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Marking scheme Section A
Question 1 Question 1(a) Mark Scheme Able to state the types of solutions Sample answers Solution J: Hypotonic solution Solution K: Isotonic solution Solution L: Hypertonic solution (b) Able to explain the difference in curvature Sample answer Solution J: F1: The strip in solution J curved outwards/ towards the epidermis/ epidermal layer P1: (Cortex) cells/ (parenchyma) cells become turgid/ longer because water diffuses into the cell/ protoplasm/ cytop lasm by osmosis. P2: Epidermal cells have a layer of cuticle on the outside P3: which resist/ restrict the entry of water (and retain its normal size) Any 2 Solution L: F2: The strip in solution L curved inward/ towards the cortex/ parenchyma layer P4: Water diffuses out of the cytoplasm/ protoplasm of the (cortex) cells/ (parenchyma) cells by osmosis P5: The cytoplasm and/or the vacuole of the cel ls will shrink Any 2 1+1 (c)(i) Able to state the solution isotonic to the cell sap Sample answer Solution K Able to give reasons correctly (c)(ii) Sample answer P1: The strip in solution K remain straight P2: because the (cortex/ parenchyma) cells have not increase turgidity/flaccidity// no change in size/ remain the same size P3: Water diffuses in and out of the cells by osmosis at the same rate// Rate of endosmosis equal rate of exosmosis Any 2 1+1 3 4 Mark

1+1+1

3

1+1

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(d) Able D: w

3
e labelled diagram

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y y y

t drawi wit acuol doubl d-li cell wall lasma membrane ulled away wit some arts attached to the cell wall (totally detached from the cell wall is not accept) : orrect labels y plasma/ cell membrane y acuole ell wall

Vacuole

Plasma/ ell membrane otal

Questi No (a)(i)

2 Mark Scheme Able to state the type of ell di ision involved in ell ycle in Diagram 2 Answer : Mitosis/Mitotic cell di ision Able to state one reason for answer in (a)(i) Sample answer : P : Produces daughter cells P : Occurs at root tip Any P Mark

(a)(ii)

(a)(iii)

Able to arrange the phases in Diagram 2 in correct sequence by using the letters in Diagram 2 Answer : Q

S

P

(b)

Able to explain why root tip is used for preparing slides to show this cell cycle Sample answer : : oot tip is growing region P : the cells are acti ely di ide

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(c)(i) Able to name stage Q

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(c)(ii)

Answer : Interphase Able to explain the importance of stage Q to this cell cycle Sample answer : F1: Replication of NA occurs P1: to produce two genetically identical daughter cells F2 : Synthesis ATP//accumulate energy P2 : Enable the cell to divide Any 2

1

1+1

3

(d)(i)

Able to define cloning Sample answer : P1: Process of producing genetically identical organisms P2: through asexual reproduction P3: by stem/leaf cutting/layer ing/grafting/any suitable example Any 2

1+1

(d)(ii)

Able to state one advantage and one disadvantage of cloning Sample answer : 1 Advantage : P1: Large numbers of offspring can be produced P2: in a short time P3: The good characteristic of parent can be maintained in the offspring Any 1 P isadvantages : P3: The offspring produced do not show any genetic variation P4: The offspring produced have same level of r esistance to certain diseases/pests Any 1 P T TAL 4

1

12

Question 3 No 3 (a)(i) ark Scheme Able to state the process by place across the alveolus. Sample answer : (Simple) diffusion (a)(ii) Able to explain ho the process occur ark hich gaseous exchange takes

1

Sample answer : F: Partial pressure of oxygen in the air of alveolus is higher than in blood capillary P: (Gas diffuse) follow the concentration gradient

1+1 3

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(b)(i) Able to name blood vessel S Answer : Pulmonary artery

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1 (b)(ii) Able to describe the role of blood vessel S in transporting oxygen from alveolus to muscle cell Sample answer : P1: In the blood, oxygen from alveolus combine with respiratory pigment / haemoglobin to form oxyhaemoglobin / oxygenated blood P2: transport oxygenated blood // oxyhaemoglobin to heart P3: the heart pump the oxygenated blood to muscle cells Any 2 Able to name process P and process Q Answer : P : Aerobic respiration : Anaerobic respiration Able to explain one difference bet een process P and process Q Sample answer : P 1 Complete breakdown of glucose E1 Release large amount of energy // 2898 kJ per molecule glucose // 38 molecules of ATP 2 Produce carbon dioxide and water E2 Produced as waste product 3 ccurs in the mitochondria E2 xygen is required (d) Able to explain the statement Sample answer : F1: ( uring the vigorous activity) the muscle cells are in a state of oxygen deficiency / oxygen debt // the blood cannot supply oxygen fast enough to meet the demand for energy / ATP P1: (The increase in heartbeat rate) is to deliver more oxygen / glucose to muscle cells P2: to obtain extra energy (from anaerobic respiration) // to increase rate of cellular respiration P3: to remove more carbon dioxide from the muscle cells Any 2 T TAL

