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International Journal of Modern Research in Engineering & Management (IJMREM)

||Volume|| 1||Issue|| 6 ||Pages|| 29-40 || June 2018|| ISSN: 2581-4540

Present Conventional & Non- Conventional Energy Scenario in


Bangladesh and Its Future Aspects
1,
Md. Sourove Akther Momin , 2, Afshana Morshed, 3, Farzad Hossain , 4,
Rifat
Sultana Setu
1,
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khulna University of Engineering and Technology, Khulna,
Bangladesh
2,3,4,
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Military Institute of Science and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh

-------------------------------------------------------ABSTRACT---------------------------------------------------
The approaching energy emergency, increased by the proceeding with the exhaustion of fossil fuels,
complements the requirement for sending of Conventional & Non- Conventional energy resources in
Bangladesh, now like never before some time recently. Despite the fact that hydrocarbon resources in the
nation are restricted, the significant accessibility of Conventional & Non- Conventional energy sources as fossil
fuels, natural gas, nuclear energy and hydroelectric energy offers chances of reasonable energy-based
advancements like wave energy, energy from the Bay-of-Bengal and potential sources of geothermal energy.
Insufficiency in the energy area is a noteworthy issue in Bangladesh, which obstructs the smooth financial
improvement work processes. Along the lines, Bangladesh is confronting trouble to accomplish a generally
maintained advance in the economy because of the absence of a sound energy security. With the goal of
exploring this advance, this paper displays an exhaustive investigation of the contemporary Conventional &
Non- Conventional energy situation and future prospect in Bangladesh as far as appropriation, research and
infrastructural improvement in the nation. It has found the components that are valuable to diminish the current
energy supply emergency and abridged the present energy situation, absence of foundation and customary
energy sources to advance the Conventional & Non-Conventional energy sources to satisfy the energy request
in future in Bangladesh.

KEYWORDS: Conventional energy, Non- Conventional Energy, Fossil fuels, Hydrocarbons, Nuclear Energy.
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Date of Submission: Date, 06 June 2018 Date of Publication: 11 June 2018
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I. INTRODUCTION
Bangladesh is a densely populated country with a minuscule area and here many people live below the poverty
line. Almost 17% of the population can be said profoundly impecunious due to the lower income [1]. We have
many natural resources, some are conventional and some are non-conventional. Conventional sources of energy
are commonly utilized and generally non-renewable sources of energy, which are being used since a long time
and cannot be replaced due to the environmental damage, lack of sustainability. On the other hand, non-
conventional sources of energy are considered renewable sources because their fuel sources can be perpetually
replenished. Fossil fuels, natural gas, nuclear energy, hydraulic energy etc. are considered conventional sources
of energy whereas the wind, rain, solar, tidal, geo-thermal, hydropower, biomass etc. are considered non-
conventional sources of energy [2]. Energy denotes thing that is capable of doing something or having potential
to make any vicissitude and which is the major substance for sustainable economic development of a country.
The necessity of electricity has been on the elevate due to growing population and incrementing economic
activities. Engenderment of natural gas, fuel, coal, peat and other non-renewable energies are endeavoring to
consummate the authoritative ordinance. Renewable energies are withal come up to accommodate in different
ways and the amount of renewable energy consumed has incremented remarkably because of the increment of
population.

II. SOURCES OF ENERGY


According to source of energy, there are two types of energy:
1. Renewable or non-conventional or renewable energy.
2. Non-renewable or conventional energy.

Renewable or non-conventional energy: The energy engendered from natural resources i.e. from our nature
and circumventions is called non-conventional energy. Non-conventional energy can be replenished at the same

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rate as it is utilized. Wind, rain, solar, tides, geothermal, hydro-power and several forms of biomass, these are
energies which are naturally replenished and ecologically safe. Non-conventional sources of energy are Solar
Energy, Wind Energy, Tidal Energy, Hydro-electric Energy, Geothermal Energy, Ocean wave Energy, Ocean
thermal Energy, Biomass.

