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Flipping 2nd Grade with Science and Engineering Practices

Designed by: Kelley Bell, Amanda Rogers, Barbara Simon, and Billy Woods

Client Information

Name: Mary-Kathryn McCullars

Title: 2nd Grade Teacher

Organization (school):Abbotts Hill Elementary School

Email address: McCullars@fultonschools.org

Client Needs Assessment
Students must know how to use the scientific and engineering practices before they can meaningfully learn and apply science concepts
and information. According to the client, students do not deeply understand these important guidelines and at the beginning of the year
and there isn’t much time for students to learn these essential skills in class. Flipping the classroom and introducing the 7 scientific
and engineering practices at the beginning of the school year through homework will allow her students to spend more valuable time
in class on student centered investigations, experiments and collaborative group activities. Students need to spend as much time as
they can participating in hands on meaningful experience in order to retain relevant information and learn. Students use the Seesaw
Online Journal for parent communication, and the client would like to keep this as easy and consistent as possible for parents and
students at home. She asked that a link or a file be available so that she can send it to parents through their Seesaw Online Journal
account.

Target Audience: 2nd Grade Students
General characteristics: Abbotts Hill Elementary is a K-5 enrichment school located in a suburb north of Atlanta in Johns Creek,
Ga. According to the Governor’s Office of Student Achievement (2018) 698 students attended during the 2017-2018 school year.
This silver medal school has an A rating and performed higher than 92% of schools in Georgia. Student demographics were composed
of 43% Caucasian, 32% Asian/Pacific Islander, 11% African American, 8% Hispanic, and 6% multiracial. In addition, 10% of
students received free or discounted meals based on economic need, 9% of students have disabilities, and 13% are ESOL learners.
(Governor’s Office of Student Achievement, 2018). The Abbotts Hill School Improvement Plan for the 2017-2018 school year (2018)
stated an effort to increase student performance in academic achievement and reading. Goals include 100% student engagement,
student leadership programs and enrichment opportunities. Personalized, standards based and student- centered learning is the present
focus of the school district.

Relevant knowledge, skills, and experience: Second grade students and teachers have limited experience using technology for
instruction in the classroom. Teachers will be coached this year by a Vanguard member who will guide them through the use of
instructional technology in the classroom and the flipped classroom instruction. Each 2nd grade classroom has use of Apple Ipads as
2:1 devices. Technology used in the classroom includes the use of IRead. In addition, students have exposure to Dell laptops and
Chromebooks through the Learning Commons, where they receive instruction every other week using technology from various sites
including Mackenvia, Edpuzzle and PebbleGo to name a few. In addition, students receive instruction for 45 minutes a week using
Apple Ipads and Dell laptops in the 4cit Studio, which is a stem/strategies/makerspace lab. Here, students incorporate technology into
their learning as they work in groups to collaborate and use critical thinking skills. They experience the use of a variety of innovations
including Seesaw, Do ink Green Screen and Chatterpix. They are able to type information and reflections into the Seesaw online
journal. Experience with science in the classroom includes watching demonstrations of science experiments and participation in
experiments or projects following teacher directions and steps. The students do not have an in depth background with science and
engineering practices that are needed to truly understand the content they are learning. They also do not understand the connection
between science and math, and how what they learn later will build on what they are learning now.

Instructional Objectives: Upon completion of this course, the learners will be able to:
Objective 1 (Module 1)
Ask questions and defining problems
● Raise questions about the world around them and be willing to seek answers to some of the questions by making careful
observations and measurements and trying to figure things out.

Objective 2 (Module 2)
Develop and Use Models
● Use ordinary hand tools and instruments to construct, measure, and look at objects.
● Assemble, describe, take apart, and reassemble constructions using interlocking blocks, erector sets and other things.
● Make something that can actually be used to perform a task, using paper, cardboard, wood, plastic, metal, or existing objects.
Plan and carry out investigations
● Describe and compare things in terms of number, shape, texture, size, weight, color, and motion. b. Draw pictures (grade level
appropriate) that correctly portray features of the thing being described. c. Use simple pictographs and bar graphs to
communicate data.

Objective 3 (Module 3)
Analyze and interpret data Using mathematics and computational thinking

● Use whole numbers in ordering, counting, identifying, measuring, and describing things and experiences.
● Readily give the sums and differences of single-digit numbers in ordinary, practical contexts and judge the reasonableness of
the answer.
● Give rough estimates of numerical answers to problems before doing them formally.
● Make quantitative estimates of familiar lengths, weights, and time intervals, and check them by measuring.

