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CHAPTER 1 Commented [V1]: 5cm below top page


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INTRODUCTION 3 spaces between paragraphs
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1 spacing between title and fig or table
1.1.12 Ramakrishnan

1.1 Introduction

Ever growing Internal Combustion (IC) engine driven automobile


population is putting pressure on fossil fuel requirements. Also, the
worldwide environmental problem due to petroleum-based fuels is
enormous, which includes an increase in the emission rate of Cox, NOx, and
SOx. The environmental impact and global warming due to emission from
fossil fuel are driving technology to reduce emission, improve fuel efficiency
apart from leading research institutions to look for alternative fuels.
Therefore, it stimulates more interest in research and development of
additional to internal combustion engines for improved performance.

In India, a lot of research on exhaust gas circulation has been carried


out in four-stroke engines as compared to two-stroke engines. Not much
work was carried out in two-stroke engines since manufacturers have
focussed more on four-stroke engines due to expanding growth in four-
wheeler market and development opportunities. The better performing four-
stroke engines have gradually overshadowed the advantages of two-stroke
engines in the automotive sector.

This research considers the features of IC engines in general and the


possibility of improving performance using modification in two-stroke
engines.
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1.2 Combustion, and Emissions

All internal-combustion engines share a common feature of combustion


occurring after induction of fresh mixture or air and after subsequent
compression. In reciprocating piston engines with internal combustion, this
takes place close to Top Dead Centre (TDC). The result is a pressure increase
that is transmitted through the piston and the connecting rod to the crankshaft
in the form of torque called crankshaft torque.

The sequence of compression and subsequent combustion, on the one


hand, have a significant impact on the pressure characteristic and thus on the
efficiency and torque output. On the other hand, this sequence defines the
creation of emissions inside the engine. Thus, the process control differs in
this respect between gasoline and diesel engines. Here in this study, the
discussion is restricted to gasoline engines now.

The characteristic feature of a gasoline engine is that it uses an external


ignition source, an electronic spark plug. Ideally, a suitable homogeneous
air/fuel mixture is created to provide the required flammability. This
flammability is also achieved using external mixture formation (manifold
injection) or internal mixture formation (direct gasoline ignition).

1.3 Mixture formation

Mostly a homogeneous mixture preparation takes place in a gasoline


engine. i.e., the intake air is fully mixed with the vaporized or atomized fuel
during the induction and compression strokes. The excellent vaporization
qualities of gasoline enable are injected into the intake manifold. Modern
stratified charge combustion processes are, on the other hand, characterized
by partially heterogeneous mixture preparation.
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Mixture formation is decisively influenced by vaporization conditions,


injection pressure, cylinder charge movement, and time available with the
aim of homogenization. Essentially, mixture formation involves the
interaction of two processes: droplet vaporization caused by temperature
difference and droplet disintegration by aerodynamic forces. Here manifold
injection and direct injection differ.

1.4 Ignition

Ignition is typically performed with the aid of an electrode spark plug.


When a high voltage is applied, a spark-over occurs between the electrodes,
depending on the mixture state (i.e., pressure, temperature and mixture
composition). Here the high voltage is typically in two-digit kV range, First
and foremost the number of molecules between the electrodes influences the
ignition voltage demand. The mixture ignited by the spark must occur during
its combustion release that amount of energy that is needed to ignite the
immediately adjacent mixture. As for leaning of the mixture increases, the
energy content of the mixture decreases when the electrode gap remains
constant. The ignition is accompanied by an increase in the energy demand
needed to ignite adjacent – also lean – mixture. By enlarging the electrode
gap, it is possible to increase the volume ignited by the spark and thereby
raise the energy content. However, enlarging the electrode gap requires an
increase in the ignition voltage. In this way, this increases for example, in
lean combustion processes or the event of a load increase. In the event of a
load increase, the spark-over duration simultaneously decreases as the
ignition voltage demand increases as shown in Fig.1.1.
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Figure 1.1 Ignition point values in o CA before TDC

Figure 1.2 Sparkover the duration

The result of heat losses at the spark plug electrodes, heat convection
losses and cyclically fluctuating mixture states, causes ignition energy to be
Fig.1.2 Spark over duration
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2–

above the theoretical minimum ignition energy by up to an order of


magnitude as shown in Fig.1.2. The stochastically fluctuating states (flow
1–
field and mixture state) between the electrodes are the main cause of large
cyclic variations in a gasoline engine. The situation is improved by enlarging
the electrode
0 – gap. Modern engines now already operate with a maximum
| | | |

value above 1 mm. Enlarging the electrode gap necessitates an increase in


0 2 0 4 0 6 0

the ignition voltage and with it causes


Mean an increase
pressure, bar in electrode wear.

Fig.1.3 Ignition voltage demand

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10

| | | |
0 20 40 60
0–
Mean pressure, bar

Figure 1.3 Ignition voltage demand

The purpose of ignition is to ignite air/fuel mixture and thereby initiate


the actual combustion process. Depending on the velocity of the subsequent
combustion and on the piston speed (and thus on the engine speed), the point
of ignition must be variably adapted as shown in Fig.1.3.
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1.5 Influence of combustion

Combustion includes all phenomena ranging from charge preparation,


including eventual chemical reactions between a fresh fuel and lubrication
oil, to the ignition of the mixture and the quality of heat release.

The influence of combustion generated hydrocarbons on the total


exhaust emissions is little significant for two-stroke engines, in which the
introduction of fuel into the cycle occurs with the closed exhaust port.

The formation of unburned hydrocarbons can be analyzed through four


possible mechanisms.

• Flame quenching
• Crevice volume filling
• Fuel absorption/desorption in lubricating oil
• Incomplete combustion

1.6 Flame quenching

The unburned hydrocarbons produced by fuel film adhere to the


cylinder wall, for which combustion can occur only through surface
evaporation and subsequent oxidation in different layers, from very rich to
lean. In Compression Ignition (CI) engine the droplets are surrounded by air
at high temperature. In Spark Ignition (SI) engine, film combustion is
conditioned by the negative quenching effect of the cylinder wall.
Experimental results show a concentration in the exhaust ranging from 20 to
100 ppm.

1.7 Crevice volume

Each type of fuel has a characteristic quenching distance that depends


on air-fuel ratio, beyond which the combustion is stopped, as shown in
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Fig.1.4. Not all the fuel trapped in the crevices remain unburned. In fact,
during compression and combustion, mass flow is directed into the crevices.
When the pressure begins to drop during expansion, a part of the accumulated
gas flows back and can eventually participate in late combustion.
Fortunately, in two-stroke engines, the crevice volume is proportional to the
surface-volume ratio of the combustion chamber. Thus, this value is typically
low of the order of 6 to 8.

Figure 1.4 Quenching distance variation for different HC

Experimental analysis exhaustively performed, and based on such


results, mean data for generic SI engine were derived by Namazian and
Heywood (1982). The data show that 5 to 8 % of the total fuel mass can enter
all crevice regions, but only 50 % of that amount remains unburned, i.e., 2.5
to 4 % of the entire charge. Thecrevice region appears to be the major cause
of unburned hydrocarbons generated during combustion in SI engines.
However, for two-stroke engines, it represents only a small amount in
comparison with the short circuit generation.
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1.8 Absorption in the lubrication oil

Heavy hydrocarbons contained in lubricating oil can absorb lighter


ones, typical of fuel composition thus contribute to the formation of unburned
hydrocarbons. The genesis can be explained as follows: First, the lubrication
oil (in which a certain fuel is absorbed) adheres to the cylinder wall and piston
skirt. During compression, the fuel vapor pressure increases, and thus
additional fuel eventually could be absorbed. Subsequently, during
expansion with reduced pressure, the fuel is desorbed and released into the
exhaust gas. However, this contribution to unburned hydrocarbons is very
negligible in crankcase scavenged two-stroke engines. Usually, the
lubrication of engine parts is accomplished by mixing lubrication oil with
fuel or with inlet air. In such situations, the oil film cannot play a role in the
absorption or desorption mechanism.

A different scenario could occur for two-stroke engines with separate


scavenge and lubrication. In these cases, avoiding the lubrication oil passage
from the crankcase to the top of piston grooves is highly effective.