Non-renewable or conventional energy: Conventional energy is energy extracted from limited resources that
will eventually dwindle, becoming too sumptuous and too environmentally damaging to retrieve. This type of
energy cannot be superseded once it is utilized or energy that is not being superseded as expeditious as it is
being utilized. Conventional energy resources are those, which have been in utilization since a long time.
Conventional sources of energy include fossil fuels, natural gas, nuclear energy and hydroelectric energy. Fossil
fuels include fuels which are most commonly used such as wood, coal, peat and petroleum. Conventional
sources of energy are Fossil Fuel, Nuclear Power and Crude Oil.

III. OVERVIEW OF PRESENT ENERGY SCENARIO


Bangladesh has plenty of conventional non- conventional energy resources and congruously utilizing can meet
the required energy demand [3]. The conventional non- conventional energy technology is developing gradually
which makes the implementation of such technology more practical, economically feasible and the regime of
Bangladesh has fixated on utilizing the conventional non- conventional energy resources such as solar energy,
wind energy, micro-hydro, biomass, biogas [3].

Renewable Energy Scenario Bangladesh

21% Solar and Micro


2% Hydro
Wind
14%
63%
Biogas and
Biomass
Others

Figure 1: Renewable energy scenario in Bangladesh

Solar Energy: Since, solar power is safe, clean and Non-conventional, it is more widely utilized in recent
years. Many local regimes provide incentives for the engenderment of solar technology and its installation in
residences. Since, Bangladesh is a subtropical country; approximately 70% of year sunlight is dropped in
Bangladesh [4]. The location of Bangladesh is between 20.30 and 26.38 degrees north latitude and 88.04 and
92.44 degrees east which is suitable for solar energy utilization [5].

Figure 2: Irrigation system using solar Energy

Nowadays NGO's are working hard in order to provide solar panels to the rural people at a frugal price. Non-
conventional energy goal has already been taken for rural people by the regime that includes 100% Non-
conventional first-time electricity for 6 million households by 2017. Within the terminus of 2014, 3.5 million
households have already reached 100% Non-conventional first-time electricity with solar and batteries that
mean approximately 15 million people [6]. Moreover, power engendering of Bangladesh from renewable
energy sources has become 176 MW in October 2015, of which: 150 MW was engendered from solar home
system, 16 MW was emanating from rooftop solar, 1.614 and 1.562 MW was engendered from solar mini-grid
and solar irrigation respectively [6]. However, there are approximately three solar irrigation projects in Rajshahi

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and one solar irrigation project in Naogaon [7]. Moreover, 5.16 kW photovoltaic panels are directly utilizing in
order to run 5hp AC submersible pump under the Rajshahi Solar irrigation project established by KOICA and
11.2 kW photovoltaic panels are utilizing in order to run 10 hp submersible pump in Naogaon Solar irrigation
project established by Grameen Shakti namely Grameen Shakti Solar Pump Pilot Project [7]. Moreover, ten
solar irrigation projects have been installed by IDCOL in Jessore where 10 HP submersible pumps are run by
11.84 kW photovoltaic panels [7]. Moreover, about 5000 Km Street is lightning using solar energy and it’s also
use as the easy bike energy. In the remote area of Bangladesh [8], the people use only use the energy from sun
to fulfill the power demand.

Fig. 3 and 4 show the highest and lowest intensity of direct radiation in W/m2 [8] and cumulative generation
from solar energy [9] respectively.