Objective 4 (Module 4)
Construct explanations and design solutions by Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information
Instructional Strategies and Tools
This course is based on the Elaboration Theory by Reigeluth and Merrill and uses Simplifying Conditions Sequence. This theory
is used for teaching more in-depth concepts in a simplified way. This course is an introduction to higher order inquiry questioning
skills needed to investigate scientific principles. This course offers a simplified version of these skills that students can build
upon as they explore the science curriculum. A combination of instructional approaches will be blended together in this course. We
will create a self-paced, inquiry-based, flipped classroom experience through story-based learning. Self-pacing modules will allow
learners to progress through the four modules at their own pace. Students participating in this course will have a variety of reading
levels and will need different amounts of time to be able to watch the videos, read the text, reflect on the content, and complete the
assessments. The nature of our content lends itself to the inquiry-based approach, as the lesson itself is on inquiry principals that will
be used throughout the school year in science lessons. This is a natural choice and the design of the lesson will mirror the content that
is being taught. This course is designed for the students to complete at home as homework in order to introduce them to the concepts
and the inquiry questioning process. The teacher can then reference the course in class as science and engineering practices are used
throughout the year to explore content standards that include our sun and other stars, weather patterns, life cycles, and matter. Story-
based learning will engage the learners attention, keep the learner motivated to continue with lessons, introduce a problem that needs
to be solved, and illustrate the relevance of using questions to solve problems. A variety of tools will be used to engage the learners
throughout the 4 modules. These tools include Padlet for goal setting and collaborating with classmates, PowToons for teacher
created storyline videos, YouTube for instructional videos, Khan Academy for instructional videos with interactive practice activities,
and Timeline Creator from Read, Write, Think.

Motivational Strategies
Purposeful design, activities, and strategies were chosen in order to maintain learner motivation throughout the course. Story-based
design through animated videos is implemented to gain interest and hold the learners attention. The story line will also introduce the
problem that needs to be solved and ask the students to help solve the problem at hand; How does our garden grow? In addition, a
variety of instructional methods and media will be used to maintain the learners attention. Students will learn the content through an
online course that will include videos, interactive activities and assessments implemented throughout the lesson. They will use Padlet
to set goals and write reflections as a way to collaborate with peers. An optional extension will be provided to allow enrichment
opportunities for students to use their voice and choice as well as practice engineering skills. The ARCS Model was used in the
development of the course to ensure learners maintain learning motivation as they progress through the modules.

Application of the ARCS Model:
Category Strategies

Attention A1 Perceptual arousal - Use novelty and surprise to gain interest.
-Students will be watching a video introducing them to two superheros.

A2 Inquiry arousal - Stimulate curiosity by posing challenging questions or problems.
-The superheros will address a problem at hand and ask the students to help them solve the problem at hand. How
does our garden grow?

A3 Variability - Vary instructional methods and media.
-Students will be learning the content through an online course that will have videos, interactive activities and
assessments implemented throughout the lesson.

Relevance R1 Goal orientation - Provide the objectives and utility of the instruction, and either present goals or have learners
define them.
-Students will learn how to use inquiry to ask questions through observation, measure and problem solve.
-Students will use everyday tools and instruments to build, measure and observe objects.
-Students will use mathematical concepts including whole numbers to order, count, identify, measure, and describe.
-Students will learn how to explain and use problem solving skills to design solutions.

R2 Motive matching - Use instructional strategies that match learner motives and values.
- Students will be given easy to understand directions and activities that are relevant to them.
- Students will choose to complete an enrichment activity if they wish.

R3 Familiarity - Make the materials familiar by providing concrete examples and analogies related to the learners'
backgrounds and/or experiences.
-Throughout the videos the superheros will refresh on prior knowledge that will help the students solve the problem
at hand. They will be able to reflect of prior situations to relate them to the current one at hand.

Confidence C1 Learning requirements - Make learners aware of learning and performance requirements.
-Simple detailed instructions will be provided throughout each module
C2 Success opportunities - Enhance learners' beliefs in their competence by providing multiple, challenging
experiences that increase learning success.
-Interactive activity to practice inquiry
-3 question formative quiz (created in google) for each module with immediate feedback.

