Gears Types

Gears are categorized into several types. They are used in a wide era of industries including automotive, milling, paper industry etc. According to different applications in industries and different materials used they are categorized separately. Different types of gears are also custom design and are fabricated by gear manufacturing services as par the specifications

1- Angular

Bevel Gears

These are bevel gears whose shafts are set at an angle other than 90 degrees. They are useful when the direction of a shaft's rotation needs to be changed. Using gears of differing numbers of teeth can change the speed of rotation. These gears permit minor adjustment of gears during assembly and allow for some displacement due to deflection under operating loads without concentrating the load on

the end of the tooth. For reliable performance, Gears must be pinned to shaft with a dowel or taper pin.

The bevel gears find its application in locomotives, marine applications, automobiles, printing presses, cooling towers, power plants, steel plants, defence and also in railway track inspection machine. They are important components on all current rotorcraft drive system.

2- Bevel


They connect intersecting axes and come in several types. The pitch surface of bevel gears is a cone. They are useful when the direction of a shaft's rotation needs to be changed. Using gears of differing numbers of teeth can change the speed of rotation. They are usually mounted on shafts that are 90 degrees apart, but can be designed to work at other angles as well.

In both the bevel types of gears the shaft must be perpendicular to each other and must be in the same plane. They also have sliding action along the teeth. This allows input pinion to be mounted lower than the axis of the ring gear.These gears permit minor adjustment during assembly and allow for some displacement due to deflection under operating loads without concentrating the load on the end of the tooth. The hypoid bevel gears can engage with the axes in different planes. This is used in many car differentials. which gives performance improvements. potentially reducing efficiency. The ring gear of the differential and the input pinion gear are both hypoid. For reliable performance. Hypoid gears are stronger. As the handle of the drill is turned in a vertical direction. They either have equal size gears with 90 degrees shaft angle or a shaft angle other than 90 degrees. In straight bevel gears teeth have no helix angles. Spiral bevel gears have spiral angles. The bevel gears in a hand drill have the added advantage of increasing the speed of rotation of the chuck and this makes it possible to drill a range of materials. Straight bevel angle can also be with one gear flat with a pitch angle of 90 degrees. Types The teeth on bevel gears can be straight. Gears must be pinned to shaft with a dowel or taper pin. The contact between the teeth starts at one end of the gear and then spreads across the whole tooth. Bevel gear sets consist of two gears of different pitch diameter that yield ratios greater than 1:1. Applications A good example of bevel gears is seen as the main mechanism for a hand drill. In straight when each tooth engages it impacts the corresponding tooth and simply curving the gear teeth can solve the problem. . spiral or bevel. operate more quietly and can be used for higher reduction ratios. the bevel gears change the rotation of the chuck to a horizontal rotation.

steel plants. Spiral bevel gears are important components on all current rotorcraft drive systems. cooling towers.Crown Wheel A crown wheel is a wheel with cogs or teeth set at right angles to its plane. marine applications. spiral bevel gears are used to redirect the shaft from the horizontal gas turbine engine to the vertical rotor. They are important components on all current rotorcraft drive system. and for an extremely large number of load cycles. high loads. power plants. In this application. printing presses. automobiles.The bevel gears find its application in locomotives. 3. The internal diameter of a crown wheel is ground by holding the component in pitch like chucks to ensure accuracy of the finished gear . defence and also in railway track inspection machine. These components are required to operate at high speeds.

rotated by a falling weight. Applications Crown wheels are used in motorcycle automotive gearboxes. This verge is connected to an arm with a hammer on the end that struck the bell. whose teeth drive the pallets of a verge backward and forward.As a result of the development of "flat" crown wheels it has become possible to construct a special gearbox. It is also used in mechanical clocks. IHC has used these new gearwheels to produce a prototype of a continuously variable speed gearbox.Crown Wheel and Pinion . 4. The clock consists of a crown wheel.

In a machine. They are checked thoroughly for high spots because this ensures premature failure and noise-free operation. Crown wheel and pinion have excellent heat distortion control. An elliptoid contact pattern is ensured between the crown wheel and pinion.A crown wheel is a wheel with cogs or teeth set at right angles to its plane and the pinion is a small cogwheel that meshes with the crown wheel. Application Crown wheel & pinion are used widely in automotive industries. wear resistance property and noiseless and vibration free operation. The pinion thread is specially made on the thread grinder to ensure proper fitting. Tooth contact of a crown pinion is inspected on a Gleason machine at regular intervals of time for uniform hardness and adequate case depth. They are one of the most stress prone parts of a vehicle. . which cause the meshing of the gears to become incorrect. The crown wheel & pinion are paired and checked for centralized tooth bearing and desired proximity. high strength. the tendency is for the crown wheel and pinion to be forced into or out of mesh by the sliding contact. when any torque is applied to the drive unit. They are made of fine-grained steel billet. To maintain forward motion both output drive shaft sides covers are removed and the pinion and crown wheel are swapped completely with differential. They are used in automobiles to maintain forward motion. The amount of pre-load on the bearings determines how much torque can be transmitted without allowing end float.

