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ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING (Code T) Hours/Week Sessional University Exams

Semester I&II
No Code Subject L T D/P Marks Hours Marks
1 93.101 Mathematics I (CMNPHETAR) 2 2 - 50 3 100
2 93.102 Applied Physics “ 2 1 - 50 3 100
3 93.103 Engg.Chemistry “ 2 1 - 50 3 100
4 93.104 Engg.Mechanics “ 2 1 - 50 3 100
5 93.105 Engineering Graphics “ 1 0 3 50 3 100
6 93.106 Humanities “ 2 - - 50 3 100
7 93.107 Into. To Comp. Sc. “ 2 - 2 50 3 100
8 93.108 Elements of Electronics TA 2 1 - 50 3 100
9 93.109 Engg. Workshop (CMNPHETAR) - - 3 150 - -
Total 15 6 8 550 800
Total Marks 1350

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING (Code T) Hours/Week Sessional University Exams

Semester III
No Code Subject L T D/P Marks Hours Marks
1 93.301 Mathematics II (CMNPHETAR) 3 2 - 50 3 100
2 93.302 Electrical Technology 3 1 - 50 3 100
3 93.303 Solid State Devices & Microelectronics 3 2 - 50 3 100
4 93.304 Electronic Circuits-I 3 1 - 50 3 100
5 93.305 Network Analysis & Synthesis 3 2 - 50 3 100
6 93.306 Electronics Workshop - - 3 150 - -
7 93.307 Basic Electronics Lab - - 3 150 - -
Total 15 8 6 550 500
Total Marks 1050

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING (Code T) Hours/Week Sessional University Exams

Semester IV
No Code Subject L T D/P Marks Hours Marks
1 93.401 Mathematics III (CMNPHETAR) 3 2 0 50 3 100
2 93.402 Mechanical Technology 3 1 0 50 3 100
3 93.403 Signals & Systems 3 1 0 50 3 100
4 93.404 Electronics Circuits-II 3 1 0 50 3 100
5 93.405 Digital Electronics 3 1 0 50 3 100
6 93.406 Electrical Engineering Lab - - 4 150 3 -
7 93.407 Electronic Circuits Lab - - 4 150 - -
Total 15 6 8 550 500
Total Marks 1050

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING (Code T) Hours/Week Sessional University Exams

Semester V
No Code Subject L T D/P Marks Hours Marks
1 93.501 Mathematics IV (CMNPHETAR) 3 2 0 50 3 100
2 93.502 Electronic Instruments & Measurements 3 1 0 50 3 100
3 93.503 Computer Organisation 3 1 0 50 3 100
4 93.504 Linear ICs & Applications 3 1 0 50 3 100
5 93.505 Electromagnetic Theory 3 1 0 50 3 100
6 93.506 Digital Electronics Lab - - 4 150 - -
7 93.507 Integrated Circuits Lab - - 4 150 - -
Total 15 6 8 550 500
Total Marks 1050
ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING (Code T) Hours/Week Sessional University Exams
Semester VI
No Code Subject L T D/P Marks Hours Marks
1 93.602 Industrial Engineering & Management 3 1 - 50 3 100
2 93.602 Communication Engineering 3 1 - 50 3 100
3 93.603 Industrial Electronics 3 1 - 50 3 100
4 93.604 Computer Programming 3 - 2 50 3 100
5 93.605 Microprocessors 3 1 - 50 3 100
6 93.606 Communication Engineering Lab - - 4 150 - -
7 93.607 Mini Project - - 4 150 - -
Total 15 4 10 550 500
Total Marks 1050

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING (Code T) Hours/Week Sessional University Exams

Semester VII
No Code Subject L T D/P Marks Hours Marks
1 93.701 Microwave Engineering 3 1 - 50 3 100
2 93.702 Digital Signal Processing 3 1 - 50 3 100
3 93.703 Control Systems 3 1 - 50 3 100
4 93.704 Radiation & Propagation 3 1 - 50 3 100
5 93.705 Elective-I 3 2 - 50 3 100
6 93.706 Microprocessor Lab - - 2 150 - -
7 93.707 Industrial Electronics Lab - - 2 150 - -
8 93.708 Project Design & Seminar - - 2 50 - -
2 50 - -
Total 15 6 8 650 500
Total Marks 1150

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING (Code T) Hours/Week Sessional University Exams

Semester VIII
No Code Subject L T D/P Marks Hours Marks
1 93.801 Microprocessor Based Systems 3 1 - 50 3 100
2 93.802 Television Engineering 3 1 - 50 3 100
3 93.803 Advanced Communication Systems 3 1 - 50 3 100
4 93.804 Radar, Guidance & Navigation 3 1 - 50 3 100
5 93.805 Elective-II 3 1 - 50 3 100
6 93.806 Communication Systems & Microwave Lab - - 3 150 3 100
7 93.807 Project & Project Seminar - - 6 100 - -
8 93.808 General Viva-Voce - - - - - 100
Total 15 5 9 500 600
Total Marks 1100

Grand Total Marks from Semesters I to VIII - 7800

Elective I Elective II
Information Theory & Coding Digital image Processing
Optical Communication I Optical Instrumentation
Computer Architecture & Parallel Processing Computer Networks
Biomedical Instrumentation – I Biomedical Instrumentation - II
Modern Control Theory - I Modern Control Theory - II
VLSI Design
93.101-93.107. (CMNPHTEAR)

Module 1

Resistors, Preferred values, colour codes, fixed resistors, general construction,

critical R value, high frequency equivalent circuit, temperature coefficient of
resistor, voltage coefficient of resistor.General purpose resistor, carbon
composition resistors, film resistors, carbon film, oxide film, thick and thin film,
thin metal film resistors, low power wire wound resistors, medium power
resistors, high power resistors, precision resistors. Specialised resistors, high
frequency types, meter multipliers and shunts, shunt, power ceramic composition
type, high resistance type, fusible resistors, positive temperature coefficient
resistors, ballasts. Trimming potentiometers, wire wound cermet, carbon
composition, metal film, specifications such as total resistance, resolution, setting
stability rotational life. Capacitors, colour code, classification base on dielectric,
paper, film glass, ceramic(general purpose) temp. compensating, tantalum.
Aluminium electrolytic main applications, advantage, disadvantage,range of
values, range of maximum DC voltage rating for above. Electrolytic capacitor,
theory, polarized, semipolarized and non-polarized types, voltage rating, riple,
leakage current, application & precaution, tantalum electrolytic and stable
capacitors. Trimmer capacitors, air, ceramic, glass, plastic, mica types, and
applications. Transformers, audio video, pulse transformers, inductors, various
types. Resonance, series, parallel, expression for half power frequency, relation
between bandwidth Q and resonant frequency comparison of parallel and series

Module 2
Vaccum tubes, basic principles of diodes, triodes, tetrode and pentode.
Semiconductor theory, band theory of metals. Intrinsic and Extrinsic semi
conductors. PN junction diodes characteristics. Basic transistor theory, different
configuration and characteristics.

Module 3
Electron dynamics, motions of charge particles in electric, magnetic and
combined electric & magnetic fields. Basic instruments for electronic
measurement, use of multimeter for measurment of Current, Voltage and
Resistance. FET, Vacuum tube voltmeter, Digital voltmeter, Digital frequency
meter, Oscilloscope, measurement of frequency and phase. AF generators,
Function generators, function of control knobs and switches of above mentioned



Module 1
SI units of current, voltage, power and energy; relationships between electrical
mechanical and thermal units. Electrostatics: Electric field intensity, flux density,
permittivity, Electric potential and potential gradient, dielectric, capacitance,
breakdown voltage construction and performance of (Leclanche Cell, Mercuric
Cell), and secondary cell (Lead acid Cell), maintenance of secondary cells.
Electromagnetism: Magnetic effect of electric current, flux density, field intensity,
permeability, reluctance. Force acting on a current carrying conductor,
electromagnetic induction, Faradays Laws, lenz’s law, statically and dynamically
induced emf, self and mutual inductance.Transformers: Principle of operation,
EMF equation, phasor diagram, equivalent circuit, regulation, losses, efficiency,
auto transformer, OC and SC tests.

Module 2
AC Circuits: Waveform, frequency, peak, rms and average values, peak factor,
form factor, sinusoidally varying quantities, phase representation, reactance
impedance, power factor, Analysis of simple series and parallel circuits consisting
of R, L and C. Three phase system: Star and delta connection, relationship
between line and phase values, power in three phase circuits, lay out of a typical
power system (Block diagram only), Measurement of power using two

Module 3
DC generators - principles of operation, emf equation, type of generators,
characteristics and applications. DC motors: torque and speed operations, types
characteristics and applications, principles of starting.Synchronous machines:
Alternator, emf equation, principles of operation synchronous motor: methods of
starting, applications.3 phase induction machines: types, slip, characteristics and

1. H. Cotton, Applied electricity. 2. B.L. Theraja, Electrical technology.
N.B.. : Total nine questions: Three from each module. Answer any two questions
from each module.


Module 1
The Schrodinger wave equation. Potential well problem - Energy bands - Metals,
semiconductors and insulators - direct and indirect band gap
semiconductors.Charge carriers in semiconductors - electron and holes -
Effective mass - intrinsic material - extrinsic material - Carrier concentration -
Fermi level - Electron and hole concentration at equilibrium - temperature
dependence of carrier concentration - Drift of carrier - conductivity and mobility -
Effect of temperature and doping on mobility - hall effect.Direct and indirect
recombination, trapping - Steady state carrier generation - Quasi fermi level -
measurement of lifetime - diffusion of charge carriers - diffusion coefficients -
Einsten’s relations Continuity equations - diffusion length, diffusion current, drift

Module 2
PN diode structure - equilibrium condition - The contact potential - Equilibrium
Fermi level - Space charge at a junction - Forward and reverse biased junctions -
Carrier injection - Minority and majority carrier currents – V-I characteristics -
Diode equivalent circuit - Small signal parameters - Reverse bias breakdown -
Transient ac conditions, temperature dependence of parameters - Metal semi
conductor junctions - photo diodes - LED LCD.Bipolar junction transistors - BJT
structure fundamentals of BJT Operation - Minority carriers distribution and
terminal current - the coupled diode model - small signal equivalent circuit - V-I
characteristics, switching - high current and high voltage effect - photo transistor.
Module 3. JFET structure - JFET principle of operation, V-I characteristics,
equation for drain current, small-signal linear equivalent circuit, equation for
transconductance, JFET fabrication - MOSFET structure - fabrication out line -
MOS Capacitor, enhancement and characteristics of UJT and SCR. Processes
involved in integrated circuit, planar process, diffusion and epitaxy, monolithic
circuits, photolithography, isolation techniques, packing and interconnection,
Monolithic components, capacitor, resistors, diodes, bipolar and field effect
devices, A typical Monolithic circuit, Ion implantation, Principles of thin and thick
film technologies, Basic principles of LSI and VLSI.