C3 Personal control - Use strategies that allow personal control whenever possible, and provide feedback that
attributes success to personal effort.
- Students will have access to Padlet for students to set goals and reflect on the each module. Students can
collaborate with their peers as well as the teacher.
Satisfaction S1 Intrinsic reinforcement - Encourage and support intrinsic enjoyment of the learning experience.
-The immediate feedback will encourage the student to move forward, or try again. Also there will be extended
assignments for students that would like to go further and complete an enrichment activity at home.

S2 Extrinsic rewards - Use verbal praise, real or symbolic rewards, and incentives.
-Students will receive a certificate of completing the course, if they have passed the Summative Assessment at the
end of the course.

S3 Equity - Make performance requirements consistent with stated expectations, and use consistent standards for
all learners’ tasks and accomplishments.
-Students will need to know how to use inquiry to ask questions through observation, measure and problem solve,
how ro use everyday tools and instruments to build, measure and observe objects, how to use mathematical
concepts including whole numbers to order, count, identify, measure, and describe, explain and use problem
solving skills to design solution.

Assessment strategies – Throughout each module, students will be given interactive activities to keep them engaged. In addition, each
module will use a Google Form set up as a quiz to offer immediate feedback for each answer. These formative assessments will be
used to identify whether or not a student has met the objective. The teacher will monitor the results of the formative assessments, and
use the data to support any remediation or additional instruction necessary for individuals or small groups with similar data. In
addition, a summative assessment will be given at the end of the last module, which will determine mastery of the objectives. The
summative assessment will consist of 10 questions, created with Google Forms, including a section where students will sequence the
order of the modules. They will also write a reflection to self-assess their learning.

Development tools – The following electronic media will be used to develop our learning modules and support course objectives:
Google Docs, Google Forms, Google Drawing, YouTube, Google Sites, Padlet, Seesaw, and PowToons. The course will be
constructed using Google Sites and activities will be created using Google Docs and Google Drawing. In addition, Google Forms will
be used to make quizzes and assessments. Powtoons videos will be created to introduce each module, and a variety of Youtube videos
will be imbedded to support learning. Padlet links will provide a place for collaboration and reflection. Students will access the course
through a link sent to their Seesaw account. Most students will access the website through a computer or Ipad at home. Students who
cannot access the modules at home due to internet issues or lack of a device will be given an opportunity to complete the modules
using classroom technology.

6. Course Outline

Module 1: Asking questions and defining problems: Why won’t our garden grow?

Content Description Module 1 introduces students to the cartoon characters and theme of our unit called “How does
our garden grow?” Students will learn how to use inquiry to ask questions through observation,
measure and problem solving. Students will set a learning goal at the beginning of each module
and reflect on their learning at the end of each module.

Media objects (original) A teacher created Powtoons video introducing superheroes and the concept of the module
A photo showing the first stage of the plant
A short story about how to ask and answer real world questions
Padlet (Goal Setting and Reflection)
Media objects (external) YouTube Video: Scientific Method Song Video
After students are introduced to the problem through the Powtoon video, they will watch the
Scientific Method Song Video to learn the basic steps of the scientific method. The video is a
catchy song with colorful graphics that repeats itself several times. The lyrics go over the
scientific method. The graphics depict two girls doing an experiment on plants, which ties in
nicely with the garden theme in our story.

Practice or Assessment Interactive Activity to practice inquiry
3 question formative quiz (created in google)
Level 3 Enrichment Activity (Students may choose to create a product that aligns with the module
and share with their families).

Module 2: Developing and Using Models and Planning and Carrying out Investigations: Let’s Investigate!

Content Description Module 2 will help students learn by investigating! Students will use everyday tools and
instruments to build, measure and observe objects. They will investigate how to put together,
break apart and put back together various objects.
Students will create something that can be used out of “virtual” materials. Students will describe
and compare objects in terms of number, shape, texture, size, weight, color, and motion. Students
will draw pictures that correctly portray details of the object being described. They will use
simple pictographs or bar graphs to interpret data.

Media objects (original) A teacher created Powtoons video introducing concept
A photo showing the small plant in a flower bed
A short story about the concepts introduced in Module 2
Calendar
Padlet (goal setting and reflection)

Media objects (external) YouTube Video titled How do Plants Grow?
Students will watch this video after watching the PowToon that introduces the problem to solve in
order to learn what plants need to grow. They will then apply this knowledge to what Suzzie and
Sam are doing with their garden to come up with solutions to their problem.