When torque level decreases then the gear separating forces also decreases allowing the axle shaft to rotate independently. which eventually increases the heat and prevents the gear from turning the car's wheel. This change allows the engine power to turn the wheels. Differential gears can add or subtract the movement of two inputs. the fluid should be properly checked in regular . In practical terms. So. This results in the contact of two metals. forcing the total of the rotational angles of the shafts to be the same as the rotational angles of the covering. The differential gears are lubricated with a fluid that absorbs heat and increases the life and performance of the gears as well as the wheel. Regular driving subjects the fluid to high heat that breaks the fluid at a later stage. When a differential gear is meshed with the other gear then the highly efficient torque is applied from the differential side gears to the axle shaft. the pinions and the turntable. Pinions are mounted on intermediate shafts and these shafts are connected to a fixed carrier called the turntable.5. In the differential gears there are two coaxial gears.Differential Gears Differential gears link two shafts with a covering. and propeller shafts into a right-angle direction. Arrangement of the system is done in such a way that one axle turns faster than the other. They are used to convert the lengthwise flow of power from the engine through the clutches. transmissions. they will turn the number of revolutions proportional to the movements of both inputs.

Fine Pitch Gears . 6. comparatively hypoid differential is much stronger than the spiral differential.In spiral differential the pinion gears contacts the ring gears at its centerline . Applications Differential gears in automobiles are the most common application of these gears.In the hypoid the pinion gear contacts the ring gear below the centerline. Hypoid Gear . When one wheel is stationary then the counterpart wheel rotates at twice of its expected speed. The size of pinion gear in hypoid differential is much smaller and the contact ratio is high. there is no movement of the differential gear with respect to its axis but when the car takes a turn then these gears help two wheels of the car to rotate differentially with respect to each other. Spiral Differential . When the car is moving in a straight line. Types of Differential Gears There are two designs of differential gears. hypoid and spiral.intervals.

They have high tooth strength.Girth Gears . They do not lend themselves to the kind of detailed tooth measurements because of their small dimensions. stainless steel and brass. steel. 7. They are used largely to transmit motion rather than power.They are widely used in aerospace. Fine pitch gears are inspected by functional testing on a variable-center-distance fixture. nuclear and medical industries. Fine pitch gear is used widely in oil industry and for automotive transmission. They are available in plastic.

The girth gear is the heart of most mills and kiln drive system. They are physically big and due to this they are unable to store for longer periods of time. New materials are used with an added advantage of increase in hardness and therefore increased ratings. sugar industry. The capital cost of girth gears is lower than others and they take less time to install. operate and maintain. Simulation programs are installed for verification of proper solidification. They have high efficiency and the overall life of these gears depends upon proper lubrication and alignment. high precision component. They are also used in steel industry.The girth gear has been preferred over the gearless drives due to their lower initial cost. Casting is enhanced using full ring risering techniques. In the past many years girth gears have gone through enormous improvements. simplicity to install. paper and pulp industry. They are high quality. They can't be used in spare parts inventory. . Girth gear materials have made several changes on their own.

8. bedways. 9. easy operation and precise machining. Hardened and ground gear delivers a maximum hob rotation and table rotation with excellent machining accuracy. Hardened gears are used in several essential machine tools like wheels. They are characterized by high output. They are available in a wide range of sizes and gear ratios. Hardened ground gear provide a noise free and long term operation. They can be parallel shaft type or hollow shaft type.Helical Bevel Gears . They offer rigidity. and are widely used in the aerospace industry. etc.Hardened and Ground Gears Hardened and ground gear has two types of shaft arrangements. strength and high resistance to shock load.

The advantages of helical bevel gears are high efficiency and low reduction rate. The gear material is given an extremely strong. 10. They can replace worm gears in a variety of applications. Helical bevel gears are fitted with flanges of various sizes. homogeneous structure. The use of helical bevel gear saves energy and cost. particularly in modular machinery. Reciprocating tools cuts them. They are commonly used in modern differentials. Helical bevel gears are manufactured by an alloyed case hardening steel. They are also used as storage and retrieval unit.Helical Gears . The input side is provided with a motor flange or a free input shaft and the output side are provided with a free shaft end or a hollow shaft.Helical bevel gear is a toothed gear in angular design.