1. Ben.G. Streetman, Solid state electronic devices, PHI .
2. Mauro Zambuto, Semiconductor Devices,.
3. D. Nagchoudhuri, Semiconductor Devices,
4. M.S. Tyagi, Introduction to Semiconductor material and devices, John Wiley
and Sons.
5. Millman and Grabel, Micro Electronics.


Module 1
Rectifiers, Filters and Regulators Rectifiers: Half wave, fullwave and bridge
rectifiers. Filters:- Capacitor, inductors, LC filters, Pi filters, voltage regulators -
Shunt and series types, line regulation, output impedance, short circuit
protection, fold back current protection, pre regulators, Design of voltage
regulator circuits. Diode Circuits .Analysis of simple diode circuits, ac load line,
dc load line, function generator circuits, diode array applications, analog switch,
multipliers, phase detector, clipping circuit, parallel clipping circuits, zener
clipping, transfer characterstics of clipper, Synthesis and analysis of clipping
circuits, clamping circuits, clamping of sinusoidal and non sinusoidal wave forms.
RC Circuits. High pass and low pass RC circuits, response to sine, step, pulse
and square wave inputs, high pass RC as differentiator and low pass RC as
Module 2
BJT Amplifiers CE, CB, CC configurations, DC analysis of transistor circuits,
Analytical and graphical approach, h-parameter model of transistor. Relationship
between CC, CB, CE parameters, expression for voltage gain, current gain input
resistance and output resistance - Analysis cascaded stages. High input
impedance - of BJT amplifiers. Effect of coupling and bypass capacitor. Hybrid Pi
equivalent circuit gain band width calculation, gain band width product, Emitter
follower at high frequency, Frequency response of cascaded stages, Design of
cascaded RC coupled CE transistor amplifier for a specified gain and bandwidth,
Frequency compensation, Low frequency compensation, High frequency
compensation, Cascade amplifier.
Module 3
FET as an amplifier, DC analysis of FETs, Biasing of FET circuits, self biasing,
biasing to compensate for temperature variations, Biasing of depletion and
enhancement type MOSFETs. Small signal analysis of FETs, Equivalent circuits
of FETs, CG, CD and CS configurations, Low frequency and high frequency
response of FET amplifier, Frequency response of cascaded FET amplifiers,
Design of cascaded FET amplifiers for specified gain and bandwidth. Feedback
amplifiers, classification of amplifiers, Feedback concepts, Feedback amplifier
topologies, properties of negative feedback amplifier, General analysis of
feedback amplifier, Multi loop feedback amplifier.
1. Electronic Circuit Design - An Engineering Approach Savant, Roden
Carpenter, Benjamin. Cumming Publishing Co. 1987.
2. Electronic Devices and Circuits - M.S. Ghausi 1985, Holt Saunders Int. ed.
3. Microelectronics - Milman and Grabel Mc Grawhill.
4. Integrated Electronics - Milman and Halkias,Mc Grawhill.
5. Pulse Digital and Switching Circuits, Millman and Taub, Mc Grawhill.
6. Advanced Electronic Circuits, Titze and Schenk.

N.B..: Set total nine questions, three from each module. Answer any two
questions from each module.

Module 1
Network theorems, Thevenin’s theorem, Norton’s theorem - Superposition
theorem, Reciprocity theorem, Miller theorem - Maximum power transfer theorem
& Maximum transfer by impedance matching and by transformer adjustment -
Insertion loss.Signal representation - Impulse, step pulse and Ramp function.
Use of Laplace Transform in the transient analysis of RC and LC networks with
impulse, step, exponential, pulse and sinusoidal input, initial and final value
theorems, step input for RLC circuits.

Module 2
Network functions - The concept of complex frequency - driving point and
transfer functions - Impulse response - Poles and Zeros of network functions and
their locations and effects on the time and frequency domain. Restriction of poles
and zeros in the driving point and transfer function. Magnitude and phase plots
from s-plane phasors, Bode plots. The dominant pole approximation - The time
constant method of obtaining the response. Parameters of two-port network;
Definition of Z, Y ABCD & h-parameters and their determination for given
network, conversion formulae.

Module 3
Coupled circuit, single tuned and double tuned circuit effect of coefficient and
coupling, Selectivity, Image impedance, Characteristic impedance and
propagation constant - Wave filters - L.P.F. H.P.F., B.P.F., B.R.F., Constant - k and
m - derived, terminating half sections - Attenuators and equalizers. Positive real
function, Testing and synthesis of one port LC, RL and RC network (foster and
cauer forms only)

1. Network Analysis - Van Valkenburg
2. Network Analysis - G.K. Mithal, Khanna Publishers.
3. An Introduction to Network Synthesis - Van Valkenburg
4. Micro electronics - Millman dnd Grabel.
5. Network theory and filter design - V.K.Aatre, Wiley Eastern.

N.B. : Set total 9 questions, three from each module. Answer any two questions
from each module.


Part A
1. Identification of components and devices.
2. Testing of components and devices.
3. Coil winding, Design and construction single and multilayer Coil.
4. Design and construction of small transformers.
5. Use of measuring instruments like Multimeter, RLC meter, Power meter,
Frequency meter, CRO for the measurements Voltage current frequency,
phase, rise time fall time etc.
6. Preliminary idea of PCB fabrication.
Part B
. Soldering practice - Soldering of given circuits.


1. Characteristics of diodes, zener diodes, transistors, FETs, MOSFETs, UJT,

2. Rectifiers circuits with filters, simple regulator circuit, regulation
characteristics, series regulator.
3. Differentiating and integrating circuits, RC filter circuits, clipping and
clamping circuits.
4. RC coupled amplifiers using transistors and FETs, determination gain
input and output impedance, frequency response characteristics.




Dirichlet’s conditions - Eulers’s formula - functions with period - even and odd
functions - Halfrange expansions - complex form. Fourier Integral - Fourier
transform - elementary properties.
Module 2. PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS; Formation - solution of first
order equations - Homogeneous linear - equations with constant
coefficients.Applications of Partial Differential Equations - The vibrating string -
One dimensional heat flow - formation of the wave equation and heat equation by
the method of separation of variables - solution of the Laplace equation in two
Module 3. LINEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEMS: Formulation - solution by
graphical and simplex methods - dulaity - The Transportation problem -
Assignment problem.


Module 1. Units of temperature, pressure, heat and energy - laws of perfect

gases- Universal gas constant - specific heats - internal energy enthalpy - laws of
thermodynamics - thermodynamic processes - constant volume, constant
pressure, isothermal, adiabatic, polyenthropic, throttiling and free expansion -
P.V. diagrams, workdone - air cycles - Carnot, Otto and diesel cycles.IC engines -
working of two stroke and four stroke engines cycle-petrol and diesel engines -
carburators - spark ignitions system - diesel fuel pump and injector (principle
only) Power transmission - Belt, rope, chain and gear drives. (Principle only)
Module 2. Refrigeration and airconditioning - air refrigeration - vapour
compression and vapour absorption refrigeration, principles of airconditioning
(description only).Fluid mechnanics: Properties of fluids - pressure, vapour
pressure, compressibility, viscosity, surfacetension, toral pressure on a surface -
centre of pressure. Principles of fluid motion - continuity - Bernollie’s equation -
venturi meter - pitot tube - flow moist - oriffice meter - laminar and turbulent flows
- Reynolds number (no problems).
Module 3. Power plants - general layouts of hydro thermal and nuclear
powerplants - head works - penstokes - hydrolic tar lines - generation of steam -
modern biolers - steam turbines - condersers - diesel engine power plants - basic
principle of nuclear reactors - solar, tidal and wind power (description only).
Reference: Ballaney, Heat Engines Morse, Power Plant.
N.B.: Set total 9 questions, three from each module.Answer any two questions
from each module.


Module 1. Signals and Spectra. Line spectra and Fourier series - periodic signals
and average power - Gibbs phenomenon - Parseval’s power theorem - Fourier
transforms and continuous spectra-symmetric and causal signals - time and
frequency relations - time delay and scale change - frequency translation and
modulation - differentiation and integration - convolution and multiplication -
impulses and transforms in the limit - properties of the unit impulse - impulses in
frequency - step and signum function - impulses in time. Signal Transmission and
Filtering. Response of linear time invariant (LTI) systems - Impulse response and
super position integral - transfer function and frequency response - signal
distortion in transmission - distortionless transmission - linear distortion -
equalization - transmission loss - power gain - repeaters - radio transmission -
filter and filtering - ideal and real filters - pulse response and rise time -
correlation and spectral density - correlation of power signals, energy signals.
Module 2. Probability and Random Variables ,Probabilities and events -
probability as frequency of occurrence - sample space and axiomatic probability -
conditional probability and statistical independence - random variables and
probability funcitons - discrete random variables - continuous random variables -
CDF’s - PDF’s - Joint and conditional PDF’s statistical average - Means,
moments, expectations and standard deviation - probability models - Binomial,
Poisson, Gaussian and Rayleigh Distributions.Amplitude Modulation AM signals
and spectra - DSB signals and spectra - modulators: Product, Square law,
Balanced and switching modulators - SSB signals and spectra, VSB signals and
Module 3. Exponential Continuous wave Modulation FM and PM signals - Narrow
band FM and PM - Tone modulation of FM and PM signals - Multitone and
periodic modulation - Modulation index and frequency deviation - Wideband FM -
Limiters - Reactance and Armstrong modulators.Detection of AM and FM
signals.AM detection; Frequency conversion and demodulation - Synchronous
detection - Envelope detection - Principles of superhetrodyne receivers - RF and
IF amplifiers - Mixer and local oscillator circuits - Tracking and alignment -
Neutralization and unilateralization.Detection of FM waves - Balanced slope
detector - Foster Seely discriminator - Ratio detector.
Text Bookss: Bruce Carlson - Communication systems 3 ed. Mc Grawhill.
N.B.: Set total nine questions, three from each module.Answer any two questions
from each module.


