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Jun 24, 2018

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ORIFICE

Mr. Mandeep Singh Harshul Agarwal (101615052)

Japkeerat Singh (101615055)

Javesh Vasu (101615056)

OBJECTIVE:-

To determine the various coefficients of a sharp edge circular

orifice and to determine the time taken for emptying the tank

through the orifice.

SUB-OBJECTIVES:-

1.) To determine the coefficient of contraction, coefficient of

velocity and coefficient of discharge for a given sharp edge

circular orifice.

2.) To derive the equation to determine the time taken for

emptying a tank through the circular orifice.

3.) To calculate the required head over the orifice so that the time

taken for emptying a tank through the orifice will be equal to

assigned time.

4.) To calculate the error if any between the time taken for

emptying a tank through the orifice and the assigned time.

THEORY:-

An orifice is an opening provided either in one of the walls or at the bottom of a

tank for discharging liquid from the tank. An orifice can also be used for the

measurement of discharge of liquid from the tank. Orifices may be of any shapes

such as circular, square, rectangular etc. and they have sharp, square or bell

mouthed entrance.

The liquid particles approach the orifice from all the sides and the discharging

liquid emerges from the orifice in the form of free jet. The jet of liquid continues

beyond the orifice till the minimum area of jet is achieved. Beyond the vena

contracts, the jet expand i.e. diverges and directed in the downward direction by

gravity.

Coefficient of contraction:

The ratio of the area of the jet at vena contracta to the area of the orifice is known

as coefficient of contraction.

Coefficient of velocity:

The ratio of actual velocity of the jet at vena contracta to the theoretical velocity is

known as coefficient of velocity.

Coefficient of discharge:

The ratio of actual discharge through an orifice to the theoretical discharge is

known as coefficient of discharge.

The three coefficients are related to each other by the following relationship:

Cd = Cv * Cc

measurement and the theoretical discharge is given by the following expression:

Qth = A * (2gH) ½

Where A is the area of orifice and H is the head acting on orifice also called head

causing the flow. The head acting on the orifice is to be measured from the center

of the orifice up to the free water surface.

The standard values of hydraulic coefficients of a sharp edge circular orifice are:

Coefficient of discharge, Cd = 0.61 to 0.65

Area of orifice = 78.54mm2

Area of discharge measuring tank = 397*397= 157609mm2

Coordinates at origin i.e. vena contracta (X o, Yo) = ( 0.89,

25.9)

no. level level (cm) (sec) (cm3/s) (cm) (cm) (cm)

(cm) (cm)

1 3.5 9.2 5.7 51 176.15 16.9 24.3 56.2

2 3 7.1 4.1 49 131.73 11.7 24.4 28.0

3 4 9.5 5.5 41 211.42 15.1 24.3 61.8

4 3.5 8.4 4.9 38 203.23 16.1 29.2 55.5

No. (cm) (cm) (cm) (cm3/s) ) (cm3/s) X/√4YH Q/Qth Cd/Cv

1 56.2 16.01 1.6 176.15 260.81 0.844 0.673 0.797

2 28.0 10.81 1.5 131.72 182.12 0.943 0.704 0.746

3 61.8 14.21 1.6 211.42 274.81 0.755 0.725 0.960

4 55.5 15.21 1.7 203.23 260.59 0.778 0.768 0.987

AVERAGE 0.83 0.717 0.864

So, from the above table we get,

Average Coefficient of velocity, Cv = 0.832

Average Coefficient of discharge, Cd = 0.717

Average Coefficient of contraction, Cc = 0.864

through circular orifice:

Consider a square, rectangular or circular tank of uniform cross-sectional area,

containing some liquid and having an orifice at its bottom.

• a = Area of the orifice

At some instant, let the height of the liquid be h above the orifice. We know that

the theoretical velocity of the liquid at this instant,

After a small interval of time dt, let the liquid level fall down by the amount dh

Therefore volume of the liquid that has passed in time dt

The value of dh is taken as negative as its value will decrease with the increase in

discharge. We know that the volume of liquid that has passed through the orifice in

time dt,

= Coefficient of discharge Area Theoretical velocity Time

Equating equations:

Now the total time t required to bring the liquid level from to may be found

out by integrating the equation between the limits H1 to H2 i.e.,

Taking minus out from the bracket (as H1 is greater than H2)

If the tank is to completely emptied, then putting H2= 0 in this equation, we get:

This is the required derivation of the equation to determine the time taken for

emptying through circular orifice.

empty the tank:

A = 0.0841 m2

Cd = 0.717

π ( 0.01 )2 2

a= m

4

H2 = 0 cm

H1 = 15.13 cm

Error between time taken and time assigned to empty the tank

through orifice:

T assigned = 4 min 20 sec = 260 sec

T ( assigned ) − T ( actual )

Error = X 100 %

T ( assigned )

(278 − 260 )

= X 100 %

260

= 7%

Error = 7%

RESULT:

1) All the hydraulic coefficients of orifice are almost in the prescribed ranges.

The average values of coefficients are:

Coefficient of discharge, Cd = 0.717

2) The time to empty the tank through orifice depends on various factors like

area of orifice, area of the tank, Coefficient of Discharge, initial height of the

tank.

3) The required Head for time assigned and actual time to be same is 15 cm.

4) The error between actual time and the time assigned to empty the tank

through orifice is 7 %

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