the same helix angles are used and the tooth contact area of the gear is very small. Two mating helical gears must have equal helix angle but opposite hand. They can carry heavy load because of the greater surface contact with the teeth. they can be mounted on perpendicular shaft by adjusting the rotating angle by .Helical gears connect parallel shifts but the involute teeth are cut at an angle to the axis of rotation. They have higher load capacity. are more expensive to manufacture and create axial thrust. The gearing is quieter with less vibration. Helical gears can be used to mesh two shafts that are not parallel and can also be used in a crossed gear mesh connecting two perpendicular shafts. They run smoother and more quietly. If the angle of gear teeth is correct. For shaft at 90 degrees. The efficiency is also reduced because of longer surface contact. Gear Configuration They can be manufactured in both right-handed and left-handed configurations with a helix angle to transmit motion and power between non-intersecting shafts that are parallel or at 90 degrees to each other. They have longer and strong teeth.

As the angle of inclination increases the axial force also increases. The inclination of the teeth generates an axial force. Thrust bearings can counter these forces. sand mullers. which needs to be accomodated by appropriate thrust bearings. cutters.Herringbone Gears . Applications These are highly used in transmission because they are quieter even at higher speed and are durable. elevators. screen. This can be overcome by the use of double helical gears by having teeth with a 'v' shape. The other possible applications of helical gears are in ****ile industry. feeders. clay working machinery. rubber and plastic industry. blowers. compressors. rolling mills. conveyors. 11. Disadvantage A disadvantage of helical gear is the resultant thrust along the axis of the gear. cane knives and in oil industry.90 degrees. sugar industry. food industry.

high capacity power transmission. The two helix angle come together in the center of the gear face to form a 'V'. Herringbone gears are mostly used on heavy machinery. . Its difficult to cut this type of gear but its made easier by machining a groove in the face at the point of the apex of the 'V' creating a break in the middle of the herringbone gear teeth. They utilize curved teeth for efficient. This offers reduced pulsation due to which they are highly used for extrusion and polymerization. They do not have any separating groove between the mirrored halves. parallel axis that may or may not have center groove with each group making two opposite helices. Action is equal in force and friction on both gears and all bearings.They conduct power and motion between non-intersecting. The most common application is in power transmission. in these gears the end thrust forces cancel themselves out. Herringbone gear also allow for the use of larger diameter shaft for the same volumetric displacement and higher differential pressure capability.

Master Gears are also used in aerospace and automotive industry. The most common applications are as setting masters and rolling masters for inspection and production applications.Master Gear They offer high precision. quiet operation.Mill Headers .12. longer life and greater efficiency. They are used for composite testing of production components. They have high speed. 13. charts or other indicating devices. They are used to determine the accuracy of work gears. When master gears and work gears are rolled together on rolling fixtures dimensional variations are determined by various indicators. low volume productions.

In industrial sectors these gears are used as an important part of conveyors.Miter Gears . 14. chemical industries. sugar mill and many more. separators and kilns because they offer high powerdensity and modularity.Mill headers find heavy usage in industrial sectors as an essential part of various vehicles and machines. cement plant industry. They are used in various industrial sectors including coal and mining. paper mining. oil exploration. elevators. cranes.

nylon and duracon. number of teeth. brass. speed ratio. . They are used in drilling air holes in vacuum molds. They can carry heavy loads and can eliminate secondary operations that are useless during the process. They are designed for the efficient transmission of power and motion between intersecting shafts at right angles. Features They are known for efficient power transfer and durability. Miter gears are cut with a generated tooth form that has a localized lengthwise tooth bearing.Miter gears are bevel gears put together with equal numbers of teeth and axes that are usually at right angles. bronze. quieter operation. They can be of two types. They provide a steady ratio. They are offered in various modules. drilling radial ports in door closers. Miter gears are made of steel. milling oil grooves and act as a low cost spindle for dedicated machines. aluminum. They handle higher speeds and greater torque loads. They give smoother. ground spiral miter gear and spiral miter gear. Miter is the surface forming the beveled end or edge of a piece where a miter joint is made. materials and designs.

15. . and material handling and steering. where sliding losses predominate. chemical industry. They are used in various industrial sectors including-coal and mining.Applications Miter gears are also used in printing. bottling. oil exploration.Non-Involute Gears Non-involute gears have reduced specific sliding. Reduced gear sliding has an affect on low speed meshes. They are used as important parts of conveyors. elevators and kilns. paper mining. The efficiency of these gears is also increased by the use of less viscous oil. agriculture.

The disadvantages of the non-involute gearing are lower transverse contact ratio and great sensitivity to the center distance accuracy. The gears manufactured by the same rack cutter have the concave convex mesh. The geometry of non-involute gear tooth provides substantially higher capacity than any other gearing. The result of enlarged reduced radius of curvature has as a consequence reduced pressure and better lubrication conditions. .The tooth profile geometry is uniquely defined by the arc shaped path of contact.

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