Module 1. Power Amplifiers. Classification of large signal amplifiers - class A, AB,

B, C, D, S - Harmonic distortion, efficiency and figure of merit of class A, AB, B;
transformer - coupled amplifiers, push pull amplifiers, advantages of push pull
amplifiers, complementary symmetry amplifiers, Design of a public address
system amplifier, power FETs, VMOS, amplifiers.Tuned Amplifiers Single tuned
circuits using BJTs and FETs, impedance transformations and transformer
coupling, narrow band tuned amplifiers, cascade tuned amplifiers, synchronous
and stagger tuning oscillation possiblilities in tuned amplifiers, Neutralisation,
Class C amplifiers, Power calculations, Expression for efficiency.
Module 2. DC Amplifiers.Various configurations of direct coupled amplifiers, study
of drift effect of Vbe, hfe, Icbo, Difference amplifier: Common mode and
difference mode signals, CMRR, Methods to improve CMRR, Cascading of
difference amplifier, chopper stabilized amplifier. Oscillators. Sinusodial
oscillators The Barkhausen criterion, practical considerations, Analysis and
design of RC phase shift oscillators, Wien bridge oscillators, Hartley and Colpitts
oscillators (all circuits using BJTs and FETs). Amplitude stabilizations, Crystal
oscillators, Frequency stability, stability criterion, UJT and Tunnel diode
Module 3. Astable, Monostable and Bistable multivibrators using BJTs, triggering
considerations, analysis and design of multivibrators. Schmitt trigger circuits,
Hystersis, Analysis and design of schmitt trigger circuits. Sweep Circuits .
Linearity, sweep speed error, displacement error, transmission error, voltage
sweep circuits, Transistor constant current sweep, Miller Sweep, Bootstrap
sweep Analysis and design of voltage sweep circuits, current sweep circuits,
simple current sweep, Linearity correction through adjustment of driving
waveforms transistor current time base generators, Blocking oscillators, a
triggered transistor blocking oscillator, base timing, emitter timing, Recovery,
Astable Blocking oscillators, Application of blocking oscillators.
References: 1. Electronic Circuit Design - An Engineering Approach Savant,
Roden, Carpenter, Benjamin. Cumming Publishing Co. 1987. 2. Electronic
Devices and Circuits - M.S.Ghausi 1985. Holt Saunders International Edition.3.
Microelectronics - Millman and Grabel Mc Grawhill 4. Integrated Electronics -
Millman and Halkias, Mc Grawhill. 5. Pulse Digital and Switching Circuits,
Millman and Taub, Mc
Grawhill. 6. Advanced Electronic Circuits, Titze and Schenk.
N.B.: Set total nine questions, three from each Module . Answer any two
questions from each module.


Module 1. Boolean Algebra, switching algebra, completely and incompletely

specified switching functions, Karnaugh method, Quine Mc-cluskey method,
Number system and their conversions, basic binary adders and subtractors, carry
look - ahead adders representation and addition of signed binary numbers, codes
for decimal numbers and their conversions, decimal adders/subtractors.
Integrated circuit gate, TTL, ECL, CMOS, NMOS, IIL Logic families,
characteristics and comparison of the major IC logic families, combinational logic
design using SSI gates, combinational logic design using MSI devices and
applications, combinational logic design using ROM array.
Module 2. Difference between combinational and sequential circuits, Flip - Flops,
Design of counters, up-down counters, shift registers, shift registers, ring
counters. Basic models of sequential machine, Equivalence and minimization,
General procedures for analysing and synthesizing synchronous flip flop circuits,
analysis of asynchronous sequential circuits, state assignment without critical
races for asynchronous circuits, synthesis fo asynchronous sequential circuits.
Memories ROM cells and circuits, PROMS, EPROMs, EEPROMs, static
read/write memories (RAMs) Bipolar RAM, MOSFET RAMs, ECL RAMs,
Dynamic RAMs programmable logic array, Magnetic disc memory, magnetic
bubble memory, CCDs.
Module 3. CMOS multivibrators, The CMOS astable multivibrators, Multivibrators
for short timing intervals. An integrated circuits TTL Monostable multivibrator
(74121), An integrated circuit timer (555). Fault detection and location classical
methods, path sensing methods, equivalent normal form method, Two level
circuit fault detection, multilevel circuits fault detection, boolean difference
method SPOOF method. Fault detection and location in sequential circuits -
Circuit test approach, initial state identification, final state identification Design of
Fault detection experiment in diagnosable machines.
References: 1. Digital circuits and logic design, Samuel C Lee 2. Introduction to
digital circuits, Theodore f. Bogart 3. Digital Integrated Electronics, Taub &
N.B.: Set nine questions, three from each Module Answer any two from each


01. Measurement of single phase power using wattmeter . 02. Measurement of 3

phase power using 2 wattmeters 03. Transformation Ratio and load test on single
phase transformer. 04. OC & SC tests on single phase transformer pre-
determination of efficiency and regualtion. 05. Seperation of core losses in a
single phase transformer . 06. O C C of self exited DC generator . 07. External
and Internal characteristic of DC generator . 08. Brake test on DC series Motor -
Determination of Motor characteristics. 09. Induction Motor starting and load
tests. 10. No load and blocked rotor tests on induction motor


(Use descrete components only) 01. RC coupled amplifiers using BJTs and FETs
. 02. Feed back amplifiers, Gain and frequency response. 03. Power amplifiers,
Maximum power transfer . 04. Difference amplifiers . 05. Cascade amplifiers . 06.
Phase shift, Wein Bridge, Hartly and Colpitts Oscillators, . UJT Oscillators. 07.
Astable, Monostable and Bistable Multivibrator circuits. 08. Schmitt trigger
09. Tuned amplifiers, frequency response






INSTRUMENTS. Introduction - Classification of variables and analogies
-Generalised approach to a measuring system - Performance characteristics of
instruments - Analysis of errors - Units. TRANSDUCERS AND DISPLAY
DEVICES Introduction - Passive transducers - Active transducers - Resistive,
Inductive, Capacitive types - Electromagnetic, Thermo electric, Photovoltaic and
piezo electric transducers - Digital transducers. Theory of LED, LCD EPID
display devices and applications. SIGNAL CONDITIONING AND CONVERSION
Introduction - Transducer bridges - Instrumentation amplifiers - Analog digital
data and sampling - Interference, screens and shielding, signal recovery, filtering
to remove noise, lock in amplifiers, magnetic taperecording.
Module 2. SIGNAL GENERATORS Block schematics and principles of operation
of audio generators - Functions generators - Pulse generators - RF generators -
Frequency synthesizers. DIGITAL INSTRUMENTS Frequency counters - Period
counters, counting errors, digital voltmeters, autoranging, Digital LCR meters.
POWER METERS Block schematic and principles of operation of AF power
meter, RF power Microwave power meter, VSWR meter, Measurement using
Module 3. CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE The cathode ray tube deflection
amplifier, wave form display, oscilloscope time base, automatic time base, dual
trace oscilloscope dual beam & split beam CRTs. Oscilloscope controls,
measurement of voltage, frequency and phase. lissajous figures. Pulse
measurement - Oscilloscope probe. SPECIAL OSCILLOSCOPES Delayed time
base oscilloscope and controls, analogue storage oscilloscope storage
oscilloscope controls, sampling oscilloscopes, digital storage oscilloscope.A/D
Conversion, storage, digital memory, D/A conversion, Recovery from memory
and digital oscilloscopes.Principles of operation of spectrum analysers, logic
state analysers.
References: 01. JONES: Instrumentation Measurement and Feedback, TMH
EDITION. 02. DOEBLIN: Measurement Systems: Application and Design, MC
GRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY. 03. DAVID A BELL: Electronics Instrumentation
and Measurement, RUSTON PUBLISHING CO. INC. 04. OLIVER: Electronic
Measurement and Instrumentation, MC GRAW-HILL. 05. B.C. NAKRA:
Instrumentation Measurement & Analysis, TMH


Module 1. Basic structure of computer Hardware and software, Functional block

diagram of a computer, Functional description of each unit, Basic operational
concepts, Bus structures, Software, Distributed computing, Addressing methods
and machine program sequencing memory locations, address and encoding of
information, main memory opeartions, instructions and instruction sequencing,
adddressing modes assembly language, PDP-11 addressing modes and
instructions, (programming not required), stacks, subroutines features of
instruction set of VAX, IBM AND CYBER, central processing unit, fundamental
concepts, execution of complete instruction, sequencing of control signals-
hardwired control and microprogrammed control micro intstructions, grouping of
control signals, imcroprogram sequencing, branch address modification, wide
branch addressing, micro instructions with next address field, prefetching
microinstructions, emulation bit slices, RISC processors multiprocessors.
Module 2. Design of ALU, Address, Fast address, Subtractors, Multiplication of
positive numbers, single operand multiplication-Booth algorithm, fast
multiplication, integer division, floating point numbers and operations, guard bits
and rounding Implementation of floating point operation, IEEE floating point
standards. I/O devices. Videoterminals, video displays, flat panel display graphic
input devices, printers. Mass storage devices, basic magnetic storage
techniques, magnetic disc systems, floppy discs, winchester discs, magnetic-
drum systems, magnetic tape systems, cartridge tape systems, magnetic bubble
devices, charge couple devices, file servers.
Module 3. I/O organization (1)accessing I/O devices (2)direct memory access,
(3)Interrupts and interrupt handling, enabling and disabling interrupts, handling
multiple devices, device identification, vectored interrupts, interrupt nesting
simultaneous requests, controlling device requests, PDP-11 interrupt structure,
types of interrupts. (4)I/O interfaces, interface design example, serial interface,
bus scheduling, standard I/O interfaces - multibus, Nubus, IEEE-488 bus, I/O
channels. Memory organization, cache memories, mapping functions, virtual
memory, memory management requirements, VAX-11 virtual memory system,
translation process- translation speed uptechniques paging, memory
management hardware.System software - assemblers, compliers, interpreters,
text editors, debuggers, loaders, linkers, operating system. Computer
communications, communication with a remote terminal, error control,
multiterminal configuration, circuits and message switching, Local Area
Text Bookss: Computer Organization, V.CARL HAMACHER, ZVONKO G.