1.9 Incomplete combustion

In a two-stroke engine fuelled with a homogeneous mixture, it is


evident from the experimental analysis done by Nuti and Martorano (1985),
and as shown in Fig.1.5 and Fig.1.6, the hydrocarbon quantity produced from
incomplete combustion is one of smaller magnitude than the short-circuit
portion.
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Figure 1.5 Analysis of gases inside the cylinder

In this context, the focus of improved techniques for reducing unburned


hydrocarbons is directed toward the scavenging phase. Although the
combustion process in two-stroke engines is like that of four-stroke engines
with a certain amount of EGR at Wide Open Throttle (WOT), the same
consideration is not valid at low loads. Rather at a very low delivery ratio,
the large residual gas quantity remaining in every cycle in the cylinder acts
as an inert gas, and thus the combustion becomes worse to the point that
several cycles having no heat release (combustion) is possible between two
active cycles. This type of situation for these kinds of engines (not for CI
engines because scavenging is always operated with unitary delivery ratio)
causes an increase in hydrocarbon emissions at light loads, even if partially
balanced by the reduction of the short-circuited fraction.
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Figure 1.6 Analysis of gases inside the cylinder (partial throttle)

1.10 Carbon monoxide emissions

The process of generating carbon monoxide in two-stroke engines is


identical to that of other engines. Therefore, the phenomenon can be
described generally and qualitatively according to Fig.1.7. This figure also
shows the trends for two other primary pollutants, namely, HC and NOx.

For two-stroke SI engines, it is interesting to analyze the relationship


between carbon monoxide emissions and air-fuel ratio, derived from the
analysis of many operating points relative to two-stroke engines for vehicle
applications shown in Fig.1.8. From this figure, we can note the range in
which the power output is maximum in the slightly richer than stoichiometric
conditions.

𝐴
= 13 𝑡𝑜 17; 𝐶𝑂 = 1.5 𝑡𝑜 2.5 %
𝐹
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Figure 1.7 Trend of pollution vs air-fuel ratio

Figure 1.8 Correlation between CO % and Air-Fuel ratio


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The power output almost remains constant across the range

𝐴
= 11.4 𝑡𝑜 15.8; 𝐶𝑂 = 5 𝑡𝑜 %
𝐹

Beyond those points, a rapid decline occurs for lean limits (CO < 1 %),
and a smooth decline follows for rich limits (CO > 5 %). The maximum
temperature occurs with mixtures richer than stoichiometric. Smooth
transition is the primary reason why engines usually are tuned on the rich
side. The other reason is that a rich mixture is necessary during the rapid
transient to achieve good acceleration performance. In two-stroke engines,
we cannot use advantageously accelerating pump devices on the carburetor
because the large volume of crankcase induces a consistent delay before the
rich mixture can reach the combustion chamber.

1.11 Nitrogen Oxide emissions

Nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2) are generated essentially in conditions


of elevated temperature and pressure typical to the combustion process of an
IC engine. Of these two, NO represents the main compound (> 95v% of the
total) and is formed by the oxidation of nitrogen in intake air. The mechanism
is based on the well-known theory proposed by Zeldovich98. Three main
reactions control the transformation rate.

𝑂 + 𝑁2 = 𝑁𝑂 + 𝑁 ...........................................................1.1

𝑁 + 𝑂2 = 𝑁𝑂 + 𝑂 ..........................................................1.2

𝑁 + 𝑂𝐻 = 𝑁𝑂 + 𝐻 ..........................................................13

The theory is based on the dissociation of 𝑁2 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑂2 molecules


following the high temperature of gas in the flame front boundary. During
the evolution of combustion, the pressure increases and causes a further rapid
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increase in final temperature. A well-established chemical equilibrium


condition is never reached during engine operating conditions, basically
because of the reduced time necessary to complete the reactions and elevated
temperature gradients. Therefore, during expansion, the reverse reactions
(i.e. no destruction of species) is quenched by a rapid decline in temperature.
Nitrogen oxides remain as stable components in the exhaust gas mixture,
where their concentration basically depends on

• Maximum value reached by the gas temperature


• Oxygen content in the mixture

Going into more detail on Zeldovich mechanism, the rate constant,


forward and reverse, which have been derived during many experimental
tests on IC engines, show the activation energies (i.e., they are highly
temperature dependent). Table 1.1 summarises these data.

Table 1.1 Constants for NOx formation mechanism


Reaction 𝑲𝒇 cm3/mol-s 𝑲𝑹 cm3/mol-s Temperature
range K
𝑂 + 𝑁2 7.6 (1013 )𝑒 (−39000⁄𝑇) 1.6 (1013 ) 2000 - 5000
= 𝑁𝑂 + 𝑁

𝑁 + 𝑂2 6.4 (109 )𝑇𝑒 (−31500⁄𝑇) 1.5 (1013 )𝑇 𝑒 (−19500⁄𝑇) 1500 - 3000


= 𝑁𝑂 + 𝑂

𝑁 + 𝑂𝐻 4.1 (1013 ) 2.0 (104 )𝑒 (−23650⁄𝑇) 2200 - 4500


= 𝑁𝑂 + 𝐻

The NO formation rate derived from equation 1.3 is

1 𝑑([𝑁𝑂]𝑉 (𝑡))
( ) = 𝐾𝐹1 [𝑂 ][𝑁2 ] + 𝐾𝐹2 [𝑁][𝑂2 ] + 𝐾𝐹3 [𝑁][𝑂𝐻 ]
𝑉 (𝑡 ) 𝑑𝑡

−𝐾𝑅1 [𝑁][𝑁𝑂 ] − 𝐾𝑅2 [𝑂 ][𝑁𝑂] − 𝐾𝑅3 [𝑁𝑂][𝐻 ] …………………..14


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A similar equation is written for nitrogen as

1 𝑑([𝑁]𝑉 (𝑡))
( ) = 𝐾𝐹1 [𝑂][𝑁2 ] + 𝐾𝐹2 [𝑁][𝑂2 ] + 𝐾𝐹3 [𝑁][𝑂𝐻 ]
𝑉 (𝑡 ) 𝑑𝑡

−𝐾𝑅1 [𝑁][𝑁𝑂 ] − 𝐾𝑅2 [𝑂][𝑁𝑂] − 𝐾𝑅3 [𝑁𝑂][𝐻 ] ……………......1.5

Since N is negligible in comparison with other species


𝑑{𝑁]
(10−8 𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑓𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛), is set to zero and equation 1.5 is used to
𝑑𝑡

eliminate [N] from equation 1.4, which gives us

[𝑁𝑂]2
1 𝑑[𝑁𝑂]𝑉(𝑡) 2𝐾𝐹1 [𝑂][𝑁2 ](1−( ))
𝐾[𝑂2 ][𝑁2 ]
( )= 𝐾𝑅1[𝑁𝑂] …………….…1.6
𝑉(𝑡) 𝑑𝑡 (1+( ))
𝐾[𝑂2 ]+𝐾𝐹3 [𝑂𝐻]

𝐾𝐹1 𝐾𝐹2
where 𝐾 =
𝐾𝑅1 𝐾𝑅2

Considering the equilibrium conditions,

𝐾𝐹1 [𝑂]𝑒 [𝑁2 ]𝑒 = 𝐾𝑅1 [𝑁]𝑒 [𝑁𝑂 ]𝑒 = 𝑅1

𝐾𝐹2 [𝑁]𝑒 [𝑂2 ]𝑒 = 𝐾𝑅2 [𝑂]𝑒 [𝑁𝑂]𝑒 = 𝑅2

[𝑁]𝑒 [𝑂𝐻]𝑒 = 𝐾𝑅3 [𝑁𝑂 ]𝑒 [𝐻 ]𝑒 = 𝑅3

Substituting the equilibrium concentrations [𝑂 ]𝑒 ,


[𝑂2 ]𝑒 , [𝑂𝐻 ]𝑒 , [𝐻 ]𝑒 , [𝑁2 ]𝑒 to generic value in equation 1.6, we get
2
𝑁𝑂
2𝑅1 (1−([𝑁𝑂] ) )
1 𝑑[𝑁𝑂]𝑉(𝑡) 𝑒
( )= 𝑁𝑂 𝑅 …………...…………………..1.7
𝑉(𝑡) 𝑑𝑡 (1+[[𝑁𝑂] ])((𝑅 1 ))
𝑒 2 +𝑅3

Solving this differential equation 1.7 gives the NO concentration versus


crank angle (i.e., time).
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It can generally be noted from an analysis of each type of engine with


multizone models that two-stroke engines present a large amount of residual
burned gas inside the cylinder because of incomplete scavenging. On the
other hand, the behavior of the exhaust gas is as an inert diluent (like NO2)
in the unburned mixture. The absolute temperature reached after combustion
varies almost inversely with burned gas mass fraction, Fig.1.9. Therefore,
low values of NOx emissions from two-stroke engines in comparison with
four-stroke engines, which are roughly an order of magnitude is roughly
justified.