1+1

3

(c)(i)

1+1

(c)(ii)

Incomplete breakdown of glucose Release less amount of energy // 150 kJ per molecule glucose // 2 molecules of ATP Produce lactic acid Caused muscular cramps/fatigue ccurs in the cytoplasm xygen is not required Any 2

1+1

4

1+1

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Question 4

No 4(a)(i)

ark Scheme Able to state type of blood circulatory system sho n by organism P and organism Q. Answer rganism P : ouble circulatory system rganism : Single circulatory system

ark

1+1

2

(a)(ii)

Able to name one example of organism P and organism Q. Sample answers rganism P : Human rganism Fish

:
1+1 2

(b)

Able to explain the importance of having the blood circulatory system to organism P. Sample answer F : (double circulatory system ) is more efficient P1: the heart pumps the blood twice / the blood flow into the heart twice in a complete circulation. P2 : higher pressure of blood can be maintained. P3 : the blood travels more faster to organs P4 : the organ s get sufficient amount of glucose / oxygen / nutrient // the waste p roduct / carbon dioxide / urea can be eliminated out of organ. Any 3

1+1+ 1

3

(c)

Able to explain one difference of heart structure bet een organism P and organism Q. Sample answer F : heart of organism P has four chamber but organism has two chamber P1: organism P has right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle and left ventricle but organism has ventricle and atrium. // organism P has two atriums and two ventricles but organism has one ventricle and one atrium. P2 : in organism P , the heart receives both oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood while in organism , the heart only receives deoxygenated blood. Any 2 1+1 2

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(d)

7
Able to explain hy a person needs second injection to maintain the level of immunity Sample answer F : booster dose P1 : stimulate lymphocycte to produce more antibody P2 : to achieve immunity level P3 : that protect the person against disease Any 3

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1+1+1 Total

3 12

Question 5 No 5(a) ark Scheme Able to complete plants ark iagram 5 to sho the cross bet een the

Sample Answer 1. RRTT 2. rrtt 3. Genotype F 1 : RrTt 4. Phenotype F 1 : Red, tall (b)(i) Able to Use Punnett Square to sho to produce F offspring. Sample answers Gametes RT Rt rT rt RT RRTT RRTt RrTT RrTt Rt RRTt RRtt RrTt Rrtt rT RrTT RrTt rrTT rrTt rt RrTt Rrtt rrTt rrtt crossing of F 1 generation

1+1+1+1 3

G : all gametes correct = 1 mark C : 14 to 16 genotype correct = 2 marks 4 to 13 genotype correct = 1 mark

Sample answer Phenotype: Red, Tall Red, dwarf White, tall White, dwarf

Calculation: Ratio:

9 16
9

3 16
3

3 16
3

1 16
1

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¡

(b)(ii) Able to calculate phenotype ratio of the offspring produced in F generation

¡

1+2

4

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All phenotype correct = 1 mark All calculation correct = 1 mark All ratio correct = 1 mark

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1+1+1 (c) Able to explain hy some of the offspring produced do not have same phenotype as their parents. Sample answer P1: The dominant allele / R / T will mask/cover the effect of the recessive allele / r / t //any suitable explanation P2: a recessive allele / r / t only expresses itself when dominant allele / R / T is absent P3: RrTt represent red flowered tall plant while white flowered dwarf plant are not expressed // any suitable example of genotype and phenotype Any 2 1+1 Total

3

2 12

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Section B
Question 6 No Mark Scheme 6(a) Able to describe the differences bet een light reaction and dark reaction Sample answers: Light reaction 1. ccurs in granum 2. Requires light 3. Involves photolysis of water 4. aterials required is water 5. Produces oxygen and water (b) ark reaction ccurs in stroma oes not require light Involves reduction/fixation of carbon dioxide aterials required is carbon dioxide Produces glucose Marks