Module 1. Operational amplifiers - architecture, internal simplified circuit diagram

of 741, qualitative description, dc and ac analysis of the circuits, frequency
response and high frequency equivalent circuits of 741, definition and
measurement of performance parameters of OP amplifiers, universal balancing
techniques, frequency compensation of OP amplifiers. Inverting non-inverting
types of amplifiers, adder, integrator voltage follower, Bridge amplifiers, reference
voltage source, V to I and I to V converter, current amplifiers, charge amplifiers,
differential amplifier, instrumentation amplifier, log and antilog amplifiers,
temperature compensation, limiter circuits, function generators, precision
rectifiers, comparators, window comparators, S/H circuits, schmitt trigger. Analog
multipliers, logarithamic, quarter square, triangular, averaging, time division and
current ratio multiplier circuits, analog divider, squre rooters.
Module 2. DACs, Specification, weighted resistor, R-2R ladder, current driver,
inverter ladder and bipolar DACs, comparison of various types. ADCs,
specification, single slope, dual slope, parallel and successive approximation
ADCs, ADCs using V to F conversion Comparison of various types of active
filters, characteristic, Butterworth function, second order transfer function of
various types of filters, frequency transformation, Infinite gain multiple feedback,
filter, infinite gain state. Variable filter, universal active filter, GIC, NIC, simulated
inductance circuits.
Module 3. RC phase shift, Weinbridge and quadrature oscillators, astable
monostable multivibrator, square wave form generators and its
application.Switched capacitor filters, advantages, limitation, integrators,
summing integrator, differential integrator lossy integrator, second order switched
capacitance filter. (only approximate analysis is required for SC filter) PLL and its
application, circuits of VCO, PD, study of 565 and 4046 PLL IC, (block
schematic). 8038 wave form generator ic, study of timer IC 555 and its
application.Study of voltage regulator IC 723, analysis and design of low voltage,
high voltage, positive and negative voltage regulator circuits, fold back current
limiting, floating voltage regulator circuits, fold back current limiting, floating
voltage regulator, 3 pin fixed, variable regulator, switching mode voltage
regulator, IC power amplifiers.
G.E.Tobbey, J.G.Grame, L.P. Huelsman, M.C.Grawhill. 02. APPLICATION OF
ELECTRONICS CIRCUITS - Tietze and Shenk, Narosa Publishing House. 04.


Module 1. REVIEW OF VECTOR ANALYSIS: Scalar and Vector products,

Transformation among rectangular, spherical and cylindrical co-ordinate
systems.Coulomb’s law, electric fields, electrical potential, fields of continuous
charge distribution, equipotential surfaces, fields due to the line and surface
charges. The gradient and its use in obtaining the force field from the work field.
Electric flux density and Gauss’s law, application of Gauss’s law, boundary
conditions for the electric field. Divergence and differential form of Gauss’s law.
Laplace’s equation, Poissons, equation, capacitance and electrostatic energy.
Two postulates for the magnetic field, Larentz force, magnetic field of a long
straight wire carrying. Force between two parallel wires, Magnetic field from a
wire loop, magnetic field in a solenoid and torrid magnetic flux and flux density,
Ampere’s law, magnetic field strength H and magnetomovive force F.
Applications of Ampere’s law, Inductance, energy stored in inductor. Circulation
and Curl of a vector field. Differential form of Ampere’s law. The magnetic vector
potential. Boundary conditions for the magnetic field.
Module 2. Maxwell’s equations - Interpretations - Vector in differential form. The
wave equation, wave equation for free space, wave equation in material media,
sinusoidal plane waves, plane waves in insulating and dielectric media. Plane
waves in conducting media. Conductors and insulators. Wave polarisation-Linear,
Elliptical, and circular polarisations. Flow of energy and pointing vector for
sinusoidal time variation complex pointing vector - simple application. Reflection
and refraction of plane wave at boundaries for normal and oblique incidence.
Brewster angle.
Module 3. The uniform transmission lines, The lossless lines. Reflection and
transmission at the end of a line. Reflection and transmission at a discontinuity
on the line. Lossless transmission lines with sinusoidal voltage sources.
Reflection and voltage standing wave ratio impedance matching using stub lines,
half wave transformer, quarter wave transformer, lines with losses - D.C. line,
Low frequency line (RC Cable). High frequency line, Smith chart.The hollow
rectangular wave guide-modes of propagation - wave guide as high pass filter-
dominant mode-concept of-calculations attenuation in wave guides. Intrinsic,
characteristic and wave impedances.
References: 01. MARTIN A PLONUS: Applied Electromagnetics . 02. JOHN D
DRAUS: Electromagnetic MC GRAW HILL. 03. HAYT (TMH): Engineering
Electromagnetics. 04. EDWARD C JORDAN: Electromagnetic waves and
Radiating Systems.


01. Characteristics of TTL and CMOS gates . 02. Realisation of logic circuits
using TTL & CMOS NAND/NOR gates. 03. Astable & Monostable using TTL and
CMOS gates . 04. Realisation of RS, T, D, JK & Master slave flip-flop using
gates. 05. Arithmetic circuits, Half adder, Full adder, 4-bit adder/subtractor, BCD
adders. 06. Shift register,counters,up/down counters,using flip-flops.07. Counter
ICs, Programmable counters/sequence generator. 08. BCD to decimal and BCD
to 7 segment decoder. 09. Multiplexers, Realization combinational circuits using
multiplexers.10. Monostable ICs.11. Timer Circuits.


01. Operation amplifiers -Familiarisation -Measurement of parameters.02.

Inverting and Non inverting amplifiers, frequency response of OP amplifiers,
Summing amplifier.. 03. Weinbridge Oscillator using OP amplifier with amplitude
stabilisation. 04. Triangular and square wave generators using OP amplifiers. 05.
Voltage comparator IC’s, Window Comparator. 06. IC voltage regulator, Fold
back protection. 07. IC power amplifiers. 08. Astable monastable and Schmitt
trigger circuits using OP amplifiers. 09. Simple type of switching mode power
supply. 10. Precision rectifier using OP amplifier. 11. Familiarisation of multiplier



Common with 5 EE (93.502), 5 R (93.502),5 H (93.502)


Module 1. TELEGRAPHY :Telegraphy codes, Morse key and sounder-telegraph

circuits - simplex and duplex circuits - basic principles of teleprinter, fascimile, E
mail.TELEPHONY: Telephone hand set - dial - ASTIC - Uniselector and two
motion selectors - Trunking diagrams for 1000 and 10,000 line exchanges - IDF
and MDF - Line protectors. Basic principles of 3 channel power line, carrier
Module 2. Radio communication, Block diagram of AM and FM Radio
Transmitter, Circuits, Block diagram of AM and FM radio receiver circuits. Noise:
Different types of noise, Equivalent noise Bandwidth, Noise temperature, S/N
Ratio, Noise figure, Cascaded stages, experimental determination of Noise
figure. Pulse Modulation Systems. Sampling theorem - Analog pulse modulation
schemes - PAM and PPM - Generation and detection circuits - Bandwidth
requirements of each scheme, S/N of each, time division multiplexing.
Module 3. Digital pulse modulation - Pulse code modulation - generation and
reconstruction,quantization noise, nonuniform quantization and companding -
DPCM - Delta modulation adaptive delta modulation. PCM schemes - FSK, PSK,
QPSK & QASK, MSK, M- ary schemes, coherent and noncoherent systems
-detection of binary signal in the presence of noise, matched filter, correlation
Receiver, Data modems. Information Theory and Coding Information theory -
Source coding, Shannon - Fano Coding, Huffman Coding - Entropy and
information rate-Discrete channel Capacity. Shannons theorm, Shannon Hartley
law, Principles of channel coding, Block codes and convolutional codes Cyclic
code (Hamming Code) Generation and detection - Channel coding and Trellis
code modulation, ARQ systems.
References: 01. N.N. BISWAS - Principles of Telegraphy. 02. J.W. FREEBODY -
Telegraphy. 03. N.N.B.ISWAS - Automatic Telephony. 04. TAUB AND SCHILLING
- Principles of Communication Systems. 05. SAM SHUNMUGOM - Analog and
Digital Communication. 06. STREMLER - Introductin to Communication Systems.
07. HAYKIN - Digital Communication


