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Answer 1

ZigBee network transmit data so slowly because it use IEEE 802.15.4-2003 standard, and industry-
standard for wireless networking technology that operating at 2.4GHz for applications that require
relatively infrequent data exchange at low data-rates within 100 meter range such as home or office
building (Components, 2015).

ZigBee network can’t benefit from much higher speed because ZigBee design to offer low-power
operation and low bandwidth which extending its battery life, high security because ZigBee use
128 bit symmetric encryption keys, and robustness because ZigBee protocols minimize the time
the radio is active, so it is also reduce the power use (Components, 2015; Gascón, Security in
802.15.4 and ZigBee networks, 2009). Higher speed on ZigBee will increase the amount of power
needed and reduce its robustness.

References
Alliance, Z. (2008). Zigbee Specifiaction. San Ramon, United States of America: ZigBee Document
053474r17.

Batra, A., Balakrishnan, J., & Daba, A. (2004). Multi-Band OFDM: A New Approach for UWB. Proc 2004
International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Vol.5 (pp. 365-368). Vancouver: IEEE.

Bellorado, J., Ghassemzadeh, S., Greenstein, L., Sveinsson, T., & Tarokh, V. (2003). Coexistence of Ultra-
Wideband Systems with IEEE 802.11a Wireless LANs. Proc IEEE GLOBECOM 2003 (pp. 410-414).
San Francisco: IEEE.

Borah, D. K., Jana, R., & Stamoulis, A. (2003). Performance Evaluation of IEEE 802.11a Wireless LANs in
the Presence of Ultra-Wideband Interference. WCNC 2003 - IEEE Wireless Communications and
Networking Conference, (pp. 83-87). New Orleans: IEEE.

Chan, W. C. (2002). Polling Network. In M. Ismail, The Springer International Series in Engineering and
Computer Science Vol.533 (pp. 339-257). Springer: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Components, R. (2015, April 20). Design Spark. Retrieved from 11 Internet of Things (IoT) Protocols You
Need to Know About: https://www.rs-online.com/designspark/eleven-internet-of-things-iot-
protocols-you-need-to-know-about

Fischer, C. (2004). UWB interference to wireless systems. COMTEC-BERN-, 20-23.

Gascón, D. (2009, April 28). 802.15.4 vs ZigBee. Retrieved from Libelium: http://www.libelium.com/802-
15-4-vs-zigbee/

Gascón, D. (2009, April 28). Security in 802.15.4 and ZigBee networks. Retrieved from Libelium:
http://www.libelium.com/security-802-15-4-zigbee/

Joy, M. (2011, February 17). Contention - What it is, how it works. Or "Why is my Internet slow?".
Retrieved from Windows Seven Forum: https://www.sevenforums.com/network-
sharing/145281-contention-what-how-works-why-my-internet-slow.html
Kajale, N. V. (2005). Uwb and wlan coexistence: A comparison of interference reduction techniques.
Tampa: Scholar Commons University of South Florida.

Stewart, W., Xiao, Y., Sun, B., & Chen, H.-H. (2007). Security mechanisms and vulnerabilities in the IEEE
802.15.3 wireless personal area networks . International Journal of Wireless and Mobile
Computing, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2007 , 14-27.

Zillner, T. (2015, August 6). ZigBee Exploited - The good, the bad and the ugly. Retrieved from Black Hat:
https://www.blackhat.com/docs/us-15/materials/us-15-Zillner-ZigBee-Exploited-The-Good-The-
Bad-And-The-Ugly-wp.pdf

Answer 2
ZigBee standard includes complex security measures to ensure key establishment, secure
networks, key transport on the network and frame security (Alliance, 2008, p. 419). On top of
802.15.4 security standard, ZigBee add two extra security layers at the Network and Application
layer and all security policies on ZigBee rely on the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) 128b
encryption algorithm (Gascón, Security in 802.15.4 and ZigBee networks, 2009). Zigbee protocol
base on “open trust” model, which means all protocol stack layers trust each other, therefore
cryptographic protection only occurs between devices (Zillner, 2015).
There are two type of security can be provided in ZigBee network:

1. Extra Encryption. ZigBee add two extra security layer at the Network and Application layer
that use 128 bit encryption algorithm on top of 802.15.4 security standard. It is ensure more
secure network and data transfer (Gascón, 802.15.4 vs ZigBee, 2009)
2. Association and Authentication. If a node want to join ZigBee network, it need to ask for
a network address to the network’s coordinator. All information in the network routed
using this address and not the MAC address. (Gascón, 802.15.4 vs ZigBee, 2009)

References
Alliance, Z. (2008). Zigbee Specifiaction. San Ramon, United States of America: ZigBee Document
053474r17.