Figure 3: The highest and lowest intensity of direct radiation

Figure 4: Cumulative generation from Solar Energy

Wind Energy: Wind energy is pure, Non-conventional, out of danger and can be converted to utilizable power.
It is a kind of kinetic energy which can turn turbines. Moreover, the power is directly dependent on the wind
velocity. Sizably voluminous-scale wind farms are connected to the local power transmission network with
minute turbines in order to provide electricity to isolated areas. Bangladesh has a 724 km long coast line and
many diminutive islands in the Bay of Bengal, where vigorous south-westerly trade wind and sea-breeze blow
in the summer months and in the winter months, there is gentle north-easterly trade wind and land breeze [5].
Moreover, the annual mean wind speed is greater than 5 m/s which is calculated at 30m height. It has been
found that wind speed is above 4.5 m/s in the northeaster parts of Bangladesh but in case of other parts, it is
around 3.5 m/s. However, F. Rahman took some measurements and found higher values of wind speed than the
metrological department which gives a year-long systematic wind speed at a height of 25 m in 1996 -97 at
seven coastal sites [4]. Recently, a 900 KW plant has been established which is Bangladesh’s first-ever
electricity generation from the wind [5]. The power plant is located in the southeastern Feni district near the
Muhuri Dam which has four separate wind turbine of 225 KW each [5]. It is fully prepared to generate
electricity and supply to the national grid and Muhuri Irrigation Project. Eleven small wind turbines have
already been installed in various coastal sites by BRAC, two wind generators of 1 KW and 300 W have been
installed at Chakoria Shrimp Farm by Grameen Shakti, four small wind generators (3xl.5KW + ONE 10 KW)
have been installed in Barguna district. Moreover, power cyclone shelters have been established along the coast
and electricity has been provided to fish and prawn farms in Cox’s Bazar by Grameen Shakti. Moreover, 2 MW
of power has been engendered from wind power till October 2015 [6].

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Figure 5: Wind mill project in southeastern Feni

Table 1 shows feasibility of wind condition at different places of Bangladesh [4].


Table 1: Wind condition at different places of Bangladesh

Site Reference height (m) Annual average wind speed (m/s)


Cox’s Bazar 10 2.42
Cumilla Airport 6 2.21
Bhola Island 7 2.44
Patenga Airport 5 2.45
Khepupara 10 2.36
Hatia Island 6 2.08
Sandip Island 5 2.16
Kutubdia Island 6 2.09
Teknaf 5 2.16

Small scale hydro power energy


Small scale hydropower becomes popular due to low cost, reliability and environment friendly. Table 2 shows
small scale hydro power energy scenario is given below [1].

Table 2: Potential small hydro sites identified by BWDB and BPDB

District River/chara/stream Name Potential of electrical energy in KW


Foy’s Lake 4
Chittagong Hinguli Chara 12
Hoto Jumira 15
Chittagong Hill Tracts Sealock 81
Lungi Chara 10
Chittagong
Budia Chara 10
Ranga Pani Gung 626
Sylhet
Nikhari Chara 26
Bhuri Khora Chikli 32
Rangpur
Fulkumar 48
Dahuk 24
Chawai 32
Talam 24
Dinajpur
Tangn 48
Pathraj 32
Punarbhaba 11
Bhgai-Kongsa 69 & 48 KW for 10 & 2 month respectively
Jamalpur
Marisi 35 & 20 KW for 10 & 2 month respectively

Tidal Energy: Tidal energy is a kind of hydropower which can convert the energy of tides into electrical
power. As tides are more prognosticable than wind and sunlight, tidal energy can facilely be engendered from
the transmuting sea levels. Tidal rising and falling along the coastal of Bangladesh is between 2 to 5 meters.
Among the 5 meter tides experienced coastal areas, Sandwip has the best prospect to engender tidal energy.
Bangladesh has the ability to engender tidal power from these coastal tidal resources by applying low head tidal
forms of kineticism & medium head tidal forms of kineticism. Moreover, low head tidal forms of kineticism

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which uses tides of height within 2m to 5m can be utilized in areas like Barisal, Khulna, Satkhira, Bagerhat,
Mongla, Cox's Bazar etc. regions and the height tidal forms of kineticism which utilize more than 5m of tides
can be mainly utilized in Sandwip. However, a flood control barrage subsists around the entire island which
contains 28 sluice gates and the country has the ability to engender approximately 16.49 MW from Sandwip
[10].
Table 3 shows summery of Sandip project [10].

