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a Set: 1) by enumeration

A set is an unordered collection of objects. S = {a,b,c,d}

the students in this class

the chairs in this room

The objects in a set are called the elements, or members

of the set. A set is said to contain its elements.

The notation a ∈ A denotes that a is an element of the

set A.

If a is not a member of A, write a ∉ A

Set of all vowels in the English alphabet: N = natural numbers = {0,1,2,3….}

V = {a,e,i,o,u} Z = integers = {…,-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3,…}

Set of all odd positive integers less than 10: Z⁺ = positive integers = {1,2,3,…..}

O = {1,3,5,7,9} R = set of real numbers

Set of all positive integers less than 100: R+ = set of positive real numbers

S = {1,2,3,……..,99} C = set of complex numbers.

Set of all integers less than 0: Q = set of rational numbers

S = {…., -3,-2,-1}

Describing a set : 2) Set-Builder

Universal Set and Empty Set

Notation

The universal set U is the set containing everything

Specify the property or properties that all members must currently under consideration.

satisfy: Sometimes implicit

S = {x | x is a positive integer less than 100} Sometimes explicitly stated.

Venn Diagram

O = {x | x is an odd positive integer less than 10} Contents depend on the context.

O = {x ∈ Z⁺ | x is odd and x < 10} The empty set is the set with no U

A predicate may be used:

elements. Symbolized ∅, but

S = {x | P(x)} V aei

ou

{} also used.

e.g.: S1 = {x | Prime(x)} S2={ x | Posint(x) ∧ Odd(x) ∧ x<10)

Positive rational numbers:

Q+ = {x ∈ R | x = p/q, for some positive integers p,q} In this case U =English

Q+ = {x ∈ R |∃ p,q. PosInt(x) ∧ Posint(y) → x = p/q, } Letters is reasonable

Sets can be elements of sets. Definition: x S if x is one of the elements of S

{{1,2,3},a, {b,c}} (Notation: we could have just as well have used the

binary predicate notation: isIn(x,S), or infix english

The empty set is different from a set containing the x in S )

empty set. e.g. 1 {3, 5, 1}

∅ ≠ { ∅ } Definition: x S if x is not one of the elements of S

(In regular predicate logic this might be isNotIn(x,S)

e.g. 4 {3, 5, 1}

NOTE: is the negation of , so it is not strictly

necessary: isNotIn(x,S) ≡ ¬ isIn(x,S)

So we can say that x S is “defined as” ¬ (x S)

Predicates on sets: subset Predicates on sets: equality

Definition: Set A is subset of set B (written as A B) Definition: Two sets A and B are equal (written A=B)

if and only if every element of A is an element of B. if and only if they have the same elements.

In logical notation In logic: A=B =def

A B =def x. ((x ∈ A) → (x ∈ B)) Proposition: (A=B) ⟷ (A B B A)

E.g.,

{1,5,5,5,3,3,1} {1,3,5,6} Alternative definition:

(A = B) =def A B B A

Proposition: (A=B) ⟷

Section Summary Union

Set Operations

Union Definition: Let A and B be sets. The union of the sets

Intersection A and B, denoted by A ∪ B, is the set:

Complementation

Difference

Proving Set Identities and Theorems

Alternative statement in FOL:

x.( x ∈ (A ∪ B) ⟷ ( (x A) (x B) ) )

Intersection Difference

Definition: The intersection of sets A and B, denoted Definition: Let A and B be sets. The difference of A

by A ∩ B, is and B, denoted by A – B, is the set containing the

elements of A that are not in B. The difference of A and

B is also called the complement of A with respect to B.

Alternative First Order Logic statement: A – B = {x | x ∈ A ∧ x ∉ B}

x.( x ∈ (A ∩ B) ⟷ ( (x ∈ A) (x ∈ B) ) ) What is the alternate logical formula defining difference?

A

B

Definition: If A is a set, then the complement of the A Different ways to prove set identities:

(with respect to U), denoted by Ā is the set U - A 1. Prove that each set (side of the identity) is a

Ā = {x ∈ U | x ∉ A} subset of the other.

(The complement of A is sometimes denoted by Ac .) a. Ordinarily

b. (Super-formally using FOL rules of inference)

Alternate formulation of definition in FOL: 2. Use set builder notation and propositional

x.( x ∈ Ā ⟷ ( (x ∈ U) ¬(x ∈ A) ) ) logic.

Venn Diagram for Complement

U

Ā

A

Proof of Second De Morgan Law Proof of

Example: Prove that (Rosen, Fig.1o, Sec.2.2 formalized a bit)

Solution A: We prove this identity by showing that:

(Where did x come from?)

1) and

defn on non-membership

2)

details ) this once! Nevermore! Proof of

assume (for →I) for

1

arbitrary g

2 (g U) ¬(g A ∩ B ) definition of compl.

3 g U simplification 2

4 ¬ (g A ∩ B) simplif 2

5 ¬ (g A g b) Def. of intersection 4

6 ¬ (g A) ¬ (g B) deMorgan 5

7 (g U) {¬ (g A) ¬ (g B)} Addition 3,6

8 {(g U) ¬(g A) {(g U) ¬(g B)} distrib

9 by def of complement

10 by def of union

11 → Intro 1,10

12 UG: g was arbitrary

Set-Builder Notation Proof of

(Figure 11, Sec 2.2)

propositional equivalences inside inside the set. Because of the

use of equivalences, we do not need to show subset in both

directions.

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