Batra, A., Balakrishnan, J., & Daba, A. (2004). Multi-Band OFDM: A New Approach for UWB. Proc 2004
International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Vol.5 (pp. 365-368). Vancouver: IEEE.

Bellorado, J., Ghassemzadeh, S., Greenstein, L., Sveinsson, T., & Tarokh, V. (2003). Coexistence of Ultra-
Wideband Systems with IEEE 802.11a Wireless LANs. Proc IEEE GLOBECOM 2003 (pp. 410-414).
San Francisco: IEEE.

Borah, D. K., Jana, R., & Stamoulis, A. (2003). Performance Evaluation of IEEE 802.11a Wireless LANs in
the Presence of Ultra-Wideband Interference. WCNC 2003 - IEEE Wireless Communications and
Networking Conference, (pp. 83-87). New Orleans: IEEE.
Chan, W. C. (2002). Polling Network. In M. Ismail, The Springer International Series in Engineering and
Computer Science Vol.533 (pp. 339-257). Springer: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Components, R. (2015, April 20). Design Spark. Retrieved from 11 Internet of Things (IoT) Protocols You
Need to Know About: https://www.rs-online.com/designspark/eleven-internet-of-things-iot-
protocols-you-need-to-know-about

Fischer, C. (2004). UWB interference to wireless systems. COMTEC-BERN-, 20-23.

Gascón, D. (2009, April 28). 802.15.4 vs ZigBee. Retrieved from Libelium: http://www.libelium.com/802-
15-4-vs-zigbee/

Gascón, D. (2009, April 28). Security in 802.15.4 and ZigBee networks. Retrieved from Libelium:
http://www.libelium.com/security-802-15-4-zigbee/

Joy, M. (2011, February 17). Contention - What it is, how it works. Or "Why is my Internet slow?".
Retrieved from Windows Seven Forum: https://www.sevenforums.com/network-
sharing/145281-contention-what-how-works-why-my-internet-slow.html

Kajale, N. V. (2005). Uwb and wlan coexistence: A comparison of interference reduction techniques.
Tampa: Scholar Commons University of South Florida.

Stewart, W., Xiao, Y., Sun, B., & Chen, H.-H. (2007). Security mechanisms and vulnerabilities in the IEEE
802.15.3 wireless personal area networks . International Journal of Wireless and Mobile
Computing, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2007 , 14-27.

Zillner, T. (2015, August 6). ZigBee Exploited - The good, the bad and the ugly. Retrieved from Black Hat:
https://www.blackhat.com/docs/us-15/materials/us-15-Zillner-ZigBee-Exploited-The-Good-The-
Bad-And-The-Ugly-wp.pdf
Answer 3
Interference Issue between UWB and 802.11 #1
Reduction in Range

Ultra-Wideband (UWB) able to support high data rate applications and use frequency band from
3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz. Protocol 802.211a can’t be coexist with UWB because 802.11a system
operate inside UWB spectrum. The range of 802.11b devices is halved when there is UWB
transmitter that following ETSI (Europe) regulations and the range is reduced by factor of four
where there is UWB transmitter following FCC (US) regulations (Fischer, 2004).

Solution: The simplest solution for this problem is to put UWB transmitters away from 802.11
receiver. As studies (Borah, Jana, & Stamoulis, 2003) find that the effect of the interference
becomes less and less when UWB transmitters move away from 802.11a receivers.

The other solution is multiband technique that divided UWB spectrum into smaller band to avoid
interference with other system (Batra, Balakrishnan, & Daba, 2004).
#2 Interference Issue Between UWB and 802.11 #2
Reduce in Performance
Studies found that in line of sight (LOS) propagation, the performance of 802.11 system is
unaffected by UWB interferers, even if UWB and 802.11 is in close range. But, the UWB
performance receiver decrease about 3 to 6 dB if there is LOS system nearby. In other hand, in
non-line of sight (NLOS) propagation, UWB interference impact 802.11 system severely
(Bellorado, Ghassemzadeh, Greenstein, Sveinsson, & Tarokh, 2003).