Practice or Assessment Interactive Activity to practice (plant box activity w/tools)
Interactive Activity to practice (take apart and reassemble activity)
3 question formative quiz (created in google)
Level 3 Enrichment Activity (Students may choose to create a product that aligns with the module
and share with their family).

Module 3: Analyzing and interpreting data and using mathematics and computational thinking: What does it all mean?

Content Description Module 3 will help students use mathematical thinking to analyze and interpret data. They will
use mathematical concepts, and computation and estimation to determine if their answers seem
sensible.

Media objects (original) A teacher created Powtoons video introducing the concept
A photo showing a thriving plant in a bed with a ruler showing measurement and growth
A short story about the concepts introduced in Module 3 Padlet (goal setting and reflection)
Media objects (external) Students will watch Khan Academy videos and complete the activities about using Bar
Graphs/Charts to collect and analyze data using the following link:
https://www.khanacademy.org/math/early-math/cc-early-math-measure-data-topic/cc-early-math-
bar-graphs/v/reading-bar-graph-examples

Students will also review the YouTube video: How to Construct Graphs from Data and Interpret
Them on Study.com.

Practice or Assessment Interactive Activity to practice (create and interpret chart)
3 question formative quiz (created in google) Level 3 Enrichment Activity
(Students may choose to create a product that aligns with the module and share with their
families).

Module 4: Constructing explanations and designing solutions and obtaining, evaluating and communicating
information: We Need Help

Content Description In module 4, students will learn how to explain and use problem solving skills to design solutions

Media objects (original) A teacher created Powtoons video introducing concept
A photo of a beautiful thriving plant
A photo showing a weeping dying plant for interactive activity to locate a problem and determine
a solution (padlet collaboration activity)
A short story about the concepts introduced in Module 2
Calendar
Padlet (for group collaboration and reflection
Media objects (external) Students will use the Timeline Creator from Read, Write, Think to communicate data collected on
the calendar in previous Module 3. Link is below:
http://www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/interactives/timeline_2/
Students will also review the YouTube video: Writing a Scientific Lab Conclusion by Robert
Berkeley.

Practice or Assessment Interactive Activity to practice (ugly plant problem solving activity using padlet)
3 question formative quiz (created in google)
10 question summative assessment (created in google/ includes questions from formative quizzes,
a sequencing activity where students sequence the order of the modules, and a reflection
Level 3 Enrichment Activity (Students may choose to create a product that aligns with the module
and share with their families).
The students will also be assessed based on their use of computers to write lab reports.

7. References

Beckley, Robert (2011). Writing a Science Lab Conclusion. Online video. Retrieved June 21, 2018 from:
https://www.YouTube.com.

Georgia Department of Education. Georgia Standards of Excellence. (2016). Retrieved June 16, 2018 from
https://www.georgiastandards.org/Georgia-Standards/Pages/Science.aspx.

Havefunteaching. (2013). Scientific Method Song. Online video. Retrieved from: https://www.havefunteaching.com/wp-
content/uploads/2015/03/scientific-method-video.png
Keller, J.M. (1987). Development and Use of the ARCS model of motivational design. Journal of Instructional Development, 10(3),
2-10.

Keller, J.M. (2010). Motivational design for learning and performance: The ARCS model approach. New York: Springer.

Khan Academy. (2018). Reading Bar Graphs. Retrieved June 21, 2018 from https://www.khanacademy.org/math/early-math/cc-early-
math-magh-measures-data-topic/cc-early-math-magh-measures-data-topic/v/reading-bar-graph-example.

Schools. (n.d.) Retrieved June 09, 2018, from https://schoolgrades.georgia.gov/school-seatch?f[0]=field district:7.

ReadWriteThink. (2018). Classroom Resources. Retrieved June 21, 2018 from:
http://www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/interactives/timeline2/

Study.com. (2015) Online video. How to Construct Graphs from Data and Interpret Them. Retrieved June 21, 2018 from
https://study.com/academy/lesson/how-to-construct-graphs-from-data-interpret-them.html

Toonmastieyf. (2012). Online video. How Do Plants Grow? Online video. Retrieved June 21. 2018 from: https://www.youtube.com.

Welcome Abbotts Hill Jaguars! (n.d.). Retrieved June 12, 2018, from http://school.fultonschools.org/es/abbottshill/Pages/default.aspx