Module 1. POWER SEMICONDUCTOR SWITCHES: Requirement of switch in

power converters. Classification of switches diodes and silicon controlled
rectifiers. Controllable switches such as bipolar junction transistors (BJTs), power
MOSFETs, GTOs, Insulated gate Bipolar transistors(IGBTs). Static and dynamic
characteristics of these switches, spice models for these switches. DIODE
RECTIFIERS: Single phase three phase bridge rectifiers. LC and C filters.
Definition of power factor, influence on the AC line. Inrush currents at turn on.
Design of rectifier circuits. CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS: Single phase half wave
rectifier with different types of loads, extention to 1 phase full wave controlled
rectifieres and 3 phase half and full wave controlled rectifiers. Choice of inrush
and fuse protection considerations. AC/AC controllers.
Module 2. DC-DC SWITCHED MODE CONVERTERS: Introduction to switched
mode power converters. Basic principles of operation of Buck converters,
continuous and discontinuous conduction modes operation of PWM control I.C.
Buck boost and Cuck converters. Derived converters like push pull, forward, half
and full DC-DC converters.Introduction to magnetic components like
transformers and inductor. LINEAR AND SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLIES:
Introduction to linear power supplies. Design of linear supply using linear
regulated ICs. Advantages and limitations of linear power supplies isolation
requirements. Design of multi-output half bridge converter and switched mode
power supply with a case study.
SUPPLIES: Power line disturbances, effect on sensitive loads such as computer
power supplies etc; power conditioners like voltage stabilisers EMI filters
principles of servo controlled and electronic stabilisers. Introduction to
Uninterruptable power supplies, battery chargers. Different types of inverters for
UPS system. Static switches. SOLID STATE CONTROLLED DRIVES: DC motor
system. Application of rectifier circuits and chopper circuits. AC motor system
application of AC regulators, inverters, and Cyclo converters. Pulse controlled
resistance. INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION: Photo electric devices and
optoisolators. Industrial application like counting of moving objects, automatic
control olf lighting, garage door opener etc. Basic theory of high frequency
heating and its industrial application.Ultrasonic and its application in industry.
Industrial X-ray application electrostatic precipitation and its application in
industry. Principle of resistance wilding. Resistance welding control with solid
state circuits.
APPLICATIONS AND DESIGN, John Willey & Sons 1989.02. Umanand &
POWER CONVERTERS, Willey Eastern Ltd 1992. 03. Chryssis :HIGH
Graw Hill Book Company 1984.. 04. Cage :THEORY AND APPLICATION OF
INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, Mc Graw Hill Book Company. 05. Chute
:ELECTRONICS IN INDUSTRY, Mc Graw Hill Book Company (Fifth Edition). 06.
Cyrl W. Landu :POWER ELECTRONICS, Mc Graw Hill.07. P.C. Sen :POWER


Module 1. Introduction to C, C fundamentals. The character set,Identifiers and

key words, Data types, constants, variables and arrays, declarations
expressions, Relational and logical operators the conditional operator, Library
functions-Data Input and output-getchar, putchar, scanf, printf, gets and puts
functions-interactive programming.
Module 2. Control statements - While, do-while, for, nested loops, ifelse, switch,
break continue. The comma operator, goto statements. Functions-a brief
overview, defining a functions, accessing a function, passing arguements to a
function, specifying argument data types, function phototypes,
Recursion.Programme structure-storage classes, automatic variables, external
variables, static variables, multi-file programs, more about library functions.
Arrays:- Defining an array, processing an array, passing arrays to a function,
multimentionals arrays, arrays and strings.
Module 3. Pointers - Fundamentals, Pointer declarations, passing pointers to a
function, pointers and One-Dimensional arrays, Operations on Pointers, Pointers
and Multi-Dimensional arrays, Passing functions to other functions, More about
pointer declarations, Structures and unions: Defining structures, Processing a
structure, User defined data types (type DEF), Structures and pointers, passing
structures to a function, self referencial structures, Unions. Datafiles: Opening
and closing of a data file, Creating a data file, Processing a data file, Unformatted
details. Low level Programming: Register Variables, Bitwise operation,
bitfields.Some additional features of C:Enumeration, command line parameters,
More about library functions, mocros, the C pre processor.
Text Bookss: Theory and Problems of Programming with C Byron S. Gottfried.
(Schaums Outline Seris)
References: 01. The C Programming Language By Berain W. Kerningham &
Dennis M.Ritchie. 02. The Spirit of C - An Introduction to Modern Programming
By Mullish and Cooper. 03. Programming in C . By E. Balaguruswammy. 04.
Shaums Series - Programming with C . 05. Ram Kumar - Programming in ANSI


Module 1. Main functional blocks of microprocessors, Detailed study of the

Architecture and microcomputer - organisation of 8085 - comparitive study of the
architectural features of 280, 6800 and 6502. Instruction types, Addressing
modes - Instruction set of 8085 - Assembly language programming,
Programming examples. Instruction cycle, Machine cycle, clock cycle, Instruction
and Data flow, Timing diagrams. Interrupts, Basic Concepts, polling ventured
interrupts Priority Interrupt, Non maskable interrupt, Masking of interrupt in 8085,
Timing diagrams for interrupt.Functions of READY, Hold, HLDA. Timing diagram
associated with Halt instruction.
Module 2. Study of memory chips commonly used in present micro computer
system, memory access time, Cycle time, Timing of memory Read and write
cycle.Memory map of a typical microprocessor - Design of a memory system
using standard memory chips - Interfacing memory with 8085 CPU. I/O
interfacing - Memory maped I/O and I/O maped I/O. Data Trasfer schemes
between I/O and CPU. Synchronous and asynchronous, Interrupt driven data
transfer schemes, DMA data transfer, serial data transfer.Functional Diagram,
and Interface with CPU of the following peripheral devices .a. Programmable
Peripheral Interface - 8155 and 8255. b. Programmable interval timer - 8153. c.
Programmable Communication Interface - 8251. d. Programmable DMA
controller - 8257
Module 3. Functional diagram, interface with CPU and programming of the
following peripheral devices.. a. Programmable interrupt controller - 8259. b.
Programmable Key Board/Display Interface - 8279. c. Floppy Disk Controller -
8272. d. Winchester Disk controller - 82064. e. CRT controller - 8275, M6845.
Study of the design of a typical 8085 Microprocessor kit - study of Monitor
Text Bookss: Microprocessor Architecture, Programming and application with the
8085/8080A by RAMESH S. GOANKAR.
References: 01. ROY W. GOODY: Microprocessors - Mc Graw Hill. 02.
SCHAMM’S SERVICES:Microprocessor Fundamentals - Mc Graw Hill. 03.
ADITYA P. MATHUR: Introduction to Microprocessors. 04. KENNETH L. SHORT:
Microprocessors and Programmed Logic. 05. GILMORE: Microprocessors -
Principles and Applications.


1. Amplitude modulation and demodulation. 02. Pulse modulation and

demodulation. 03. Passive filters, low pass, high pass, Band pass and Band stop
constant K and M derived filters. 04. Active filters configuration, low pass, band
pass, high pass, band stop filters. 05. Universal active filters. 06. Voltage
controlled oscillators. 07. Frequency modulation and frequency of demodulation.
08. Gyrator circuits, inductive simulators. 09. Harmonic generators. 10.
Familarisation of PLL, measurement of lock capture range, frequency
demodulation, frequency multiplier using PLL. 11. Measurement of sensitivity,
selectivity and fidelity of radio receivers.


Design Fabrication and Testing of simple systems like power supply function
generator, public address system, radio receiver, tape recorderss etc., Study of
PCB fabrication, circuit design using computer and lay out.



Module 1. Microwave frequencies, conventional tube limitations, lead inductance

and interelectrode capacitance effects, scorn tube, light house tube pencil tube,
Transit time effects, Introduction to wave guide cavity, Resonators.Klystrons,
Two-cavity Klystrons, velocitymodulation process and Bunching process
including analysis, applegate diagram, output power and efficiency, Reflex
Klystrons, velocity modulations, Oscillations mechanism with the help of
admittance diagram, power output and efficiency travelling wave magnetrons,
different modes of oscillation in travelling wave magnetrons, Mode seperators,
Riecke diagram, tuning of magnetron.
Module 2. TWT, slow wave structures, Helix travelling wave tubes, analysis of
TWT, performance comparison of Klystron, Magnetron and TWT. Introduction to
microwave solid state devices, Varactor diodes, PIN diodes, Gunn diodes, Tunnel
diodes, IMPATT, TRAPATT, Microwave transistors, Microwave field effect
transistors. Principles of parametric amplifiers, masers, essential components of
a Ruby maser amplifier, Elemetary ideas on laser.
Module 3. Scattering Matrix and its uses, Waveguide Tees, Eplane Tees, H Plane
TEE magic Tee, Hybrid ring, Directional Couplers, Simple analysis using S
matrix, waveguide corners, Bends, Twists.Farady rotation, circulation, Isolators,
Phase shifter, Duplexer, Diplexer.Microwave measurement of impedence, Power
frequency attenuation and VSWR, Industrial application of microwave,
Microwave heating.
References: 01. Microwave Devices and Circuits - Samuel Y. Liao. 02.
Microwave principles - Reich, Ordung & Skolnik. 03. Theory and applications of
Microwave - Arthur B. Brownwell and Robert E. Collins. 04. Foundations of
Microwave Engineering - R.E. Collins. 05. Microwave Theory and Application -
Stephen F. Adams. 06. Microwave Engineering - R. Chetterjee. 07. Microwave
Engineering - Helsazajir.


Module 1. Discrete time signals and systems linearity, time invariances, causality,
impulse response, step response, convolution difference equation, frequency
domain representation of discrete time system & signals, effect of sampling on
frequency response, aliasing frequency response from impulse response.Z
Transform, region of convergence, properties of Z Transform, inverse Z
Transform, pole-zero location of discrete time system on Z plane, stability and
frequency response from pole-zeros plot.
Module 2. Digital filters representation - signal flow graph. Basic network
structure for IIR filter. Direct cascaded, parallel form, Basic network structure for
FIR filters, direct, cascaded form, linear phase FIR filters, Canonic form.Discrete
fourier transform - properties: Circular convolution, Linear Convolution using D F
T, Fast fourier transforms - decimation in time and decimation in frequency, FFT
algorithms - general computation considerations. Bluestein algorithm, DSP chip -
a general study. Application of FET for spectral analysis, convolution, spectral
density, Power spectrum.
Module 3. Properties of FIR filters, design of FIR filters using windows, computer
aided design of FIR filters, Optimisation, Frequency sampling method.Design of
IIR digital filters from analogue filters, Impulse invariant and Bi-linear
transformation, computer aided design of IIR filters. A comparison of IIR digital
filters with FIR filters.
References: 01. Digital Signal Processing - Alan V. Oppenhein, Ronald W
Schafer. 02. Introduction to Digital signal Processing - KUC. 03. Principles of
Signals & Systems - F.J. Taylor. 04. Principles of DSP - Johnson. 05. Digital
Signal Processing - Lonnie C. Ludeman.