Solution: In order to resolve this problem, performing spectral subtraction or spectral nulling,
where signal with desirable spectral characteristic is then de-convolved with the original UWB
signal to get the 802.11 system function properly (Kajale, 2005). The other solution is performed
multiband technique that divided UWB spectrum into smaller band to avoid interference with other
system (Batra, Balakrishnan, & Daba, 2004).

References
Alliance, Z. (2008). Zigbee Specifiaction. San Ramon, United States of America: ZigBee Document
053474r17.

Batra, A., Balakrishnan, J., & Daba, A. (2004). Multi-Band OFDM: A New Approach for UWB. Proc 2004
International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Vol.5 (pp. 365-368). Vancouver: IEEE.

Bellorado, J., Ghassemzadeh, S., Greenstein, L., Sveinsson, T., & Tarokh, V. (2003). Coexistence of Ultra-
Wideband Systems with IEEE 802.11a Wireless LANs. Proc IEEE GLOBECOM 2003 (pp. 410-414).
San Francisco: IEEE.
Borah, D. K., Jana, R., & Stamoulis, A. (2003). Performance Evaluation of IEEE 802.11a Wireless LANs in
the Presence of Ultra-Wideband Interference. WCNC 2003 - IEEE Wireless Communications and
Networking Conference, (pp. 83-87). New Orleans: IEEE.

Chan, W. C. (2002). Polling Network. In M. Ismail, The Springer International Series in Engineering and
Computer Science Vol.533 (pp. 339-257). Springer: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Components, R. (2015, April 20). Design Spark. Retrieved from 11 Internet of Things (IoT) Protocols You
Need to Know About: https://www.rs-online.com/designspark/eleven-internet-of-things-iot-
protocols-you-need-to-know-about

Fischer, C. (2004). UWB interference to wireless systems. COMTEC-BERN-, 20-23.

Gascón, D. (2009, April 28). 802.15.4 vs ZigBee. Retrieved from Libelium: http://www.libelium.com/802-
15-4-vs-zigbee/

Gascón, D. (2009, April 28). Security in 802.15.4 and ZigBee networks. Retrieved from Libelium:
http://www.libelium.com/security-802-15-4-zigbee/

Joy, M. (2011, February 17). Contention - What it is, how it works. Or "Why is my Internet slow?".
Retrieved from Windows Seven Forum: https://www.sevenforums.com/network-
sharing/145281-contention-what-how-works-why-my-internet-slow.html

Kajale, N. V. (2005). Uwb and wlan coexistence: A comparison of interference reduction techniques.
Tampa: Scholar Commons University of South Florida.

Stewart, W., Xiao, Y., Sun, B., & Chen, H.-H. (2007). Security mechanisms and vulnerabilities in the IEEE
802.15.3 wireless personal area networks . International Journal of Wireless and Mobile
Computing, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2007 , 14-27.

Zillner, T. (2015, August 6). ZigBee Exploited - The good, the bad and the ugly. Retrieved from Black Hat:
https://www.blackhat.com/docs/us-15/materials/us-15-Zillner-ZigBee-Exploited-The-Good-The-
Bad-And-The-Ugly-wp.pdf

Answer 4
802.15.3 Security Mechanism #1
Cipher

Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) or also known by its original name Rjindael is specification
of electronic data encryption that established in 2001 by NIST. Rjindael was named after its
designers, Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen. The 802.15.3 adopts it for the block cipher. Rjindael
support a range of block and key sizes, but AES adopts a 128-bit block size with key size are 128,
192 or 256 bits. In AES, the decryption cipher is not identical to encryption cipher. Even though
the form of key schedules are same, but the sequence of transformations are different (Stewart,
Xiao, Sun, & Chen, 2007)
802.15.3 Security Mechanism #2

Authentication and Encryption


802.15.3 Standard combines authentication and encryption in all of its secure messages
transportation using 128-bit key and 128-bit block size, except for secure beacon frames that
only use an integrity code. For non-beacon messages an integrity code is generated, attach to
plaintext and then the two encrypted together. The integrity code is generated by using a key,
a nonce and CBC-MAC. The messages become authentic if the integrity code from its original
messages is match with integrity code from it recipients (Stewart, Xiao, Sun, & Chen, 2007).