Fig.1.10 Exhaust NO vs diluent concentration

----- Burned exhaust gas


____ N2

Diluent in intake mixture %

Figure 1.9 Exhaust NO vs. Diluent Concentration

A charge stratification as envisioned in the new two-stroke concept has


the reduction of NOx in the exhaust gas that follows the same trend as shown
in Fig.1.10. In the case of externally scavenged two-stroke engines (i.e., with
improved cylinder purity), experimental results confirm a reduction of six
times in comparison with a four-stroke engine of similar performance.
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Fig.1.11 Exhaust NO vs percentage EGR

% EGR

Figure 1.10 Exhaust NO vs. % EGR

1.12 Smog formation

Smog better known as ‘petroleum smog’ because of the chemical


reactions of reactant substances in the atmosphere, occurs only when radiant
energy is supplied by the sun. The basic concept, common to all these
reactions, is broadly given by the following equation.

Hydrocarbons + Nitric oxide + Sunlight → Smog

The concept appears rather simple, but looked at closely the actual
formation phenomena, the routes to photochemical smog formation show a
rather high degree of complexity. Thirteen equations are characterizing the
processes as shown in Fig.1.11.

Reaction 2 shown in Fig. 1.11 is the photolysis of nitrogen oxide to give


off atomic oxygen. The photolysis occurs when sunlight enters the system
and the energy supplied is responsible for triggering smog formation.
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𝑁𝑂 + 𝑂2 → 𝑁𝑂2

𝑁𝑂2 + 𝐻𝑦 → 𝑁𝑂
+𝑂
𝑂 + 𝑂2 → 𝑂3

𝑂3 + 𝐻𝐶
→ 𝑅𝐶𝐻𝑂 + 𝑅𝐶𝑂
𝑂3 + 𝑁𝑂 → 𝑁𝑂2
+𝑂

𝑂 + 𝑁𝑂2 → 𝑁𝑂
+𝑂
𝑂 + 𝐻𝐶
→ 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐶𝐻𝑂

𝑅 + 𝑂2 → 𝑅𝑂2
O
𝑁𝑂 + 𝑅𝐶𝑂2
→ 𝑅𝑂 + 𝑁𝑂

𝑅𝑂 → 𝑅 + 𝑂

𝑅𝑂 + 𝑁𝑂2
→ 𝑅𝑂𝑁𝑂

𝑅𝐶𝑂2 +
𝑁𝑂 → 𝑁𝑂 +RCO
𝑅𝐶𝑂 + 𝑁𝑂2 + 𝑂2
→ 𝑅𝐶𝑂 𝑁𝑂

NO – Nitric Oxide; HC – Hydro carbon; NO2 – Nitrogen dioxide;

O2 – Oxygen

Hy – Sunlight energy; O – Atomic oxygen; O3 – Ozone;

R* - Alkyl radical

RO* - Oxyalkyl radical; RO2 – Peroxyalkyl; RCO* - Acyl radical

RCO2* - Oxyacyl radical; RONO2 – Alkyl nitrate


Figure 1.11 Smog formation mechanism
RCO3NO2 – CPD x Acyl; Peroxynitrate; RCHO -
Aldehyde
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Reaction 3 results in ozone formation by one of the products of smog.


Ozone also becomes involved in reaction 4 producing aldehydes and in
reaction five oxidizing nitric oxide to nitrogen oxide. After this reaction, the
chain of NO2 regeneration is completed. Hydrocarbons are involved in only
two reactions. Nitric oxide, which is a real ubiquitous component is involved
in seven of the reactions.

The NO2 is ‘two-faced’ because in reaction 2, nitrogen oxide is the


compound that absorbs sunlight to trigger the formation of smog, and in
reaction 11, it reacts with oxy-alkyl radicals to generate a compound that
terminates the chain. Thus, the NO2 both starts (reaction 2) and stops
(reaction 11) smog formation.

severe

Medium
light
none

Figure 1.12 Smog intensity vs. HC and NOx concentration

The products usually associated with photochemical smog are produced


as follows: Ozone from reaction 3, aldehydes from reactions 4 and 7, and
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Compound X from reaction 13. Compound X is mostly responsible for eye


irritation.

Since it is difficult to predict the smog formation using 13 reactions, a


monogram shown in Fig.1.12 can be used to predict the smog formation
intensity with a known volumetric concentration of NOx and HC.

Fig.1.13 Typical areas of 2 stroke and 4 stroke engine smog formation

deceleration
2 stroke 4 stroke

i d l i n g

acceleration

Concentration of Nitrogen dioxide, ppm

Figure 1.13 Typical areas of two- stroke and four-stroke engines


smog formation

A controversial question that arises is whether a two-stroke engine is


better or worse for smog formation in comparison to a four-stroke engine.
Fig.1.13 derived from studies of Hagen-Smit and Fox (1955) shows that
smog formation is difficult for typical operating conditions of two-stroke
engines and is rather easy in the case of four-stroke engines. This fact is also
confirmed by studies based on concentrations present in urban areas of large
towns, small towns and rural areas in Fig.1.14. With smog reduction trends
possible in future as shown in Fig.1.15.
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Figure 1.14 Smog formation in various environmental areas

Figure 1.15 Possible smog reduction trends

A reduction in NOx concentration appears effective in ozone (smog)


reduction. However, a reduction in HC concentration does not appear to have
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a similar effect. Therefore, from the viewpoint of smog formation, it appears


that two-stroke engines used in vehicles cannot cause worse smog formation,
but in the Indian scenario, the predominant use of two-wheelers, in very large
numbers contribute significantly to pollution levels. Thus, there is a need to
improve two-stroke engine’s performance that is well below that of four-
stroke engines to achieve greater fuel efficiency and market acceptability.

1.13 Need for Study

We have seen from the above discussions that the growing automobile
field involves an enormous number of I.C. engines that emit exhaust gases
and pollute the atmosphere. With more and more people preferring
automotive vehicles for mobility, there is an urgent need to take precautions
against polluting the atmosphere. Elimination of vehicles is out of the
question as growth and development demand mobility in the world. Ways
are to be found to improve the performance of automobiles and minimize the
effect of the exhaust on pollution.

1.14 Problem Statement

Most of the existing two-wheelers use two-stroke gasoline engines that


perform poorly compared to four-stroke engines. Also, the emission of
unburnt hydrocarbons from two-stroke engines is more in the case of two-
stroke engines. There needs to be a way out for improving the performance
by varying the operating parameters and recirculation of unburnt
hydrocarbons for regeneration.

1.15 Objective of the Study

This study proposes the use of uncooled and cooled exhaust gas
recirculation and modified inlet manifold with orifice suction control device
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for improvement of performance using a homogeneous mixture, reuse of


unburnt hydrocarbons and controlling combustion performance.

1.16 Methodology of the Study

The methodology of the proposed research work is as follows:

• Obtain the performance and emission characteristics of a standard two-


stroke gasoline engine, used in two-wheelers.
• Obtain the performance and emission characteristics of a four-stroke
gasoline engine of comparable size.
• Modify the inlet manifold of the two-stroke gasoline engine using
orifice control devices of assorted sizes.
• Vary the percentage uncooled exhaust gas recirculation through the
combustion chamber of the two-stroke gasoline engine.
• Cool the recirculated exhaust gases and determine the performance and
emission characteristics.
• Compare the performance and determine the optimum combination for
maximum improvement in performance and reduced emission from the
two-stroke gasoline engine.

1.17 Limitations of the Study

• The proposed study is concerned only with the novel idea of using
orifice in the manifold of exhaust gas recirculation.
• After exhaust treatment for improvement of emission characteristics are
not included in this study.

1.18 Organization of the Thesis

The thesis contains five chapters and is organized as follows:


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Chapter-1: Introduction. This chapter gives the combustion theory,


emission of products of combustion from the engine, the effect of this
emission and the need to improve the performance and reduce the emission.

Chapter-2: Review of Literature. This chapter presents the literature


review on the different engines components considered for performance
improvement and methods of improving the performance and the results
reported by the researchers in this field.

Chapter-3: Experimental Investigation and Methodology. This


chapter describes the experimental setup, measurement, and methodology of
conducting the tests on selected two-stroke gasoline engines.

Chapter-4: Results and Discussions. This chapter deals with the


analysis of the results obtained from the tests conducted on the two-stroke
gasoline engine using various configurations and comparison of the
performance and emission characteristics for the selection of best
combination for optimum benefit.

