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SCH4U – Chemistry Lesson 17

The effect of temperature on the

endothermic, aqueous equilibrium:
Co(H2O)62+ + 4Cl- CoCl42- + 6 H2O
Pink Blue

The violet solution in the center is at 25°C

and contains significant quantities of both
pink Co(H2O)62+ and blue CoCl42-. When
Blue anhydrous the solution is cooled, it turns pink because
cobalt(II) chloride the equilibrium is shifted to the left. Heating
the solution favors the blue CoCl42- ions.
and pink

Solubility Equilibrium is a dynamic equilibrium between a solute and a solvent in a

saturated solution in a closed system.

Dissolution is the process of dissolving. Consider orange drink crystals dissolving in

water. The orange crystals will dissolve into solution as the solute molecules collide
with the water molecules. As the orange crystals dissolve, the solution becomes more
and more orange. Even when the solution is saturated, the crystals and dissolved ions
are still moving. As the dissolved ions hit the solid drink crystals, they may form ionic
bonds and crystallize out of solution. Nearing equilibrium, the rate of dissolution and
crystallization approach one another and no visible changes are present.

Phase Equilibrium - A dynamic equilibrium called phase equilibrium can exist

between different states of a substance in a closed system. In a closed system,
molecules in the liquid phase can gain enough energy from collisions to move in the
gaseous phase. Similarly as the number of gaseous molecules increases, these
molecules can move back into the liquid phase.

Chemical Reaction Equilibrium - Some chemical reactions called quantitative

reactions proceed completely, meaning all of the reactants are converted into products
based on the balanced chemical equation.

Consider the decomposition of calcium carbonate in an open system:

CaCO3(s) Æ CaO(s) + CO2(g)

In this open system, equilibrium cannot be established since the carbon dioxide gas
escapes into the external environment as the calcium carbonate decomposes.

If the same reaction was placed in a closed container and allowed to proceed, both
reactants and products are present after a given time frame:

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