Module 1. Laplace Transform - Application of Laplace Transforms to linear

systems transfer function of linear systems - feed back control systems -
convolution integral - transfer functions of simple mechanical and electro
mechanical systems.Block diagrams and signal flow graphs - block diagram
reduction - Meson’s gain formula - typical examples.
Module 2. Standard test signals time response of second order systems - natural
frequency and damping ratios - steady state and dynamic error coefficients.
Effect of derivative and Integral controls error coefficients. Effect of derivative and
integral controls on the transient performance of control systems.Root locus
method - construction of Root Locus stability analysis - Routh’s & Hurwitz stability
criterion. Frequency response analysis - polar and lograithmic plots (Nyquist and
Bode plots) - Nyquist stability criterion - phase and gain margins - closed loop
frequency response - lead, lag, lead-lag compensation - M & N Circles Nichol’s
Module- 3. Elements od discrete control systems, introduction to Z Transforms
and inverse Z-Transforms, transfer function of discrete data stystem, simple
closed loop discrete data systems, stability of closed-loop discrete data systems
by Routh Hurwitz cirterion.Control system components - DC and AC servometers
- Pneumatic Hydraulic systems - examples - fluidics - typical fluidic system -
stepper motors.
Text Bookss: 01. Modern Control Engineering - OGATA, Prentice Hall. 02.
Automatic Control System - B.C. KUO, PHI.03. Feedback of control system -
Distefano, Mc Graw Hill. 04. Linear Control Systems - D Azzo-Houpo, Mc Graw


Module 1. Fundamentals of antennas - concept of retarded magnetic vector

potential radiation from current element -field component of far field. Current
contributions - radiation resistance of a half wave dipole. Basic ideas of
reciprocal resistance - gain, radiation intensity, directiveity, beam width, HPBW,
BWFN, Effective area, effective length wave polarisation, FBR, antenna
efficiency, radiation pattern, effect of earth on horizontal and vertical
pattern.Antenna arrays-factors affecting radiation pattern-Array of point sources -
Broadside and fire arrays condition - Hansen - Woodyard arrays. Principle of
pattern multiplication. Non-uniform arraya - Binomial array. Pascal - Triangle,
Distribution, Antenna Terminal impedance, Antenna Temperature and signal to
noise ratio.
Module 2. Special purpose antenna - Marconi Antenna - Antenna Relector
Antennas, V & Rhombic Antenna - Frequency Independent antenna - Log
periodic. Yagi-Uda antenna, Horn Antenna - Helical antenna - circular
polarisation. Antenna matching: Measurements: Measurement of field strength
impedance, radiation pattern radiation resistance gain directivity and effective
Module 3. Basic ideas of ground propagation - Surface wave propagation - plane
earth reflection - field strength at a distance wave tilt space wave field strength at
a distance effect of earth’s curvature, distance between elevated antenna.
Troposphiric scattering super reflection. Ionosphiric propagation - structure of
Ionosphere - Effective di-electric constant of Ionosphere - effect of earth’s
magenetic field Gyro frequency, mechanism of radio wave reflection- critical
frequency and virtual height, maximum usable frequency and skip distance.
Optimum working frequency.
References: 01. Antennas - John D Draus, Mc Graw Hill. 02. Antenna Circuits
Theory - Bellanis. 03. Electronics and Radio Engineering - Terman . 04. Antennas
and Radio Wave Propagation - Collins.


Module 1. Information theory - Introduction, discrete messages, concept of

amount of information - units, entropy - marginal, conditional and joint entropies -
relation among entropies, Mutual information, Information rate, Shannon’s
theorm, channel capacity - Redundancy and efficiency of a channel, symmetric
channels - Binary symmetric channel (BSC), Binary erasure channel (BEC),
capacity of a channel of infinite bandwidth, Use of orthogonal signals to attain
Shannon’s limit, Efficiency of orthogonal signal transmission.
Module 2. Source encoding: Instantaneous codes, construction of instantaneous
codes, Kraft inequality, coding efficiency and redundancy, Noiseless coding
theorm, construction of some basic source codes - Shannon - Fano coding,
Huffman coding. Channel Coding:Coding for error detection and correction -
Block codes - Error detecting and error correcting capabilities - generator and
parity check matrices, standard array and syndrome decoding, examples of
algebraic codes - Hamming codes, Cyclic codes - Encoding and decoding.Burst
error correction - Block and convolutional interleaving. Introduction to ARQ
Module 3. Convolutional codes - Encoding, Tree, Trellis and state diagrams,
Transfer function and minimum free distance, decoding in the presence of noise
viterbi decoding, sequential decoding - Stack algorithm, Trellis decoded
modulation. Information Theory application:Optimum modulation system,
comparison of AM system with the optimum system, comparison of FM system,
comparison of PCM & FM system.
References: 01. H. TAUB & D.L. SCHILLING - Principles of Communication
Systems (TMH, New Delhi). 02. Dr. P.S.SATHYANARAYANA - Probability,
Information Coding Theory (Dynaram Publication, Bangalore). 03. J.DAS, S.K.
MULLICK, P.K.CHATTERGEE - Principles of Digital Communication (Wiley
Eastern Ltd.)04. JOHN G. PROAKIS - Digital Communication (Mc Graw Hill)


Module 1. Optical fibre types - Rays and modes - stop - index fibre structure -
Ray optics representation - wave representation - grade - index fibre structure -
GI numerical aperture.Fibre material and Fabrication methods: Outside CVD,
Modified CVD and VAD methodes - losses in fibres - attenuation absorption,
scattering and radiation losses - signal distortions - intra model and inter model
distortions: Group delay, material and wave guide distortions - fibre optic cables.
Module 2. Mode Theory for Circular Wave Guides:Wave and field equations in
the circular cylindrical wave guides - wave equation for step index fibres - model
equations modes in step index fibres - model equations modes in step index
fibres, cut-off condition and V-parameter. Optical sources: Light Emitting Diodes -
LED structures - surface and edge emitters, mono and hetero structures -
internal quantum efficiency - Injection Laser Diodes structures - comparison of
LED and ILD.
Module 3. Optical Detectors: The PN junction photo diode - PIN photodetectors -
Avalanche photo diode construction characteristics and properties - comparison
of performance noise sources - simple - simple model of photo receiver - Its
equivalent for circulation of noise SNR. Transmission Link Analysis: Point to point
links - system consideration - Link power budget - rise time budget - transmission
distance version bit rate - wave lingth division multiplexing - data buses - star
configuration and coupler data buses.
Text Bookss: 01. Optical Fibre Communication - Gerd Keiser, Mc Graw Hill’83.



Module 1. Fundamentals of computer architecture, instruction codes and

addressing formates of recent computers - VAX-11/785, IDM 378/168, RISC
machines (R3000), microprocessors and micro controllers - MC68020/30, Intel
80383/486, pentium, GSPs TMS 32020 etc. Concepts of parallel processing,
SISD, SIMD, MISD, MIMD architectures, multi programming, time sharing,
parallel computer structures - pipe line computer structures, array processors,
data flow, paralel applications - predictive modelling and process simulations,
CAD CAE/CAX, medical, military and basic research.
Module 2. Memory and I/D subsystems, addressing schemes for main memory,
virtual memory, paged and segmental memory, memory allocation and
management, cache memories, block replacement policies, characteristics of I/O
sub systems, interrupt handling, I/O processors/channels/pipelining concepts
classification of pipeline processors/channels-pipelining concepts classification of
pipeline processors, reservations tables, interleaved memory organisations,
instruction arithmetic pipelines, design of piplined instruction units, design of
arithmetic pipelines, principles of designing pipelined processors, instruction
prefetch, branch handling, data buffering, intel forwarding and register tagging,
hazard detection and resolution, job sequencing and collision avoidance, vector
processing requirements.
Module 3. Vector super computers, attached processors, architecture of star -
100 and TIASC. architecture of AP-120B, back-end vector computers, FPS-164,
IBM3838 recent vector computers - Cray X-MP, Cyver 205, CDC-NASF, Fujitsu
Vp-200 design of vectorizing compilers, optimization of vector perations, SIMD
inter connection networks, static, dynamic and mesh connected networks, cube
inter connections, barrel shifter and data manipulation, parallel algorithms for
array processors - Associative Array processors - associative memory
organizations, associative processors, basic ideas regarding SIMD computer
performance enhancement, multiprocessor architecture, loosely/tightly coupled
multi processors, multi processing control and algorithms, case studies of S-1,
C.mmp, IMD 370/168 3033, 3081,Cray X-MP & Cray 2.
References: 01. Computer Architecture & Parallel processing - KAI Hwand &
Driggs, Mc Graw Hill. 02. The Architecture of Pipe Lined Computers-Kogge,Mc
Graw Hill. 03. IEEE Computer


Module 1. Human Anatomy & Physiology: Anatomy & Physiology of major

systems of the body - generation & propagation of Bioelectric
potentials.Transducers, Leads & Electrodes: Transducers for biological
applications types, properties, characteristics & selection.Leads & Electrodes:
Types, materials, properties, characteristics. Method of application and selection
- equivalent circuits of leads & electrodes. Fundamentals of biomaterials:
Compatability studies of metals, ceramic plastics used in the inplantable devices.
Module 2. Biopotential amplifiers, recorders & monitors: Amplifiers - types and
characteristics. Recorders & monitors Galvanometric, potentiometric, ultra-violet
electrostatic, thermal array, Ink jet recorders, video monitors, colour
printers.Electro physiological recorders:EC : Working principles, Electrode
system & clinical applns. EEG : Working principles, lead system & clinical
applicationsEMG : Working principles, & clinical applications. Evoked potential
systems, Audiometry.
Module 3. Theraputic instruments: Diathermy, defibrilletor, cardiac pacemakers,
stimulators. Power source for implantable devices.Laser Applications in
machine.X-Rays: Production & use in machine, basics of radiography, diagnostic
& therapeutic - X-Ray film construction and processing, interaction with
body.Fundamentals of Radiation Therapy.
References: 01. Principles of applied Biomedical intstrumentation - Geddes &
Baker.02. Biomedical Instrumentation & Measurements - Gromwell. 03.
Handbook of Biomedical Instrumentation - R.S. Kandpur.