Answer 5
Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) is a Media Access Control
(MAC) protocol that operates by detecting the occurrence of a collision. If a collision is detected
by protocol, CSMA/CD will terminates the transmission immediately so the transmitter does not
have to waste a lot of time in continuing the transfer process. After collision, each host will wait
for a small interval of time before retransmitting to avoid another collision (Gumber, 2017)
Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) is a Media Access Control
(MAC) protocol that operates by sensing the state of the medium in order to prevent a collision.
Different from CSMA/CD, CSMA/CA does not deal with recovery after a collision. This protocol
will only check if the medium is idle or not before starts transmitting to minimizes any possible
collisions (Gumber, 2017).
Wireless networking use CSMA/CA because it is not possible for transmitter in wireless
networking to detect whether a collision has occurred or not (Gumber, 2017)/

Answer 6
Polling is a method or protocol of controlling access to a transmission medium that shared by
numbers of station. It categorized as central control network. In polling network, central
control computer or controller perform polling or making continuous request for data from
each of the station on the network in cyclic order then provide access to the transmission or
communication channel (Chan, 2002).
The different between polling and contention is in polling, the controller polling each station
on the network continuously. But, in contention, the station or nodes contend for network
access, so two or more nodes may try to send messages across network simultaneously (Joy,
2011).

Answer 7
Benefit #1 of 802.11e for WLANs
Availability of Quality of Service (QoS)
Quality of Service (QoS) is an idea which transmission rates, error rates and other network
characteristic can be measured, improved and guaranteed. QoS is important for continues
transmission with high bandwidth such as video and other multimedia information. Availability of
this feature in 802.11e enable WLANs to transmit and prioritize data, voice and video in real time
(Rouse, 2006).
Benefit #1 of 802.11e for WLANs
Faster Data Transfer and Less Interference
Network tha use 802.11e protocol operate at frequencies ranging between 2.4 GHz to 2.4835 or
5.75 GHz to 5.850. Using higher frequencies ranges make WLANs that use this protocol able to
provide faster data transfer speeds than use older protocol. It is also decrease changes of
interference with other system (Rouse, 2006).

Answer 8
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is an old encryption algorithm that used by wireless network to
secure it data transfer. Security code that use by WEP is chosen during configuration and this
sequence of hexadecimal digits must match on all devices that trying to communicate on the
network. This algorithm only give wireless users the level of security that implied on wired
network which make data transfer is exposed to risk of packet sniffing (Barken, 2004; Misel, 2010)
Shortcomings of WEP:
1. Vulnerable to hack. WEP encryption uses only one shared key authentication that send all
over wireless network with data packet. If hacker have enough time to analyze the network
and gather enough data, they can crack the key and use it (Misel, 2010).
2. Complicated when change master key. One of methods to increase security in WEP
network is change master key periodically. But, if the master key is changed, user will have
to manually change the key on all other devices connected to the network.

Answer 9
Modulation technique #1 802.16

Binary Phase-shift Keying (BPSK) is a digital modulation that modulating two different phases of
reference signal. The constellation points chosen are usually positioned with uniform angular spacing
around circle. It give maximum phase-separation between points and best protection to corruption.
BPSK only able to transmit one of two values at once.

Modulation technique #2 802.16

Quadruplet Phase-shift Keying (QPSK) is a modulation technique used for digital signal. The modulation
process by shifting frequencies to a different one.
Answer 10
Different between 48-bit MAC and CID, 48-bit universal MAC address use as identity for
subscriber station (SS), this address is unique and normally use for authentication and during
ranging process to establish connections. On other side, the 16-bit connection identifiers (CID) use
as reference for establish connections.
The purpose of CID is as reference of establish connection in 802.16 network. The CID is a
connection identifier of the traffic at subscriber stations (SS), including connectionless traffic such
as IP. It serves as a pointer to destination and context information. CID also become based of
request of transmission because the granted bandwidth for transmission may differ for different
connection (Ahson & Ilyas, 2008).