
Example:
x 30º 45º 60º 4 sin 30º - 3 cos 60º
__
1 __ =4x1–3x1
tan x
√3
1 √3 2 2
= 2 – 1½
x 30º 45º 60º
__
=½ 5(tan 45º) + 2(cos 60º)
__
1 __
1 √3
sin x
2 √2 2
=5x1+2x½
x 30º 45º 60º =5+1
__
√3 __
1 __
1 =6
cos x
2 √2 2

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1 Find the length y, of each side in each of the following.
a) c)
b) y 5 cm
40°
60°
y 8 cm 5 cm
6.13 cm
10 cm
50° y
4.2 cm

y = sin 50° y = cos 60° y = tan 40°


8 10 5

y = sin 50° x 8 y = cos 60° x 10 y = tan 40° x 5

y = 0.7660 x 8 y = 0.5 x 10 y = 0.8391 x 5

y = 6.13 cm y = 5 cm y = 4.20 cm

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2 Find the values of tangent, sine and cosine of
x and y in each of the following.
a) b) S c) 6 cm

32 cm 13
17 cm
5 8 xº 10
yº cm
8 cm 8 cm yº
ll ll
6 cm P 12 Q 15
10 cm xº
Given tan ∠SPQ = 5 Given sin xº = 3
Given cos yº = ½ ,
12 5
find cos xº.
express sin ∠SPQ. find tan yº.
cos xº = 6
10 Sin ∠SPQ tan yº,

x= 3 = 5 = 8
5 13 15
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3 Find the value of angles x in each of the following.
a) b) c)
5 cm
4
6 cm 12 cm
cm
6

xº xº cm
3 cm

Cos xº = 3 =0.5 tan xº = 5 = 1.25 sin xº = 6 = 0.5


6 4 12
x = 60° x =51°20’ x = 30°

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4 Solving problems involving trigonometric ratios
A see-saw is 2.6 m long and one end is touching the
ground and making an angle 30º. Calculate the height
of the other end of the sea-saw.
Solution: 2.6 m
h = sin 30º h
2.6 30º

h = 1 x 2.6
2
= 1.3 m h

30º
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5 Solving problems involving trigonometric ratios
A ladder of a length 4.5 m reaches the top of a wall 3 m
tall. Find the angle that the ladder makes with the wall.
Give your answer correct to the nearest degree.
Solution:
4.5 m x
cos xº = 3_ 3m
4.5
= 0.6667
x = 48.2º
Use a scientific
calculator to find out
the value of cos β.

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6 Solving problems involving trigonometric ratios
Luqman flying a kite lets out 240 m of string. If the
string taut (slanting) and makes an angle of 70º with
the ground, find the height of the kite.
Solution: h = sin 70º
240
h = sin 70º x 240 240 m
h
= 0.9397 x 240
70º
= 225.5 m
Use a scientific
calculator to find out
the value of sin 70º.
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7 Solving problems involving trigonometric ratios
Khairul is waving a flag 6.6 m high and the rays of the
sun are inclined at the angle of 55º. Find the length of
the shadow cast by the flagpole.
Solution: tan 55º = 6.6
a
a = 6.6__
tan 55º
6.6 m
= 6.6
Use a scientific
1.43
calculator to find out
the value of tan 55º.
= 4.62 m
55º
a
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8 Solving problems involving trigonometric ratios
Hazmir is painting wall. A ladder 3.5 m long leans against the
wall and makes an angle 48º with the ground. How long,
(a) does the ladder reach up the wall.
(b) is the foot at the ladder from the wall.
Solution:
(a) x = sin 48º
3.5 (b) y = cos 48º
3.5
x = sin 48º x 3.5
y = cos 48º x 3.5
= 0.7431 x 3.5
= 0.6691 x 3.5 3.5 m
= 2.6 m x
= 2.34 m 48º
y

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9 Solving problems involving trigonometric ratios
Amin is fishing at a river. His boat is tied by a rope to
concrete wall on a river bank. The wall is 5 m above
the water level. The rope makes an angle 35º with the
wall. Find the length of the rope.
Solution:
sin 35º = 5
r rope
r = 5__ 5m
sin 35º
35º
= 5__
0.5736
= 8.72 m The length of the rope is 8.72 m

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10 Solving problems involving trigonometric ratios
The figure shows the side view of a C
building with its roof shown. CAB is 45º
Find the length of AC in m, correct to 1 A 45º B
decimal place. 17 cm
cos 45º = 17
Solution: AC
AC = 17__
34 m
cos 45º
= 17__
0.7071
= 24.0 m

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“Most research is a straight line from the
tangent of a well-known assumption to the
center of a foregone conclusion.”

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