Table 3: Summery of Sandwip project

Parameter Value
Tidal range 4.86m
No. of sluice gates 28
No. of turbine uses 05
Basin area 4*106 m2
Construction time 4 years
Cost US $10.37millions
Output power 16.49 MW

Hydro-electricity: Hydroelectric energy is a term customarily reserved for astronomically immense-scale


hydroelectric dams. Hydropower is engendered by damming rivers and utilizing the currents to spin turbines.
Though hydro-electric power plant requires high capital cost than other types of power plants but running cost
is comparatively low.

Figure 6: Kaptai Hydro-electric Dam


Major rivers of Bangladesh have high water flow rate during summer season but it is reduced subsequently in
winter. At present, Bangladesh has only hydro-power plant situated at Karnaphuli, Rangamati with a capacity of
230 MW which is operated by BPDB [4]. Two sites have already been culled for another two Hydro power
plants at the Matamuhuri and Sangu rivers; one designated The Mata-muhuri project (140MW) and the other
The Sangu Project (75MW) [5]. Moreover, a 20kW micro-hydro power plant has been designed by BPDB in
collaboration with RET Screen, developed by CANMET Energy Diversification Research Laboratory of
Canada (CEDRL) at Barkal waterfall [5].

Biogas Energy & Biomass: Since Bangladesh is an agricultural country, biomass is available in a colossal
amount. Agricultural residue, poultry dropping, rice husk, water hyacinth, cattle dung etc. utilized for biomass
power generation are available in Bangladesh. The figure shown below betokens that the amount of rice
engenderment in Bangladesh has been incremented in recent years and this amount of engenderment has made
us more optimistic in utilizing the rice husk as a biomass fuel which is nevertheless an impeccable source of
renewable energy in the context of Bangladesh. The temperature in Bangladesh conventionally varies from 6ºC
to 40ºC and withal the raw materials for biogas are facilely and frugally available everywhere in this country
[5]. Since the ideal temperature for biogas is around 35ºC, Bangladesh has a sublime climate for biogas
engenderment. The Regime along with several NGOs is collaborating for the development of power
engenderment from Biogas. Grameen Shakti which is one of the most uttered NGO in the field of biogas has
consummated 13,500 biogas plants [5]. Recently a 25 kW Biogas based Power Plant has been proposed in
Rajshahi by Seed Bangla Foundation. IDCOL which is a Regime owned Investment Company fixed a target of
establishing 37,669 biogas plants in Bangladesh by 2012, under its National Domestic Biogas and Manure
programmers (NDBMP) [5]. Besides working in partnership with IDCOL, domestic biogas plants have been
constructed by some organizations using their own funds. Grameen Shakti, BRAC and some other private
organizations promote biogas plants independently. IDCOL and its partner organizations have installed 18,713

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biogas plants until May 2011. Moreover, 5 MW of power has been engendered from biogas and 1 MW from
biomass till October 2015 [6].

Geothermal Energy: Geothermal energy is a kind of thermal energy which is engendered and stored inside the
earth surface. It is very much cost efficacious and environmentally cordial. Using this technology, it is possible
to utilize the steam and hot water engendered inside the earth surface to engender electricity. However,
geothermal energy is engendered in the earth’s core which is about 4,000 miles below the surface [5]. Actually,
this process occurs in the all rocks because of the slow decaying of the radioactive particles, engenderment of
high temperature inside the earth [5]. About 10,715 megawatts (MW) of geothermal energy is engendered in 24
countries ecumenical [5]. The northern districts of Bangladesh show the prospect to explore the geothermal
resources [5].