Any 4 Able to explain ho plants gro n in greenhouses can ensure the production of crops throughout the year. Sample answer: F: In temperate countries light intensity / temperature change s throughout the year. P1: In winter , temperature is very low P2: In autumn, the plants shed their leaves // Light intensity / temperature is low P3: Rate of photosynthesis is very low P4: In spring and summer, the light intensity/ temperature are optimum for photosynthesis. P5: So the rate of photosynthesis is maximum / highest. P6: In the greenhouse, light intensity /concentration of carbon dioxide/temperature are maintain ed at optimum level (for photosynthesis ) throughout the year. P7: So the rate of photosynthesis is maintain ed at maximum level throughout the year ( regardless of changes in light intensity or temperature). P8: The plants are able to increase yields / increase the crops production throughout the years. Any 6 Able to explain the rate of photosynthesis in plant throughout the day Sample answer: F1: From 0000 to 0600, the rate of photosynthesis is very low P1: The light intensity / temperature is (very) low P2: ( At low temperature,) photosynthetic enzymes are inactive. F2: From 0600 to 1200 , the rate of photosynthesis increase (rapidly) P3: Light intensity / Temperature also increases P4: Enzyme for photosynthesis become more active. P5: Stomata open wider to allow absorption of more carbon dioxide

ax 4m

ax 6m

(c)

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F3: The rate of photosynthesis is maximum / the highest at 1200 P6: The light intensity / temperature is optimum (for photosynthesis). P7: Enzymes are the most active. F4: From 1200 to 1800, the rate of photosynthesis decreases P8: Light intensity / temperature decreases P9: Photosynthetic enzyme are less active P10: Stomatal openings/pores become smaller P11 : Less carbon dioxide is absorbed F5: From 1800 to 2300 , the rate of photosynthesis become very low/stopped/ceased P12 : Light intensity / temperature is very low P13: Photosynthetic enzymes are not active P14: Stomata closed P15: Very little / no carbon dioxide is absorbed Any 10

ax 10m Total 20

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Question 7 No 7 (a) ark Scheme

11

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Sub mark

Able to describe ho the structures of kidney are adapted to enable them to carry out homeostasis process. Sample answer F1 : (each kidney) contains hundreds of thousand / a large number of nephrones P1 : to filter substances from the blood efficiently. F2 : (each kidney) has ureter P2 : to carry away the urine / solution of wastes d issolved in water / creatinine/ toxin and drugs F3 : (each kidney) received blood (that alread y) under relatively high pre ssure. P3 : ultrafiltration can take place efficiently F4 : the kidney is controlled by negative feedback mechanisms Any 4 Able to describe ho the machine used to remove aste product such as urea from person ith kidney failure . Sample answer P1 : blood from the patient¶ s artery is passed through a machine P2 : which contains a dialyser / dialysis solution P3 : dialysis tubing has a semi -permeable membrane P4 : concentration of waste molecules / urea in blood is higher than in the dialysis solution // there is conce ntration gradient between the blood and dialysis solution P5 : waste molecules / urea / excess salts diffuse through membrane from blood to dialysis solution. P6 : dialysis solution is continu ously being replaced // essential substances remain in the blood. P7 : plasma protein / red blood cells are not able to diffuse through membrane of dialysis tubing P8 : because the size is bigger /too big P9 : the direction of the flow of blood is opposite to the direction of dialysis solution

Total mark 4

(b)

6

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P10 : to ensure the waste molecule / urea is continuousl y being remove from blood to dialysis solution. P11 : the filtered blood re -enters the patients blood vessel Any 6 Able to explain the differences bet een the percentage of chemical substances in blood and urine. Sample answer F1 : percentage of water in blood is higher than in urine. P1 : In the proximal convoluted tubule P2 : The Na + are pumped into the capillary // some salts are reabsorbed by a active transport P3 : The movement of solutes into the capillary network decreases the solute concentration of the filtrate but increases the solute concentration in the capillary network. P4 : As a result, water diffuse s into blood capillaries by osmosis from the proximal convoluted tubule / Loop of Henle / distal convoluted tubule / collecting duct F2 : Percentage of plasma prot ein is higher in blood compared to urine // percentage of plasma pr otein is nil in urine P5 : size of plasma proteins are larger /too large which cannot be filtered out/diffused out during ultrafiltration. F3 : percentage of glucose is high in blood but nil in urine P6 : All glucose are reabsorbed by active transport at proximal convoluted tubule. F4 : percentage of urea is higher in urine than in blood P7 : Urea is actively transported from the blood capillary to the distal convoluted tubule. P8 : by secretion process Any 10

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(c)

10

Total

20

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Question 8 No 8 (a)(i) Mark Scheme

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Sub Mark

Total Mark

Able to explain the cause of the phenomenon and its effect on the environment C: Causes of the phenomenon E: Effects of the phenomenon