Chapter-5: Conclusion and Future Scope. This chapter gives the


conclusion of the research work and explains the scope for further study.
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CHAPTER 2 Commented [V2]: 5cm below top page


Second Title 2 spaaces below
Third title 4 spaces below
1.5 spaces afterwards
LITERATURE REVIEW 3 spaces between paragraphs
3 spaces before and after the figures and tables
1 spacing between title and fig or table
1.1.12 Ramakrishnan

2.1 General

The literature reviewed is exhaustive and those having relevance to


exhaust gas recirculation, blending techniques and mathematical modeling
for simulation of the combustion processes are reported here.

2.2 Design of Experiments

In any research process, many experimental works must be carried


out and when the number of process parameters increases, the time duration
and expenditure for conducting the experiments also increases. Wilson and
Udaykumar (2012) have recommended Taguchi methods for design of
evolution of experiments, which could solve this problem. Taguchi method
uses a distinctive design of orthogonal arrays to study the entire parameter
space with only a small number of experiments. Taguchi methods have
been widely utilized in engineering analysis and consist of a plan of
experiments with the objective of acquiring data in a controlled way, to
obtain information about the behavior of given engine performance.
Statistical analysis using two-way ANOVA is given in Appendix 1. The
greatest advantage of this method is the saving of effort in conducting
experiments; saving experimental time, reducing the cost, and discovering
significant factors quickly.

Walpole et al., (2007) have provided a rigorous introduction to basic


probability theory and statistical inference with relevant, interesting and
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motivational applications. It contains material on sampling and data


analysis including all aspects of experimental design and graphical
techniques.

Abu-Qudais et al., (2000) have reported the influence of air-fuel ratio


on the cylinder maximum pressure for different air-fuel ratios. The
maximum pressure rise is less when the air-fuel ratio is less due to
incomplete combustion.

2.3 Alternative Fuels

Nayak and Mohanan (2001) have done experimental analysis on a


single cylinder four stroke engine with modifications to work in dual fuel
mode by having LPG line at inlet manifold. The brake thermal efficiency
increased with increase in pilot fuel quantity for all loads with both EGR at
23 (deg. BTDC injection timing) and without EGR.

Experimental investigations on a two-stroke CNG SI engine by


Marouf Wani and Gajendra Babu (2001) revealed the drastic reduction in
COx and NOx emission using gasoline and CNG as alternative fuels.
However, the power output of the engine reduces due to lower volumetric
efficiency and slower burning rates with CNG.

Dasappa (2001) in his report brought out a simple procedure to


estimate the power from diesel engine converted to run on gas. The
parameters chosen for analysis are related to properties of the fuel apart
from the only engine parameter, compression ratio.

John Panneer Selvam and Vadivel (2013) studied the possibility of


using meat waste pork lard methyl ester and its diesel blends (B100, B25,
B50, B75) in a diesel engine as fuel. They reported that the BTE was
decreased by 6.2 % and the Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) was
increased by 23.5 % for meat Waste pork lard Methyl esters (WPLME)
26

when compared to pure diesel at full load. However, the brake thermal
efficiency (BTE) is very close for B25 compared with pure diesel at full
load. There is a significant reduction in carbon monoxide (CO),
hydrocarbon (HC), oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) and smoke emission at high
loads with neat WPLME. The exhaust emissions CO, HC, NOx and smoke
opacity, were decreased by 23.1 %, 31.5 %, and 64 % respectively for pure
pork lard methyl ester at full load when compared to pure diesel. Lower
heat release rate and shorter ignition delay were observed for WPLME
compared to diesel fuel.

Lakshmi Narayana Rao et al. (2008) studied the use of Used Cooking
oil Methyl Ester (UCME) on a single cylinder, 4.4 kW direct injection air
cooled stationary CI engine coupled with swinging field electrical
dynamometer. BTE of UCME is lower than that of diesel by 2.5 %. The
BTE of blends of UCME lies between diesel and neat UCME at all loads.
Since the engine is operated under constant injection timing, UCME has
lower calorific value than that of diesel. Hence the specific fuel
consumption is slightly higher than that of diesel for UCME and its blends.
The emission of CO is reduced by 15 % for 20 % UCME and by 50 % for
UCME when compared to diesel at rated load conditions.

Singh (2013) has analyzed the performance of an indirect injection


compression ignition engine by using diesel, unheated Jatropha Oil (JO)
and preheated Jatropha oil as fuels. The effects of fuel injection pressure
and fuel inlet temperature on engine performance and emission for the
different fuels were analyzed. Their test results showed that the brake
thermal efficiency of the engine with heated JO is superior to that with
unheated JO, increasing from 28.4 % with neat unheated JO to a maximum
of 30.8 %. The brake specific fuel consumption was reduced from 0.301
kg/kWh to 0.266 kg/kWh. Smoke opacity was also reduced relative to the
neat unheated JO operation compared with diesel.
27

Pughazhvadivu and Jeyachandran (2005) have tested the use of waste


frying oil preheated to 70 – 1350C in a direct injection diesel engine. The
study reported an improved performance and reduced CO and smoke
emissions. It is further reported that an increased fuel inlet temperature
increased NOx emission. It is concluded that the preheated oil at 1350C
could be used as diesel fuel for short-term engine operation.

2.4 Engine Performance

Qi et al., (2015) reported that high EGR will dilute the engine charge
and may cause serious performance problems, such as incomplete
combustion, torque fluctuation, an engine misfire. An efficient way to
overcome these drawbacks is to intensify tumble leading to the increased
turbulent intensity at the time of ignition. The enhancement of turbulent
intensity will increase flame velocity and improve combustion quality,
therefore increasing engine tolerance to higher EGR.

Marco Nuti (1998), has compiled in his book, complete details on


pollutant formation, active and passive pollutant controls. Scavenging port
design, exhaust tuning, low-pressure, high-pressure and air-assisted
injection systems are the control methods dealt in this work.

Prabhakaran and Dhamejani (2001) have discussed the modular


concept and analyzed performance aspects of a 350cc engine under vertical
inline and horizontally opposed twin cylinder configurations. Horizontally
opposed cylinders were found to deliver better output.

Tamilporai and Jaichandar (2001) reported a reduction of HC


emission up to 50% and CO emission up to 20% in their experimental
investigation to highlight the impact of stratified scavenging and catalytic
exhaust system of a typical two-stroke engine on exhaust emission and
engine performance.
28

Over the years, various methods have been suggested to improve the
power output and reduce emission levels from two-stroke engines. These
include piston coating, chamber design, electronic injection, catalytic
converter and some engine modifications. Manivel and Dhandapani (2001)
have reported 45% more brake power using electronic injection system in
the engine.

Mishra and Rahman (2001) have evaluated the influence of air flow
velocity on the combustion behavior and estimated minimum burning
velocities of 5 to 8 cm/s for equivalence ratios of 0.48 to 0.53.

Deshmukh and Ravikrishna (2001) have developed a two-


dimensional model for a two-stroke engine cylinder scavenging flow to get
the optimized design for better scavenging and trapping efficiency.

Yujun Cao et al., (2012) reported that engine specification is having


significantly different intake port engines were studied in their work.
Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) data in the equilibrium plane were
compared during intake and compression stroke, showing the effect of
intake jet arrangement. Moreover, a significantly lower mean flow kinetic
energy at TDC for one design of the intake ports can be interpreted as a
much more efficient tumble breakdown of higher efficiency. 300 CAD was
chosen because we observe a maximum of the kinetic energy of mean flow
and a minimum of fluctuating kinetic energy at this CAD were observed.
Moreover, the confined large-scale flow is believed to be intrinsically
unstable near the end of the compression. Therefore, ignition occurs during
this transition from an organized flow state to small-scale turbulence and
projection on the flow before breakdown seems relevant to obtain a
progress variable, distinguishing different engine cycles. A triple
decomposition of the velocity reduced, and the main result was a
breakdown of the relative contribution of large-scale coherence to the
29

fluctuating kinetic energy peaks during tumble breakdown, 90 % of this


contribution is due to longitudinal velocity fluctuations. Such
decomposition is believed to be useful to propose a refined analyzing
strategy for engine flow field near TDC and is presently used to analyze
different engine configurations further.