Ocean Energy: Ocean wave energy is engendered directly from oceans wave. It is another special type of
renewable energy which avails to decrement the deleterious emissions of greenhouse gasses associated with the
generation of power. Actually, it can be potentially a paramount source of electricity for Bangladesh. Though
the main purport of ocean wave energy is electricity generation, it can additionally be utilized for the pumping
of water, water desalination etc. However, the Oscillating water Column method is technically feasible and
becoming captivating in this purport. This type of wave energy harnessing contrivance is being commissioned
by several countries such as India [4]. Bangladesh has a possibility of harnessing ocean wave energy from the
Bay of Bengal [4]. Recently, sizably voluminous ocean area has been gained by Bangladesh from two neighbor
countries- India & Myanmar which is a great victory for Bangladesh and due to this great victory, it can be
possible for Bangladesh to establish rights over 118,813 square kilometers or territorial sea [10]. Now,
Bangladesh has a 200 nautical miles exclusive economic zone and access to open sea, thus averting it from
turning into a sea-locked country [10]. However, this exclusive economic zone is a kind of sea-zone over which
it has been possible for Bangladesh to establish sovereign rights for the utilization and exploration of marine
resources, including oil and gas [10]. Moreover, astronomically immense potential energy is available in this
sizably voluminous sea-zone which can be utilized by engendering electricity [10].

Fossil Fuel: Composition of fossil fuels occurred many years ago when animals, plants and other creatures died
and buried under the earth. Their remains gradually transmuted over the years because of the pressure and heat
in the earth’s crust and composed to coal, oil and gas.

Coal Sector: Coal is a paramount energy now in Bangladesh. The subsistence and development of the coal
industry have very paramount consequentiality to the national economic security. As tardy as 2009-10, gas
sharing for the generation of electricity was 89% but coal and oil sharing were 3.5% and 5% respectively [1]. In
this situation, it would be a good alternative if gas could be replaced by Coal. But it was not possible, because
coal issue suffered because of earnest management crisis. Nobody in the last few decades gave coal mining a
plausible thought. That left the country thoroughly extemporaneous for a crisis when gas was in short supply.
28% of our primary energy is supplied by coal [1]. Reserve of coal in five fields of Bangladesh is estimated at
3.0 billion tones equipollent to 67 tcf of gas, which can conveniently accommodate the energy desiderata of
Bangladesh for 50 years [1].
Table 4: Coal deposits in Bangladesh

Name of coal Year of discovery Depth of coal Area (Km2) Reserve (million Type of coal
deposits layer (m) MT)
Phulbaria 1997 4150 24 572 Bituminous
Dighipara 1995 250 15 600 Bituminous
Jamalgonj 1962 640-1158 11.7 1053 Bituminous
Khalaspir 1989 257-451 5.75 400 Bituminous
Barapukuria 1985 118-506 6.68 390 Bituminous

Different coal-based power plants have already been planned, such as Barapukuria 3rd unit by Bangladesh
Power Development Board, BPDB, Chittagong power station by Orion group, Khulna south power station by
Orion group, Maowa power station by Orion group, Munshiganj power plant by Orion group, Mongla power
station by Bangladesh Power Development Board, BPDB, Rampal power station by Bangladesh Power
Development Board, BPDB & National Thermal Power Corporation etc. [11] [12]. Barapukuria 3rd unit is a
proposed 250-megawatt continuation of the subsisting plant at Phulbari, Dinajpur which is approved by the
Cabinet Purchase Committee. A report which was made in October 2015 states that construction work on the
project had commenced which have a capacity to consume 600,000 tonnes of coal per year, with 75 percent
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emanating from Barapukuria Coal Mining Company [13]. A report which was made in April 2013 states that
proposed 282.67-megawatt Chittagong power station has been merged with Orion's 283-megawatt Khulna
power station into a single 565 MW plant at Khulna [14].

No new report was found on Orion’s website about Khulna power station & Maowa power station since 2014
[15] [16] [12]. Moreover, due to ecumenical pressure and public opposition, plans for the Khulna plant appear
to be rescinded [15]. A report made on April 26, 2016, states Maowa, Chittagong, Khulna power plant as under
implemented. Moreover, according to the report, a deal has been signed for 635 MW coal-based power plant in
Gazaria, Munshianj which will be in operation within 45 months [17]. UNESCO has urged Bangladesh to
abrogate the Rampal 1320 MW plant on October 20, 2016, verbalizing it imperils the nearby Sundarbans [18].