Sample answers
F : This phenomenon is called green house effect C1: Combustion of fossil fuels from vehicles/ factories/ forest burning / coal-fired power station C2: excessive deforestation C3: increase carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere C4: pollutants/CFC/methane E1: carbon dioxide traps heat/ infra -red light/ long -wave radiation E2: increase in global/ world atmo spheric temperature/ cause a rise in Earth¶s temperature/ global warming. E3: melting of polar ice/ rise in the sea level s F with any 5 points Able to suggest measures to overcome the phenomenon Sample answers P1: use alternative source of energy to reduce the usage of fossil fuels/energy generated from wind / water/ solar P2: restrict open burning/ forest burning/ use incinerator P3: reduce deforestation for farming/ other development projects P4: Selective harvesting/logging/cut m atured tree only P5: replanting more trees which have been cut down P6: the use of technology / unleaded petrol / catalytic converter Any 4 Able to discuss the effects of the phenomenon on the lives on Earth. Sample answers F: The phenomenon is known as the thinning/ depletion of the ozone layer P1: ore ultraviolet ray reaches the Earth¶s surface P2: Ultra-violet ray will deteriorate human¶s body immune system P3: An increase in the number of people suffering from skin cancer/ melanoma / cataract P4: High ultraviolet rays destroy phytoplanktons

1+5

6

a) ii)

4

4

b)

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P5: break the food chain of marine life / the aquatic ecosystem P6: the number of stomata / chlorophyll of the leaves will be reduced P7: Rate of photosynthesis decreases F with any 5P Able to explain the concept of sustainable and its need to protect our environment. Sample answers F: (Sustainable development refers to ) the measures undertaken to ensure that human activity optimally utilize Earth¶s natural resources such that they can be replenished naturally //suitable explanation P1: Sustainable development is necessary as the rate at which man is using the finite natur al resources will compromise future generation¶s demands //suitable explanation P2: Ultimately, the natural resources, if continued to be depleted, will no longer be able to sustain human society//suitable explanation P3: Sustainable development involves the protection of air/land/water P4: which make up the surrounding we live in and survive upon. P5: (It is intimately linked ) to the protection of wildlife as well P6: in order to maintain a stable/ balanced ecosystem F + any 3P

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1+5

6

c)

1+3

4

Total

0

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Question 9

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No. Mark Scheme 9(a)(i) Able to state hat fertilisation is Sample Answer Fertilisation occurs when the nucl eus of a sperm and the nucleus of an ovum fuse to form zygote (a)(ii) Able to describe the early development after the formation of a zygote from process I to IV Sample Answer Process I P1 : Fertilisation occurs at the fallopian tube to form a zygote Process II P2 : the zygote begins to di vide by mitosis P3 : known as an embryo P4 : The zygote is divided successively into a solid mass of cell P5 : At this stage, a morula is formed Process III P6 : the morula then divides to form a hollow ball with fluid -filled cavity P7: called blastocyst//blastula Process IV P8 : (seven day after fertilisation) the blastocyst implants itself into the endometrium P9 : The blastocyst/blastula formed has an inner cell mass which will develop into an embryo Any 7 Able to predict hat might happen if the corpus luteum fails to develop after fertilisation. Sample answer: P1 : the level of progesterone drops / decrease P2 : the foetus will be aborted P3 : because the function of progesterone is to maintain thickening / vascularisation of the endometrium wall Any 2

Marks

1

7

(iii)

2 (b) Able to describe the in vitro fertilisation technique Sample answer: F : In-vitro fertilisation (IVF) is the fertilisation of the egg that occurs outside the human body P1 : the wife was injected with hormone to stimulate the development of the secondary oocyte / ovum in ovaries P2 : secondary oocyte / immature ova are collected by using a laparoscope (from ovary before ovulation)

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P3 : The immature ova are placed in culture solution to mature P4 : Sperms are collected/ placed in the culture solution P5 : sperms from husband fertili se with the secondary oocyte in a Petri dish (contains culture medium) P6 : (after fertilization) zygote will divide by mitosis P7 : (after 2 days) formed embryo are at eight celled stage P8 : Afew embryos/fertilised ova are transferred into the endometrium wall of uterus by using catheter P9 : embryos/fertilised ova are implanted into endometrium wall of uterus and start to develop P10 : baby that is delivered is called test tube baby P11 : This technique is complicated / expensive/ the probability to success is low F ith any 9 Ps TOTAL MARK

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PERATURAN PEMARKAHAN TAMAT

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