Pandey et al. (2012) have investigated the turbulent kinetic energy,


turbulent viscosity and dissipation rate contour and fluid that is almost
uniformly spread throughout the inlet pipe. In the expansion chamber,
kinetic energy varies from the lower zone to the middle zone at the outlet
pipe. Dissipation rate at the corner of the expansion chamber varies except
at the outlet where it remains constant and at the outlet pipe where it is
found greater. The velocity contour is non-uniform and can be divided into
three zones – inlet pipe, expansion chamber, and outlet pipe. The velocity
at the inlet pipe remains almost constant, but it is greater in the expansion
chamber as the pressure in the expansion chamber decreases. The pressure
contours show that both static and dynamic pressures are almost uniform
in the inlet pipe. The static pressure in the expansion chamber is not
uniform and varies from the minimum value to the maximum value. The
dynamic pressure in the expansion chamber is not uniform and varies from
minimum to maximum value. Also, the static pressure at the outlet pipe
remains uniform, but the dynamic pressure ranges from the middle zone to
higher zone. Here creation of some vacuum is also seen in the outlet pipe
in the static pressure contour. Pressure is reduced increasing flow velocity
there as shown in Table below.

Table 2.1 Flow Velocity Details


S. No. Pressure Inlet Pipe Expansion Chamber Outlet Pipe
1 Static Uniform Non-uniform Uniform
2 Dynamic Uniform Non-uniform Non-uniform
30

Phaneendra et al. (2012) have optimized the design of inlet manifold


by having helical threads of irregular pitch inside the manifold, which is a
major issue affecting the performance of the engine. A four-stroke
compression ignition engine using power 9 HP and rated speed at 1500 rpm
was preferred for the present work to examine the performance uniqueness,
which was intended and compared through the standard manifold and
helically threaded manifold were intended and compared. The tests were
approved with different configurations in unsteady pitch of the helical
threads from 10 to 25 mm in steps of 5 mm inside the intake manifold. The
middle diameter of the manifold was about 30 mm throughout. Helical
threads, with outer diameter 30 mm and inner diameter 24 mm with10 mm
pitch were adopted, and from the investigation results, this manifold
showed better performance. The brake thermal efficiency was increased by
5.13 %.

Rajendran and Purushothaman (2014) point out that, the result of


conventional throttle positions indicates flow recirculation at downstream,
which causes pressure fluctuations and increased stagnation pressure loss
which is undesirable. Moreover, the velocity vectors for various throttle
plate positions also show the recirculation in the flow just before the throttle
plate. The result of volumetric efficiency depends upon the position of the
throttle plate. The double throttle plate, angle 600 it is equal to 69.82 %, at
750 it is equal to 71.33 %, and at 760 it is equal to 70.96 %. Therefore, in
double throttle plate of 750, it has efficiency higher than that of another
position. The further increased mass flow rate has been observed in the
manifold model. The analysis of the modified model showed the design
achieves as more symmetric with an organized flow at the downstream of
the carburetor. This plain design change has the potential for improving
31

mixture distribution downstream of the carburetor without major changes


in the carburetor design.

Muralikrishna and Mallikarjuna (2009) reported that the overall inlet


tumble flows are dependent on the crank angle positions irrespective of
engine speed. At the end of compression stroke, anywhere spark is
supposed to complete. A Turbulence Kinetic Energy (TKE) is high at
higher engine speeds. At 330 CAD, flat piston top shows a development of
about 85 and 23 % in tumble ratio (TR) compared to the dome and dome-
cavity pistons respectively. At 330 CAD, flat piston top shows an
enhancement of about 24 and 2.5 % in typical TKE compared to the dome
and dome-cavity pistons respectively. The use of flat piston rather than
dome is suggested. Dome-cavity pistons are rather difficult to manufacture
as far as tumble flow is concerned.

Gosman et al., (1978) have made numerical and experimental studies


on the laminar and turbulent flow of the engine without combustion
through a cylinder port. Estimated and measured results were in good
agreement. They analyzed that the mean velocity field was influenced more
strongly by the engine geometry than by the engine speed. Hiren and
Chaudhari point out that the primary function of the intake manifold is to
evenly distribute the mixture to intake port in the cylinder head. The ideal
intake manifold distributes flow evenly to the piston valves. Even
distribution is important to optimize the efficiency and performance of the
engine, and the inlet manifold design has a strong influence on the
volumetric efficiency of the engine. An uneven air distribution leads to
smaller volumetric efficiency, power loss, and increased fuel consumption.

Muralikrishna et al., (2010) have stated that the inlet flow structure is
greatly influenced by the intake manifold inclination. A flow reversal
below the intake valve is seen with all the manifold inclinations with all
32

intake valves lifts considered. For all the intake valves lifts with 200 intake
manifold inclination, air flow is in the form of the jet near the intake valve
exit, whereas for other manifold inclinations, the jet formation is not the
same for all the lifts. It is found that at 300 intake manifold inclination,
large-scale vortex below the intake valve at all intake valves lifts. TKE is
found to be higher compared to all other manifold inclinations. Conclusion
for all intake valve lifts with 600 manifold inclinations that the information
obtained in this investigation is very much useful in the optimization of the
geometry and orientation of the intake manifold of the modern internal
combustion engines.

Rasul and Glasgow (2005) have prepared a convergent and divergent


tube and tested regulation to increase the airflow into the engine, which
possibly will increase the overall performance of an internal combustion
engine. More particularly, the brake power improved up to 1.3 %; the air
flow improved up to .2 % and the mechanical efficiency improved up to
3.7 % specifying an increase in the initiation system and the overall
performance of the engine. Even though a slight increase in performance is
evidenced by the results, more experiments are necessary to warrant any
installation of any alteration.

Rizalman Mamat et al. (2009) reported that the air-fuel flow increases
slightly as pressure drop decreases. At part load, the increase of fuel flow
responds to pressure drop, while the fuel flow rate increases rapidly as
pressure drop increases. Swirl coefficient is defined as the ratio of
circumferential airspeed in the cylinder to the axial speed of the airflow in
the cylinder.

Yang Liang Jeng et al., (1999) reported that the potential of using a
video-based particle image system in studying the inlet tumbling flow
structure of an engine is demonstrated. No significant tumbling motion is
33

found accompanying with the use of a non-shrouded intake valve. Adding


a shroud to the intake valve will help the generation of large-scale vertical
tumbling motion. A small-scale vortex will be reserved inside the bowl in
the piston. The use of a bowl of the piston may or may not help in the
generation and the maintenance of the tumbling flow pattern depending on
the part of intake valve shrouded. Further investigation to relate the quality
of the vertical flow in the axial plane with the generation of turbulence
during the compression stroke is strongly recommended.

2.5 Emission Characteristics

Haagen-Smit et al., (1955), in their research on smog formation, have


shown how ozone formation is difficult for typical operating conditions of
two-stroke engines, whereas it results easily for four-stroke engines.

The study by Suresh et al., (2001) on data obtained from over 250
vehicles proved the influence of various parameters on exhaust emission
levels and two-stroke engines are found to be the major source of HC
emissions about 5 to 6 times that of four-stroke engines. It was also
concluded that proper servicing and emission control system could
considerably reduce emission levels.

Jagdale et al., (2001) have reported that nitric oxide and nitrogen
dioxide, collectively called, NOx is a precursor to photochemical smog and
contributes to acid rain and ozone depletion. Control of NOx emission is a
crucial step towards maintaining a clean and green environment.

Kale et al., (2001) have analyzed the quantity of engine oil carried
away with the blow-by gas into the inlet manifold, especially at full load
conditions when the flow rate reaches a maximum value.

Maneesh et al., (2001) brought out the remarkable feature of using


CNG as a cleaner and greener fuel in the engine. CO2 and CO is the product
34

of incomplete combustion, totally depend on air-fuel ratio. The diffusivity


of CNG at high pressure results in easy mixing with air giving lower CO
emissions. However, CO2 emissions increased at higher throttle positions
as less air was available for combustion.

2.6 Emission and EGR

Ken Santoh et al. (1997) investigated on a naturally aspirated single


cylinder DI diesel engine with various combinations of EGR, fuel injection
pressures, injection timing and intake gas temperatures affect exhaust
emissions, and they found that NOx reduction ratio has a strong correlation
with oxygen concentration regardless of injection pressure or timing. NOx
reduction ratio is in direct proportion to intake gas temperatures. EGR may
adversely affect the smoke emission because it lowers the average
combustion temperatures and reduces the oxygen intake gases, which in
turn keeps soot from oxidizing. Also, they suggested that for a given level
of oxygen concentration the cooled EGR reduces the NOx with less EGR
rates than at uncooled EGR.

Gukelberger et al., (2015) have patented a dedicated EGR (D – EGR)


engine claiming high efficiency, low emissions internal combustion
engines for automotive and off-highway applications.