Crude Oil & Petroleum based products: Crude oil is a coalescence of hydrocarbons that subsists in a liquid
phase in natural subterranean reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through
surface dissevering facilities. Only consequential oil reserve of Bangladesh is the Haripur oil reserve which was
found in 1989 at the northwest of Sylhet district [9]. Moreover, 0.84 Mtoe reserve was supposed to be
recuperated as of the year 2004 among the estimated reserve of 1.4 Mtoe but the exploitation was forsaken due
to the presence of water in the oil zone and poor oil quality [9]. Bangladesh largely depends on imported crude
and refined petroleum products for conveyance, industrial heating, and minuscule scale power generation. At
present, 4.87 million metric tons (MT) refined oil is needed for Bangladesh with an annual magnification rate of
5%. Production pattern of Eastern Refinery in 2014-15 is shown [19].
Fig. 7 represents the production process of Eastern Refinery in 2015-16 [19].

Figure 7 Production process of Eastern Refinery in 2015-16

Natural Gas: Natural gas is one of the major sources of ore energy. The first gas field was discovered in Sylhet
at 1955. A report made on 16 January 2017 has expressed the recent gas engenderment scenario of Bangladesh
[20].

Fig. 8 represents gas production scenario of Bangladesh in mmcfd [20].

Figure 8: Gas production scenario of Bangladesh in mmcfd

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The fig. 8 shows a recent scenario of gas engenderment of 20 gas fields in mmcfd. Here, it can be visually
perceived that Bibiyana gas field has the highest amount of engenderment whereas Begumganj has the lowest
amount of engenderment. Bangladesh has 27 TCF natural gas reserves among which 18 TCF is proven reserve.
About 2380 mmcfd gas is explored against the desideratum of 3800 mmcfd gas every day. Daily shortage of gas
engenderment in Bangladesh was 600 mmcfd against estimated desideratum of 3300 mmcfd gas [20].

Fig. 9 represents gas distributions in different fields in the year 2017-18 [21].

Figure 9: Gas distributions in different fields in the year 2017-18

IV. FUTURE ENERGY SCENARIO


Bangladesh can dream an effulgent future, where conventional and non-conventional resources are the major
contribute to our energy commix [22]. The Bangladeshi Government has set a target to have 3,168 MW of
renewable energy capacity installed by 2021. The Government also aims to have a 5% share of renewable
energy in electricity generation by the cessation of 2015, which is planned to increment to 10% by 2021. The
Government plans to integrate 1,740 MW of solar power, 1,370 MW of wind energy capacity, 100% electricity
access to rural areas by 2021, with the remaining balance to be largely composed of biomass-predicated power
generation technologies. Less than 10 MW each will be integrated through biogas and mini-hydro power
projects [23] [6]. Government additionally took sundry steps for non-renewable resources in different power
stations.

Solar Energy: Solar energy can be probably the most effective solution to our energy needs in near future.
Magnification in the solar energy sector will diminish the encumbrance on gas. Moreover, electrifying
computer centers and other workplaces can be possible by utilizing solar power. Since solar energy can provide
innocuous perpetual energy supply, massive load shedding can be minimized by further magnification of solar
system. At least half of our power crisis can be eradicated by constructing more solar panels in our rural area.
Since rural people do not have congruous erudition about solar energy, proper information must be given to
them in order to understand the importance of solar panels. Moreover, regime must take indispensable steps in
order to keep solar panels among the buying capacity of rural people. Replacing hybrid system in place of solar
irrigation system will be very much profitable for Bangladesh. Around five districts use this solar irrigation
system. The demand is increasing day by day. Eco-friendly solar powered rickshaws must be introduced for
solving power crisis of Bangladesh [8].