Module 1. State Space Analysis: Concept of state, State variables, state space
representation of physical systems, cononical form of state space representation.
Solution of state equations - time variant and time invariant systems, Laplace
Transform solution, state transition matrix - interpretation and properties -
computation by different methods. Transfer function from state space
representation. State variable analysis of linear discrete systems.
Module 2. Controllability and Observability: Definition, physical meaning and
conditions - phase variable forms, effect of pole zero cancellation. Detectability
and stabilizability.State space Design: State feedback and pole placement,
limitations of state feedback, tracking problems, bass - Gura formula.Computer
aided design tools for control systems: Introduction to MATLAB -formation of M-
files. Introduction to SIMULINK.Modeling of physical systems by energy method -
Lagrange’s equation - derivation.
Module 3. Modeling of complex physical systems: Inverted pendulum on moving
cart, study of blood sugar and insulin level in a diabetic patient, stirred process
tank, Hot air balloon - controllability and observability of these systems.
Reduction of lime stone by heating, Distillation column, motion of coupled
masses, speedometer, Rocket dynamics.
References: 01. Friedland B., Control Systems Design - An Introduction to State
Space Methods, Mc Graw Hill, New York, 1987. 02. Kailath T., Linear Systems,
Prentice Hall, Englewoods Cliffs, N.J., 1980. 03. Chen C. and I.J. Hass, Elements
of Control Systems Analysis - Classical and Modern approaches, PHI, Inc., N.J.,
1968.04. Ogata K., State Space Analysis of control Systems, PHI, Englewood
Cliffs, N.J., 1967.


01. Study of Microprocessor Kits 02. Programming Examples 03. Interfacing:: a.

Elevator simulator board. b. EPROM programmer. c. Data Acquisition board. d.
Hardware Single Stepping Board. e. Video Display board. f. LED moving graphic
display board.


01. Characteristics of SCR, holding current, latching current, turn off time, etc.
02. MOSFET Drive-measurement of input capacitance, Rds on 03. Single phase
gate control circuits for bridge circuits. 04. Trigerring circuits using UJT. 05. Study
of fully controlled converters - single phase. 06. Study of half controlled
converters - single phase. 07. Control circuits for single phase bridge inverter. 08.
Study of single phase bridge inverter. 09. PWM controller - (TL494/UC3524)
study. 10. Study of DC/DC chopper. 11. Control circuit for DC/DC chopper. 12.
Non-isolated bick converter.


Expected specification of the project and its design are to be completed in this
semester. Markas for the project design is to be awarded as per a continuous
monitoring and evaluation of the progress of the project design. Viva-voce
(internal) is to be conducted by two staff members (one staff member is guide) of
the department to award the 50% of sessional mark. A seminar is to be
presented by each student on an emerging & current topic. A report is to be
prepared. Sessional mark is to be awarded on the basis of presentation, and the
contents of
the report. This report should be brought at the time of final viva-voce to be
conducted at the end of the eighth semester.



Module 1. Introduction to 16 and 32 bit microprocessors - Internal architecture of
8086 - comparative study of the architectural features of 8086, 8088, 80186.
80188 and 80306. Study of coprocessor chip 8087. The architecture of IBM PC
based on the 8008 CPU.Hardware overview of 8086 - pin functions of 8086.
Maximum and minimum mode of 8086 - Basic signal flow on 8086 buses. Timing
diagrams associated with required machine cycle. 8086 memory addressing and
I/O addressing 8086 memory banks - Timing parameters of 8086.
Module 2. Addressing modes of 8086 - Instruction set of 8086 - constructing the
machine for 8086 instruction - Developing 8086 assembly language programs.
Features of assemblers - macros directives. 8086 interrupts and interrupt service
routines - 8086 interrupts and interrupt responses. Hardware interrupt
Module 3. Interface design and programming.. 01. A speech synthesiser
interface.. 02. Parallel printer interface.. 03. Interfacing Keyboards.. 04.
Interfacing microcomputer ports to high power devices.. 05. LCD interfacing.. 06.
Interfacing microcomputer ports to high power devices.. 07. D/A converter
operation and interfacing to microcomputer.. 08. A/D converter operation and
interfacing.. 09. 8086 based process control system. 10. Microcontroller and
interfacing.. 11. Interfacing with IBM PC bus. 12. Using a logic analyser to
trouble-shoot a micro computer system.
Text Bookss: Microprocessor and Interfacing - Programming and Hardware By
Douglas V. Hall.
References: 01. Intel Data Sheets.. 02. Microprocessor Systems: The 8086/8088
Family - Architecture . Programming and Design., Yu Cing Liu, Glenn A Gibson.


Module 1. Principles of TV - characteristics of eye - Theory of scanning blanking

and synchronisation, nature of picture signal, line and field frequency, video
bandwidth, interfacing, complete video waveform, TV standards (CCIR). Signal
generation, vidicon and plumbicon, principle and operation of each, transfer
characteristic, theory of orthogonal scanning, focussing and alignment target
materials, comparison of their characteristics. Aperture distortion and correction.
Video mixing, DC restorer. Gamma correction, silicon diode array vidicon.
Module 2. Transmitter: Modulation systems used in vision and audio transmitter,
merits of vestigial sideband modulation, block diagram of a TV transmitter,
transmitter and receiver response characteristics - diplexer - transmitting
antenna, TV signal propagation, range.Receiver: Sensitivity and noise figures,
tuner circuits, choice of IF, IF amplifier Detectors, sound separation, keyed
AGC,Video frequency amplifiers, sync pulse separation, deflection circuits,
receiver controls - distortion and correction. Receiver power supply system, TV
receiving antennas.
Module 3. Colour TV, colour characteristics, colour mixing, colour theory
chromaticity diagram. PAL system - colour difference signals and chroma signal
generator. encoder and decoder. Block diagram of a PAL D colour TV transmitter
colour picture tube - delta gun, PIL trinitron ADG circuits receiver block diagram.
Principle of video cassette recording (VHS), salient features of NTSC and
SECAM system. Basic ideas of satellite TV and Cable TV system.
References: 01. A.R.Gulati - Modern TV Practice - Wiley Eastern. 02. A.M.Dhake
- Television Engineering - Tata Mc Graw Hill. 03. S.P.Bali - Colour TV, TMH 04.
R.R.Gulati - Monochrome & Colour TV.


Module 1. Microwave communication - LOS systems, characteristics of LOS

propagation, characteristics of LOS systems, choice of frequency - fading
diversity reception modulation scheme - Transmitters receivers - repeaters
antenna design - design of microwave links. Principle of satellite communication -
Geostationary orbits, global positioning systems, transmission path - Noise
consideration satellite transponders Earth station EIRP, Back off - microwave link
design multiple access system - Telemetry.
Module 2. Optical communication systems - details of fibers characteristics -
sources & detectors - Transmitters/receivers system loss budgeting, connectors
& splicers - system power budgeting, Optical integrated circuits optical logic
gates, Fibre Optic transducers, photonic switching, optical LOS systems, current
trends. Mobile communications Land mobile and paging - Cellular telephony,
PCM systems.
Module 3. Basic principles of data communication - synchronous and
asynchronous transmission - digital data transmission formats NRZ, RZ, AMI, ASI
& Manchester coding, Error correcting codes, hamming codes, orghogonal
codes, switching - circuit switching, message switching, packet switching -
standard communication interface multipliers and concentrators - protocols
(BOP-COP - standard networks and standards, OSI, (D) ARPANET, NICNET,
SNA, SELS etc. Lan types of LAN - WAN, Digital telephony, basic principle of
ISDN - E Mail - Voice mail.
References: 01. Communication Systems Design, Loss and Troposcattering
Philips Panther (Mc Graw Hill). 02. Optical Fiber Communication, John M. Senior,
(Prentice Hall). 03. Optical Fiber Communication, Crower. 04. Satellite
communication, James Martin. 05. Computer Networks, Andrew S.Tanenbaum,
(Prentice Hall of India). 06. Mobile Cellular Communication, W.Y. Lee, (Mc Graw


Module 1. Introduction - Radar block diagram and operation - Radar frequencies

- Radar range equation - Radar range performance factors - Radar cross section
of targets. Beacon and beacon equation, system losses - CW and FM-CW Radar
- the Doppler effect - Block diagram of CW radar and FM-CW radar operation -
Multiple frequency CW radar. MTI & Pulse Doppler Radar - Introduction,
Description of operation - block diagram - Delay line Cancellers - multiple of
staggered PRFs - Range gated doppler filter - pulse doppler Radar and its
performance. Tracking with Radar - tracking method - sequential lobing - conical
scanning - Monopulse tracking.
Module 2. Radar transmitters and receivers. Introduction to modulation - Line
type modulator hard tube modulator - Saturable Reactor modulator - Solid state
modulator - Receiver - Block diagram - and operation - Crystal mixer - Balanced
mixers - Low noise front ends - Duplexer and Receiver protector - Radar
Displays. A-scope and PPI.
Module 3. Navigation Aids: Introduction - Radio direction finding - the loop
antenna - Goniometer - Adcok direction finders - errors in direction finders - VHF
ef radio ranges LF/MF radio range VHF maximum range - block diagrams of
transmitting and receiving equipment range and accuracy - doppler VOR -DME-
Hyperbolic Navigation.Systems - LORAN-DECCA-TACAN-Landing Systems-
GCA-ILS-MLS Guidance: Basic guidance-Block diagram - Inertial guidance -
Stabilised platform - Inertial guidance - components. Gyroscopes-free
gyroscopes-rate integrating gyroscopes-single degree freedom gyros - servo
accelerators - application of gyroscopes - basic principles of serve system
References: 01. Introduction to Radar Systems - Merril I.Skolnik (Mc G H). 02.
Principles of Radar - Rointies J.F. and Coata (Mc Graw Hill). 03. Elements of
Electronic Navigation - N.S. Nagarja (Mc G.H). 04. C. Kingston - Understands
Radar System - (Mc Graw Hill). 05. Manual of Avionics - Drian Kendal (B SP
professional Books Oxford). 06. Intertial guidance - Pitman U.R. (John Wiley)