Ghosh and Dutta (2012) have investigated and demonstrated the


influence of using EGR of different rates on the engine performance and
emission characteristics of single cylinder water cooled four stroke diesel
engines. It is reported that EGR has a considerable reduction in oxides of
nitrogen. When the engine was operated with PPME, the brake thermal
efficiency decreases due to the lower calorific value and high viscosity of
PPME compared to neat diesel fuel. The brake thermal efficiency increases
at low EGR rates for both the fuels. However, increasing EGR in flow rates
35

to high levels resulted in a decrease in brake thermal efficiency for both the
fuels.

Rajan and Senthil Kumar (2009) studied the effects of EGR on the
performance and emission characteristics of a CI engine fueled with
sunflower biodiesel. The study involved a twin cylinder, naturally aspirated
water cooled. DI diesel engine was used for experiments. Sunflower
biodiesel was blended with diesel fuel in different percentages denoted by
B20 (20 % biodiesel by volume blended with 80 % diesel) and B40. The
experiments were conducted with B20 and B40 with different EGR rates.
It was observed that higher amount of smoke emission in the exhaust
compared to without EGR. Smoke emission was increased with increasing
engine load and EGR rate. At full load conditions with 15 % EGR rate, B20
and B40 emitted NOx was lower by 25 % and 14 % respectively, compared
to diesel fuel without EGR. They concluded that the use of EGR with
biodiesel was able to reduce NOx emissions at the expense of an increase
in smoke, CO and HC emissions.

Tayfun Ozgur et al., (2015) studied the effects of addition of oxygen-


containing nano-particle additives, namely MgO and SiO2 added to
biodiesel on the dosage of 25 ppm and 50 ppm on diesel engine
performance and exhaust emission. Their results showed that the engine
emissions NOx and CO decreased, and engine performance slightly
increased with the addition of nanoparticle additives compared to diesel.

2.7 Combustion Characteristics

Heywood (1988) in his earliest studies on internal combustion engine


fundamentals briefly discussed SI engine mixture requirements and the
design requirements for air flow and flow phenomena. The performance
can be measured by the mass of air-fuel mixture retained in the cylinder.
His contention was that the air path through inlet manifold presents a
36

pressure (vacuum), a challenge to the designer of air induction system. The


pressure drop across the air intake system is known to have a considerable
influence on the indicated power of the internal combustion engine. The
drop is created due to the suction generated by the descending piston in the
case of the naturally aspirated engine. The pressure drop along the intake
system is dependent on the engine speed and load, the flow resistance of
different elements in the system, the cross-sectional area through which the
fresh charge moves and the charge density. Depending on the engine sizes
and operating conditions, Heywood indicates that, for a unit change in
compression ratio, the relative change in efficiency is between 1 to 3
percentage.

Pundir (2012) has enunciated in his book, that the combustion


generated emissions from internal combustion engines are significant
sources of air pollution. He has explained the genesis and formation of
general emissions from internal combustion engines and the control
technology for mitigation.

Rajesh et al., (2001) have used vortex structures that enhance mixing
and causes complete combustion of fuel within a short distance from the
dump plane.

Som and Sharma (2001) have made a comparative study of variations


in combustion efficiency and second law efficiency of a spray combustion
process for different fuels with different volatilities. An increase in fuel
volatility increases combustion efficiency only at higher pressures for a
given swirl and inlet temperature.

Benny Paul and Ganesan (2010) state that the helical spiral manifold
geometry creates a higher velocity component inside the combustion
chamber at the end of a compression stroke. Swirl ratio inside the cylinder
and TKE are higher for the spiral manifold. The volumetric efficiency of
37

the spiral, helical combined manifold is 10 % higher than that of the spiral
manifold. The summary of the comparison is as follows: Helical spiral
combined manifold creates higher swirl inside the cylinder than the spiral
manifold. Helical manifold provides higher volumetric efficiency as
compared to normal maifold. Helical spiral combined manifold provides
higher mean swirl velocity at TDC of compression. However, further
investigations based on combustion and heat release rate analysis are
essential for getting a better understanding of the flow inside the cylinder
and its effect on the motions.

2.8 Model Simulations

Akira Kikusato et al., (2014) have developed a non-dimensional two


zone SI combustion model an autoignition model in unburned gas and a
heat transfer model in the combustion chamber wall. This model helps to
predict the performance of an SI engine.

Gupta et al., (2001) have determined and compared the exhaust


characteristics of a two-stroke engine using fluid flow equation (FFE) and
pressure wave propagation methods and the results compared to determine
the cylinder pressure variation with varying exhaust processes.

Raghunathan and Kenny (1997) reported that the turbulence consists


of fluctuations in the flow field in time and space has a significant effect
on the behavior of the flow. Turbulence occurs when the inertia forces in
the fluid become significant compared to viscous forces and are
characterized by a higher Reynolds number. The k-ε model of turbulence
is widely used for fluid flow analysis where k is turbulence kinetic energy,
and the variance of the fluctuations in velocity and ε is the velocities of
fluctuations dissipate.
38

Nureddin Dinler and Nuriyucel (2008) investigated the numerical


simulation of flow and combustion in an axisymmetric internal combustion
engine for inlet valve angle α= 300 combustion velocity is more than that
for α= 450 and α= 600. However, the fuel consumption depends upon the
valve angle.

Samimi Abianeh (2009) reported that the study demonstrates the


ability of an inlet system using flow control baffle to induce swirling and
tumbling motions in the four-valve engine and to investigate the influence
of tumbling motions in increasing the lean limit of combustion. CFD
calculation and flow bench test rig show that the flow control baffle can
change the flow pattern significantly. Swirling motion can exist until the
end of compression cycle, but tumble motion diminishes faster. Also, a
specific design of flow control allows evaluating and comparing the
potential of different inlet systems concerning engine combustion
characteristics. The ability to swirl motion to improve engine stability
compared to tumbling motion in the current engine. The engine with a
higher range of rotation ratio has better lean burn capability, and this matter
is the result of two opposite subjects, the negative effect of more heat
transfer and the positive effect of more turbulence and orderly bulk flow.
The HC emissions of the engine with higher flow rotary motion are higher,
due to thicker quench layer, higher heat transfer, and larger fuel wet area.
Tumble Ratio (TR) is defined as the ratio of the angular velocity of in-
cylinder flow to the engine angular velocity.

Saravanakumar et al., (2013) reported that their work aimed to induce


the turbulence of intake charge through squish. The movement of air inside
the combustion chamber can be brought about either by changing the inlet
manifold and the inlet valve or by changing the contour of the piston crown.
Here the latter option is implemented on the compression ignition engine
which invariably has a heterogeneous charge mixture for combustion. The
39

flow analysis of air inside the combustion chamber can be simulated


analyzed by using CFD analysis for both the modified piston and a standard
piston. It is observed that there is a significant improvement for the squish
generated by modified piston than the standard piston.

Arias et al., (1974) have studied the numerical model of a network of


complex flow, which contains short metering orifices, compressible flow
and two-phase flow in pipes of smaller diameter. They have done a detailed
review of pressure drop effect of fuel and dynamic flow in the previously
developed models. The homogeneous two-phase flow models were found
to be very poor in agreement with the empirical correlation derived from
experiments on small pipes. They solved the instantaneous one-
dimensional Navier-Stoke equation in single phase pipes to access the
dynamic flow model. They also used the model to derive a sensitivity
analysis of geometries and physical properties of air and fuel.

Kamil Arslan (2014) point out to the results of numerical


computations presented regarding average Nusselt numbers and average
Darcy friction factors. It increases the Reynolds number has proved to
increase the average Nusselt number. On the other hand, average Darcy
friction factor decreases with increasing Reynolds number. For a turbulent
flow condition in the hydrodynamic and thermal entrance region, the
friction and heat transfer coefficients depend on the duct geometry and
Reynolds number. Further, local heat transfer coefficient and local Darcy
friction factor as functions of dimensionless position along the duct were
obtained and given graphically in this investigation. The numerical results
for different turbulence models were compared with, and similar
experimental investigations carried out in the literature. Finally, k-ε
standard, k-ε resizable models are found to be the most suitable for this
investigation.
40

Saidur et al., (2009) have analyzed higher efficiency, lower fuel


consumption by improving fuel economy, producing fewer emissions from
the exhaust, and reducing noise pollution which has been made mandatory
as standards in many countries.