Wind Energy: Wind energy can be one of the effective solutions to solve our energy needs. Small Wind
Turbine (SWT) is considered the most opportune option for Bangladesh to solve energy crisis which can be
conveyed and installed with minimum land and infrastructure requisite. The advantage of installing small wind
turbine is that it can engender electricity at a minimum cost only 10 to 15 taka per kW whereas if we install
solar photovoltaic cell, it will take approximately 50 taka per kW. So, it will be very much economically
amicable. Moreover, large wind turbines may be established in the coastal and higher altitude areas. It can be
very much subsidiary for hoisting water and engendering of electricity in the coastal region of Bangladesh,
which may solve energy quandaries throughout the country to some extent. Again, by utilizing wind power to

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drive water pumps, can potentially solve the watering quandary in the croplands to a great extent. However,
wind plants should be propagated to the users and the owners should be inspirited to construct them with locally
available materials.

Tidal Energy: Maximum people living in the coastal areas have to pass their conventional financial crisis by
boating, fishing and so on which is not a fixed solution. But by utilizing tidal power they can irrigate and can
make their life financially well-off than before. Through establishing of a tidal power plant requires a high start
up cost, but maintenance cost is very low. Moreover, running cost is very low, so establishing of a tidal power
plant is very much profitable. Establishment of tidal barrages can secure a city from hazardous tide during a
storm. It can be said that establishing tidal power plants in the coastal areas like Sandip will be very much
auxiliary in order to solve power crisis. Spot cull can be the most consequential factor for constructing a tidal
power engendering plant and availability of high tide waves which is opportune for embankment must be culled
for tidal power engendering [10]. Considerable stability of culled spot such as stable tidal wave, the slightest
probability of natural disaster etc. for making a tidal power engendering plant must be considered and the spot
should additionally be away from the locality and have facile transformation system [10]. However,
development of innovative tidal turbine system and coastal infrastructure, the popularization of tidal energy can
be expected in our country which will be very much subsidiary for solving our power crisis and meeting our
incrementing power demand in future [10].

Hydro-electricity: Since, hydro-electricity is a sustainable renewable energy and because of having good
potential for the utilization of this energy in order to meet the daily necessities, it can bring tremendous
prosperity in the energy sector in near future. Moreover, rivers of Bangladesh have a low flow rate in winter, so
it will be a good conception to engender a diversion channel along the bridge, diversion structure across the
river channel and the powerhouse at a congruous location in order to offer a felicitous head. Because of
incrementing demand for power in the country, it is considered indispensable that hydro-power potential of the
Sangu and the Matamuhari as well as the Brahmaputra River Basins, being sources of non-conventional energy,
be given priority for their development. There is also sizably voluminous potential for Bangladesh to tap in to
Nepal and Bhutan’s huge potential hydroelectric generation capacity [24]. However, the regime must accentuate
that any hydro-power project must be subjected to exhaustive environmental and gregarious impact assessment.

Biogas Energy: Biogas can be one of the effective solutions to solve our energy needs. Through high
transmission and distribution costs, transmission losses, heavily subsidized pricing are great problems for
supplying electricity in the rural areas, biomass fuels can be the best cost-effective solution in this regard.
Biogas engenderment from biomass is a proven technology and there is no peril of failure of gas engenderment
from biomasses if opportune design and supervision can be ascertained. So, priority must be taken on
dissemination of biomass fuel throughout the country in order to solve energy crisis. Moreover, Bangladesh has
a colossal potential in utilizing biogas technology. If proper steps can be taken, it will be possible for the
country to utilize approximately 29.7 million m3 biogases from the livestock of the country which is identically
tantamount to 1.5 million tons of kerosene [3]. However, all the families of Bangladesh must be associated with
biogas plants in order to engender huge amounts of biogas from human wastes. Moreover, the municipal wastes
can be a potential source of biogas engenderment across Bangladesh and Organic putrescent portion can be
utilized for Biogas engenderment [25].