Module 1. Introduction to Digital signal processing, Fourier and Z . Transform

multidimensional sequences, Digital image processing in practice, digitalising
images, characteristic of an image digitiliser, types of image digitisers,
components, electronic image tubes, other systems, Film scanning digital image
displays, display characteristics technologies, image processing software,
software organisation, processing sequence, the grey level. Histogram,
Introduction to Histograms, Uses of histograms, Relations between histogram
and image. Point operations, linear point operations, point operations and the
histogram, applications of point operations.
Module 2. Introduction to Algebraic operations, applications, geometric
operations, grey level Interpolation, spatial transformation, Applications,
geometric operations, Linear filtering theory Harmonic signals and complex
signal analysis, Convolution operation, Applications of digital filtering some useful
functions, Convolutional filtering, Filter design, examples of common filters,
optional filter, design, ocessing sampled data, computing data, truncation, optics
and system analysis, diffraction limited optical systems, Aberrations in an
imaging system.
Module 3. Applications of digital image processing - image restoration,
Approaches and models, super resolution, system identification DTF from
degraded image spectrum, Noise modelling. Image segmentation by thresholding
optical threshold selection, gradient optical threshold selection, gradient based
structure. Measurement and classification - size, shape, measurements, feature
selection, classification 3 dimensional image processing optical sectioning; CAT,
stereo metric ranging, stereoscopic image display shaded surface display.
References: 01. Kenneth R. Castleman: Digital Image processing, PHI. 02.
Oppenheim & Schaffer: Discrete Time signal Processing,PHI. 03. Gonzalaz R.C.
& P. Wint:Digital Image Processing, Addison. 04. Jensen J.R: Introducing Digital
Image Processing..05. Lim : Digital Image processing Mc Graw Hill.


Module 1. Introduction to parallel distributed processing, Application of network,

Multiprocessing and multitasking, Network structures - network tapologies,
communication protocols and standards, design issues, messages and
switching, circuit switching and packed switching, OSI refrence model physical
layer and data drink layer, Network layer, session layer presentation layer,
application layer, Data Transmission in the OSI model.
Module 2. OSI Terminology connection oriented and connection less service,
service primitives, The relationship of service to protocols, public network,
USENET, BITNET, ERNET, NICNET, VVCP, SNA, E-mail, voice mail, services,
ISDN system architecture, digital PBX & PABX, ISDN interface, C-Dot PAD,
PABX Terminal handling, polling, multiplexing verses concentration.
Module 3. Theoritical basis for data transmission, maximum data rate of a
channel baseband coaxial cable, broadband coaxial cable, FDDI, communication
satellites, the telephone system, modules, RS449, digital channel error
detection/correction parity check, CRCs, ARQ, transmission strategies, stop -
and wait ARQ, ARPANET ARQ, Go back ARQ, selective repeated ARQ,LANs,
and WANs, ALOHA protocols, LAN protocols SONET and satellite network,
packet radio network, routing algorithms Inter Networking - bridges and
gateways, quality of services, connection management dialogue management,
data exchange, activity management, RPC, Orphans, Data presentatiion, data
compression, network security and privacy, application lever issues, virtual
terminals, file transfer access and management.
References: 01. Andrew S. Tanenbaum : Computer Network, PHI.. 02. Dimitri
Bertsekas & Robert Gallager : Data Network, PHI. 03. Gilli Wates : Computer
Communication Network, Mc Graw Hill.


Module 1. Optical Fibre Measurements. Attenuation measurements - cut back

attenuation measurement method - optical time domain reflectometer - Fibre
Facult location - Dispersion measurements - refractive - index - profile
measurements - end reflection technique - Transmitted near - field scanning
method - refracted near field technique - interferometric method - focussing
method - Eye pattern.
Module 2. Interferometers Principle of interferometers wavefront - splitting &
amplitude splitting - various types of interferometers such as Young’s,
Michelson’s, Twyman - Green, Fabri - Parot Jamime, Machzehader, and Sagnac
Newton’s rings and multiple beam interferometry - application of interometry.
Module 3. Holography Holographic recording - Mathematical principles - off - axis
holography - recoding and reconstruction classification of holograms Fresal
helogram - Fourier transform hologram - Microwave, Acoustic and computer
holograms - holographic interferometry - application of holography in industry.
References: 01. Gerd : Optical Fiber Communication. 02. Guenther : Modern
Optics (J.Wiley). 03. Hecht & Zajac : Optics (Addisonwerly 1974). 04. Gerd
Keiser : Optical Fiber Communications, Mc Graw Hill.


Module 1. Blood pressure - Diastolic & Systolic measurement by invasive and

non invasive methods - Ultra sound, Spygmomanometer Automated methods -
direct methods. Blood flow: Electro-magnetic, Ultrasound, Blood cell counters.
Applications of Ultra sound-basic physics of Ultra sound generation, Echo
cardiography, Modes of Scan, Doppler measurements, Biological effects - colour
Module 2. Fluoroscopic Imaging Systems - Image intensifier, Subtraction
Angiography CT scanner. MRI - PET - Radio Isotope imaging - Gama Camers.
Therapeutic Systems: Respiratory Equipment: Inhalator, Nebuliser, Aspirator,
Humidifier, Ventilators: Electrolyte balance & blood gas instrumentation - Gas
Module 3. Lithotripters Orthotics and prosthetics: Heart - Lung machine - artificial
kidney artificial heart. Electrical Safety: Response of human body to voltages of
different levels and frequency - micro shock and macro shock - operating
precautions. Hospital Utilities: (General description only). Gas supply, Theatre
lighting, tables, air-conditioning, sterilisation systems.
References: 01. Principles of Applied Biomedical Instrumentation, Geddes &
Baker.. 02. Biomedical Instrumentation and Measurements, Cromwel.. 03. Hand
book of Bio -medical Instrumentation, R.S. Kandpur.. 04. Fundamental Physics of
Radiography, Massey & Meridith.. 05. Medical Physics , Christanson.. 06. Hand
book of Analytical Equipment, R.S. Kandpur.


Module 1. Control System Design by Classical method: Selection of a

compensator, Realisation of basic compensators - lag, load,
lag-lead compensators, compensator design - root locus method - frequency
domain approach, comparison of cascade compensators, feedback
compensation, rate feedback compensation.
Module 2. Control system design by state space approach: Review of state
space analysis, state feedback and pole placement, tracking problems, observer
design - separation property, reduced order observer. Multivariable control
systems - state space representation, controllability and observability -
contributions by Kalman, Gilbers, Hautus. Polo assignment. Linear Quadratic
Regulator problem - properties, introduction to H control.
Module 3. Nonlinear system control systems: Common physical non-linear
systems, phase plane method - construction of phase trajectories - by analytical
method, graphical method - Isocline method, delta method. Describing function
method - basic concepts, describing function of different non-linear systems -
Ideal relay with dead zone, relay with hysterisis etc. Stability analysis - Lyapunov
method, construction of Lyapunov functions.
References: 01. D’Azzo, J.J. and C.H. Houpis, Linear control systems analysis
and design, conventional and modern, Mc Graw Hill Inc., New York, 1995. 02.
Friedland, B., Control Systems Design - An Introduction to State Space Methods,
Mc Graw Hill, New York, 1987. 03. Stefani., R.T., C.J. Savant, B. Shahian and
G.H. Hostotter, Design of feedback control systems, Saunders college publ.,
Florida, 1994. 04. Gibson, J.E. Nonlinear Automatic control, Mc Graw Hill,1963.
05. Hau, J.C. and A.U. Meyer, Modern control principles and applications, Mc
Graw Hill, New York, 1968.


Module 1. MOS structure. Threshold voltage, its correction by body bias and ion
implantation. NMOS, PMOS, CMOS.MOS IC to chronology: Masking steps in
Metal gate and silicon gate technologies. Basic bipolar IC Technology: Masking
steps, component isolation techniques, problems of metal corss over. Digital
MOS circuits with saturated mode, triode mode and depletion mode loads and
CMOS, static and dynamic performance bR ratio, ratioless logic. MOS circuits
design on the chip for given set of technology parameters and voltages. Effect of
tolerances or spreads in V , V , V , mobility and temperature on design. Influence
of body affect on design. Manufacture design rules: Circuit layout in metal gate
and silicon gate technologies. Design using Lambda based design rules of Mead
and Conway. Pass transistor logic in NMOS and CMOS systems: Mapping from
relay logic into silicon to evolve pass transistor logic, pass transistor ALU, tree
network, multiplexer - demultiplexer circuits, selectro logic, tally circuits, delays in
pass transistor logic, use of level resotoring inverters. Driving large capacitive
loads ordinary buffer chain and super buffers. Two phase clocking schemes, gate
capacitance as a temporary store and pass transistor shift registers, register to
register, transfer structured design methodology of mead and convey. Use of
stick diagrams for design of topology of layout. MOS PLAS, their stick diagrams
and layout, finite state machines .Bottom up and top down design, Custom
design. Various semicustom design approaches. Choice of technology, 1 L logic.
Computer aids for design: logic simulation, circuit simulation, layout, VLSI testing.
Problems in going from LSI to VLSI scaling for VLSI.


SYSTEMS LAB: Analog optical communications using fibre optic communication

kit. Digital optical communications using fibre optic communication kit.
Communication switching circuit design of a 2 x 2 cross bar switch. Hamming
codes - Encoder/Decoder, Digital filters - first order filter, ADC/DAC. ADC/DAC
Microprocessor based. Frequency shift keying - decoding using PLL.Delta
modulation using discrete ICs. Display systems.
MICROWAVE LAB: Familiarisation of microwave components. Reflex Klystron
characteristics. Low and high VSWR measurements. Verification of relation
between L(g), L() and L(). Calibration of crystal, attenuator and frequency meter.
Radiation pattern of pyramidal horn.

93.807 PROJECT

Each student is expected to prepare a report on the project work done by him/her
and present paper highlighting the work done by him/her in a seminar. The
student is expected to complete the project work assigned to him/her and submit
the project report by the end of the semester.


At the time of Viva-Voce the candidates project has to be evaluated in addition to

assessing the students overall ability and knowledge in special field in
engineering. He is expected to present his academic records including project.