Syed Ameer Basha and Raja Gopal (2009) found improved


computational mesh generation techniques and efficiency widely
influenced the application of CFD methods to reciprocating engine models,
which requires movable domain boundaries and compressible and
expandable meshes. Three-dimensional models can predict inlet means gas
velocities with high accuracy. Most computational works on diesel engines
employ two-equation turbulence models, predominantly the standard k-ε
model for modeling turbulence. The simulation of evaporating droplet
dynamics in diesel engine simulations is based mostly on models proposed
for single droplet evaporation. A large number of combustion models are
constituted for diesel combustion simulation but do not find validation. The
laminar and turbulent characteristics of time scale model fin higher usage
when compared to other models for simulating diesel combustion. Most
combustion simulations are concentrated in the mid and high load range.
However, given the importance of higher emission weighting factors at
idling conditions in various duty cycle and until recently the availability of
considerable amount of in-cylinder experimental data obtained under firing
conditions at low loads, work on engine simulations are not available at
low speeds.

Kurniawan and Abdullah (2005) have worked on the computational


fluid dynamics simulation to examine the effect of piston crown shape to
air motion characteristics of an internal combustion engine which is
presented in this paper. The inlet air motion previous to the fuel
introduction event plays an important role in the creation of swirl and
tumble flows due to the high turbulence through the intake and
41

compression strokes. Swirl is generated through suction of air flow into the
combustion chamber during the intake stroke and significantly enhances
the mixing of air and fuel to give either identical or stratified mixture inside
the cylinder. At the beginning of intake stroke, the normal tumble ratio
reaches a local peak value at 4000 crank angle for a homogeneous and
stratified piston. Then it decreases nearly to zero around 440 0 crank angle
before increasing over again at the present crank angles. It happens due to
the exchange of two main vortices among opposite direction inside the
engine cylinder, which resulted from the strong air jet flow through the
valve blind are during the intake stroke. The standard tumble ratio is also
seen to increase slightly higher during the maximum intake valve opening
for both pistons before regularly decreasing during the compression stroke.
The standardized piston is still able to produce a higher tumble ratio on the
normal side during the early intake stroke.

Rajendra Prasath et al. (2010) numerically studied the performance of


a ceramically coated diesel engine with two-zone modeling of
diesel/biodiesel blended fuel. The results showed an increase in the brake
thermal efficiency and a decrease in the specific fuel consumption for LHR
engine operated with diesel and biodiesel operation compared to
conventional diesel engine operation. They have concluded that the model
predicted the engine performance characteristics closer in approximation
to those of experimental results. Hence the developed mathematical model
was suitable for the prediction of the combustion and performance
characteristics of the CI engine and LHR engine.

2.9 Bio-fuel and Emission Characteristics

Murugu Mohan and Sarangan (2001) have suggested alternative fuels


and fuel blending for performance improvement. About 13.7 % drop in
42

particulate matter with 12.7 % drop of total hydrocarbons were reported


with B-20 blend fuel.

Swaroop Kumar Nayaka and Bhabani Prasanna Pat Tanaka (2014)


have produced biodiesel from neat Mahua oil via base-catalyzed trans-
esterification and mixing of the biodiesel with a suitable additive (Dimethyl
Carbonate) in varying volume proportions to run the diesel engine. Their
results showed an increase in brake power and brake thermal efficiency
with load with an increase in the percentage of the additive. The CO, HC,
NOx emissions decreased with an increase in the percentage of additive in
biodiesel. It is also found that the overall performance and emission
characteristics of the engine were satisfactory with all the test fuels.

Bhaskar et al. (2013) studied the performance and emission


characteristics of Fish Oil Methyl Ester (FOME) and blends in a diesel
engine with the effect of different EGR rates. Their results showed that 20
% FOME blend gives almost the same brake thermal efficiency with lower
unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and soot emissions but higher
NOx emissions compared to diesel fuel. EGR is used to control NOx
emissions. The percentage of EGR is varied to determine optimum EGR
for 20 % FOME blend. It is also reported that 20 % EGR flow rate is
optimum for 20 % FOME blend considering the emissions of NOx and
soot.

Deepak Agarwal et al. (2006) have investigated the effect of linseed


oil, Mahua oil, rice bran oil and linseed methyl ester in diesel. It has been
reported that brake specific fuel consumptions were higher for vegetable
oil compared to diesel fuel. It has been concluded that the 20 % of linseed
oil methyl ester blend was optimum that improved the thermal efficiency
and reduced the smoke density.
43

Devan and Mahalakshmi (2009) have studied various methyl ester of


paradise oil (eucalyptus oil) blends in a single cylinder, four-stroke DI
diesel engines to study the performance and emission characteristics. The
results show a 49 % reduction in smoke, 34.5 % reduction in HC emissions
and a 37 % reduction in CO emissions for the Me50-Eu50 blend with a 2.7
% increase in NOx emission at full load. There was a 2.4 % increase in
BTE for the Me50-Eu50 blend at full load.

Ganesan and Elango (2014) have investigated the environmental


aspects of lemongrass oil bio-fuel in a single cylinder diesel engine at 200
bar, 220 bar and 240 bar injection pressure to study its effect on
performance and emission characteristics and compare it with neat diesel.
Their results showed that the B20 blend exhibited lower engine emissions
of unburnt hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen at 75 %
load. The high injection pressure of 240 bar showed less significant
emissions of unburnt hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and oxides of
nitrogen than 200 and 220 bar pressures at 75 % load.

Nurun Nabi et al., (2006) made biodiesel from neem oil by the
esterification process with methyl alcohol and conducted the experiments
with neat diesel fuel and different blends of diesel and biodiesel in a
naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine. They have reported a
lower CO and smoke emissions and a higher NOx emission with diesel-
biodiesel blends in comparison with conventional diesel.

Hountalaous et al. (2008) used a 3D multi-dimensional model to


examine the effect of EGR temperature on a turbocharged DI diesel engine
with three different engine speeds and reported that high EGR temperature
affects the engine brake thermal efficiency, peak combustion pressure, air
fuel ratio and soot emissions. The combined effect of increased temperature
and decreased O2 concentration resulted in low NOx emissions. They also
44

suggested that EGR cooling is necessary to retain the low NOx emissions
and prevent the rising of soot emissions without affecting the engine
efficiency at high EGR rates.

Lakshmi Narayana Rao et al. (2008) have also investigated the


performance of diesel engine with Rice Bran oil Methyl Ester (RBME) and
its diesel blends. It has been reported that the ignition delay and the peak
heat release rate for RBME were lower for biodiesel and it was increased
with increase in RBME blends. The study also reported that the CO, HC,
and soot emissions were increased, and the NOx emissions were slightly
increased with increase in blends compared to diesel fuel operation.

Venkata Subbaiah and Raja Gopal (2011) investigated the


performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a Direct Injection (DI)
diesel engine experimentally when fueled with Rice Bran Oil Biodiesel
(RBD), and it's 2.5 %, 5 % and 7.5 % ethanol blends over the entire load
range. Their test results showed that the maximum brake thermal efficiency
was obtained with 2.5 % ethanol blended with RBD and are 6.98 % and
3.93 % higher than that of Diesel Fuel (DF) and biodiesel respectively at
full load. The ethanol blending reduced the exhaust gas temperature of the
biodiesel. The low carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and unused oxygen
emissions were recorded with 2.5 % ethanol blend. The smoke of the
biodiesel was reduced by 20 % when blended with 7.5 % of ethanol. The
maximum reduction of smoke was 27.47 % with 2.5 % ethanol blending.
It was concluded that the 2.5 % ethanol blended with biodiesel could
improve the performance and reduce the emissions of the diesel engine.

Michael et al. (1999) studied the effects of common errors on the


calculated gross heat release rate data obtained when analyzing simulated
and experimental pressure diagram of a direct injection diesel engine using
a traditional single zone first-law heat release rate model. They revealed
45

that the greatest uncertainty in most cases would be caused by assuming


the wrong rate of heat transfer between cylinder charge and combustion
chamber walls. To overcome this limitation, they proposed an alternative
heat release model to give superior results over a wide range of operating
conditions. This heat release model used a variable polytropic index to cater
for the heat transfer. They reported that the new polytropic index model
was found to produce comparable results to the traditional gross first law
model in general and was much superior in performance compared to the
adiabatic first law model. They concluded that the polytropic index model
is well suited for the diesel engine development applications where
consistent results are required.