Ocean Energy: Ocean wave & ocean thermal energy can be very much auxiliary to solve our energy requisites.
There is a plethora of possibilities to engender electricity from Sandwip Island, Kutubdia Island and Saint
Martin Island utilizing OWC system and it will seem the most frugal source of grid quality renewable energy of
our country in near future. Moreover, the increment of energy security and system stability will decrease the
overall price of renewable energy.

Geothermal Energy: Since geothermal power satiates the criteria for a felicitous energy system for Bangladesh
and if our regime deploys this energy source, it will be a great source for solving the present energy crisis of our
country. Government and private organizations must come forward in order to construct geothermal power
plants in Bangladesh in an early possible time. Although establishing a geothermal power plant will require
high cost because of the high cost of drilling wells, it can be reduced by utilizing the forsook on-shore dry wells
which have ample high temperature gradient.

Natural Gas, Coal, and Fuel: Bangladesh has experienced some quandaries due to the rigorous power crisis
for proximately a decade. Cognizant reserves such as coal and natural gas of commercial primary energy
sources are the only reserves in Bangladesh but they are inhibited compared to the development requisites of the

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nation. By acknowledging some initiatives of the regime and working towards them opportunely, it will be
possible for Bangladesh to solve unprecedented energy demands. Since the essentiality of natural gas is
incrementing perpetually, compulsory steps must be taken in order to decrement the utilization of natural gas.
Moreover, shifting the indispensability of natural gas into renewable energy can be an efficacious solution.
Otherwise, there will be a great shortage of natural gas in near future. Since incognizance on the coal-predicated
power plant installation may make the condition worse, regime must take indispensable steps in this regard. The
Power System Master Plan 2016 expects an estimated 60 million tons of coal to be imported by 2041 to
ascertain a steady supply for the planned power stations in a manner that reduces both economical and
gregarious cost, possibly through a separate port for coal imports [26]. If National Coal Policy work with an
organized plan, it will be possible to solve energy quandary within the determined period.

Nuclear Energy: Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant is a orchestrated 2.4 gigawatt nuclear power plant of
Bangladesh which will be the country's first nuclear power plant and the first of two units is expected to go into
operation in 2023 [27]. It will be constructed by the Russian Rosatom State Atomic Energy Corporation and the
nuclear power plant will be built at Rooppur which is 200 km north-west of Dhaka, at Paksey union on the bank
of the river Padma in the Ishwardi sub-district of Pabna district, in the northwest of the country [27].

Table 5 shows planned nuclear power reactors of Bangladesh [27].

Table 5: Planned nuclear power reactors

Unit Type Capacity Construction start Operation


Rooppur 1 AES-2006/V-392M 1200 MW 2019 2023
Rooppur 2 AES-2006/V-392M 1200 MW 2019 2024

Figure 10: Rooppur proposed nuclar power plant

V. CONCLUSION
In Bangladesh, energy crisis is one of the major quandaries, which can be met by utilizing the conventional &
non-conventional energy in congruous way. Here, the summary of this paper exhibits that there is a
considerable opportunity of Bangladesh to meet the energy crisis and economic magnification through
conventional and non-conventional resource. By utilizing the resources in a balanced and felicitous way, the
energy demand can have met and procure a surplus as well. Bangladesh government should come forward to
take salubrious steps to reduce the energy crisis from natural resources sector from the country. Government
should take immediate steps for the conservation of ecology and bio-diversity. Bangladesh is already vigorously
dependent upon renewable and non-renewable energy which is utilized with the avail of technologies and
eminent initiatives have been taken by different agencies and organizations. As we came to know about the
alarming conditions of our energy system along with some future initiatives that is needs to be executed
felicitously to reduce the crisis. The current scenario of country's renewable energy sector has been presented
with compulsory data and graphs. This solution will definitely avail solving current energy crisis and at the
same time will have a positive impact over gregarious and economical status of our country utilizing
technologies. Finally, government has to introduce advanced technology to extract natural resources and
felicitous laws should be enacted to get the best outcome from natural resources sector.

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