Samuel and Arvind (1997) concluded an experimental analysis of the


heat release rate from experimental data obtained on a Detroit, six cylinders
12.7-liter turbocharged diesel engine. Two separate concepts obtained the
overall gross heat release rate and net apparent heat release rate. The gross
heat release rate was determined by exhaust gas concentration
measurements using an exhaust gas analyzer. The net apparent heat release
rate was determined from the in-cylinder pressure measurements for each
of the six cylinders arranged over 80 cycles. They suggested that these
techniques could be used to validate steady-state heat transfer models and
investigate the steady-state effects of insulated ceramic coatings in the
cylinder.

Shehata and Abdelrazek (2008) reported that air injection in the


exhaust manifold is the simplest method for reducing HC and CO
concentrations due to increased oxygen concentration after exhaust valve
opening which is used to oxidize HC and CO to CO2 and H2O at high
exhaust temperatures. The temperature decreases with the increase of mass
of air injection due to increasing AFR to very lean conditions which
overcome heat release effects with air injection. Engine cycle to cycle
46

variation is found to increase with an increase in engine speed due to


increase in the variation of AFR, fuel burning rate, heat release rate,
turbulence intensity, mean effective pressure, volumetric efficiency, and
engine cylinder pressure.

Randolph (1990) studied the three feasible mounting schemes of


piezoelectric pressure transducers namely flush mount, remote mount via a
single passage and remote mount via multiple slots. This study reviews the
theoretical principles dictating the performance of transducers and
examines the influence of the mounting scheme on pressure data quality.
He reported that a fourth mounting scheme namely remote mount via a
sintered porous metal interface was not possible because of excessive
pressure drop across the porous metal. The multiple slot-mounting adopters
performed the best. When properly designed, this adopter can maintain data
accuracy while considerably reducing transducer induced variability
relative to flush mounting.

Shrinath Potul et al., (2014) have considered engine performance


individuality such as braking torque, brake power, brake mean effective
pressure and specific fuel consumption in their simulation software. Lotus
engine simulation was used to estimate the effects of the deviation in the
length of intake plenum on these parameters. The engine performance can
be improved using an intake plenum length that can frequently be mixed.

2.10 Summary

The revival of two-stroke petrol engines is felt necessary to retain the


best advantages, and such engines are utilized for environmental safety and
energy conservation because of their performance.

The literature review shows that research work has been carried out
using various methods to produce turbulence flow aspects of modified
47

manifold mainly for four-stroke engines. Few research works were


conducted using a modified valve and a piston in spark ignition engine. The
literature review reveals that research on two-wheeler two-stroke engines
has not been reported with possible improvements by way of cooled EGR
and orifice suction control. This research attempts to study the same.

In the present investigation, attempts have been made to use a


modified manifold to obtain a solution for optimum mixing of air-fuel
mixture with exhaust gas in two-stroke gasoline under varying operating
conditions. The performance and emission characteristics of a spark
ignition two-stroke gasoline engine operated with modified manifold using
orifice and EGR have been analyzed and reported.
48

CHAPTER 3 Commented [V3]: 5cm below top page


Second Title 2 spaaces below
Third title 4 spaces below
1.5 spaces afterwards
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION AND METHODOLOGY 3 spaces between paragraphs
3 spaces before and after the figures and tables
1 spacing between title and fig or table
1.1.12 Ramakrishnan

3.1 Introduction

Out of the three emission sources namely point, line and area, this
project concentrates online sources where two-wheelers contribute to a major
part of pollution. An experimental study was taken on a two-wheeler two-
stroke petrol engine using Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) with varying
orifice suction control, and the results were analyzed for improvement in
performance concerning four-stroke petrol engine of comparable size.

A very high amount of EGR will dilute the engine charge and may cause
serious performance problems, such as incomplete combustion, torque
[1]
fluctuation, and engine misfire . An efficient way to overcome these
drawbacks is to intensify tumble, leading to the increased turbulent intensity
at the time of ignition. The enhancement of turbulent intensity will increase
flame velocity and improve combustion quality, therefore increasing engine
[2]
tolerance to a higher EGR. A dedicated EGR engine will tolerate high
dilution levels, enable faster burn rates, reduce cycle-to-cycle variations,
decrease ignition energy levels and further improve efficiency and emissions.

[3]
Modified inlet with aerofoils provides increased turbulence
improving the performance and reducing the emission from in-cylinder
internal combustion engines. EGR systems divert some of the engine-out
exhaust gas and mix it back into fresh intake air stream. Mixing exhaust with
49

the intake air lowers combustion temperatures and rates. The mixing
improves emissions by reducing the formation of NOx. It also reduces the
knock limit, providing better fuel economy through high compression ratios
and spark advance.

Mixing of recirculation exhaust with the air-fuel mixture in a


homogeneous form requires an orifice as a suction flow control device for
the petrol engines. An orifice is a device which reduces the pressure on the
device for flow measurements. It increases the dynamic velocity of the
exhaust at low pressure for better infusion into the air-fuel mixture. Also, a
homogenous air-fuel-exhaust mixture at a high velocity improves the
scavenging efficiency and thermal performance.

This study discusses here experimental setup and methodology of tests


carried out for the study of engine emission and performance with modified
inlet manifold with the various orifice and EGR combinations.

3.2 Experimental Methodology

Details of testing methodology for experimental analysis are given in


Table 3.1. Before modifying the two-stroke gasoline engine parameters, it is
important to measure how much a four-stroke gasoline engine of comparable
size produces so that the performance parameters from the modified two-
stroke engine and performance parameters from four-stroke gasoline engine
can be compared against each other. Therefore, the testing was done on a
reference four-stroke engine without EGR and orifice flow control. The
performance parameters are taken as a benchmark for the selected two-stroke
engine. The testing was carried out on a two-stroke engine without EGR and
orifice flow control as a base for improvement of its performance. The testing
on a selected two-stroke engine gives relative performance and improvement
required to achieve the benchmark performance. To obtain the improvement,
50

modifications were made on the selected two-stroke engine at inlet manifold


as follows.

Orifice dimensions of 4 mm, 6 mm and 8 mm;


Uncooled and Cooled EGR; 5%, 10% and 15% EGR

Table 3.1 Testing Methodology and Experimental Analysis


Test Test on Orifice % EGR Cooled / UncooledEGR Test reference
No diameter EGR
[mm]
I Engine 4 6 8 Nil 5 10 15 cooled uncooled
1 SE4 x SE4
2 SE2 x SE2
3 SE2 x x x D4P5E2C
4 SE2 x x x D4P10E2C
5 SE2 x x x D4P15E2C
6 SE2 x x x D4P5E2UC
7 SE2 x x x D4P10E2UC
8 SE2 x x x D4P15E2UC
II Engine 4 6 8 Nil 5 10 15 cooled uncooled
1 SE4 x SE4
2 SE2 x SE2
3 SE2 x x x D6P5E2C
4 SE2 x x x D6P10E2C
5 SE2 x x x D6P15E2C
6 SE2 x x x D6P5E2UC
7 SE2 x x x D6P10E2UC
8 SE2 x x x D6P15E2UC
III Engine 4 6 8 Nil 5 10 15 cooled uncooled
1 SE4 x SE4
2 SE2 x SE2
3 SE2 x x x D8P5E2C
4 SE2 x x x D8P10E2C
5 SE2 x x x D8P15E2C
6 SE2 x x x D8P5E2UC
7 SE2 x x x D8P10E2UC
8 SE2 x x x D8P15E2UC
51

Table 3.2 Parameters observed Performance evaluated


Performance parameters
Time taken in seconds for a fixed quantity of fuel
consumed.
Speed in rpm.
Parameters observed
Torque in Nm.
Mass Flow Rate of air in kg/hr.
Emission parameters
CO, CO2, HC, NOx
Brake Thermal Efficiency vs. Brake Power (kW)
Specific Fuel Consumption (kg/kWh) vs. Brake
Performance
calculated and plotted Power (kW)
Mass Flow Rate (kg/hr.) vs. Brake Power (kW)
Emission parameters CO, CO2, HC, NOx
plotted
The experimental procedure consisted of 7 steps at fixed engine torque,
during which the engine rpm was progressively increased, starting from
2500 rpm to its maximum value. The considered engine speeds were:
2500 rpm, 3000 rpm, 3500 rpm, 4000 rpm, 4500 rpm, 5000 rpm and 5500
rpm, while the engine load was 8 Nm.

Experimental observations were recorded and used in standard


formulae for evaluating performance. Parameters observed, and
performance evaluated are given in Table 3.2. Model calculations are
explained in Appendix 1. Initially, the experiments were carried out on a
four-stroke engine and the performance evaluated were fixed as our
requirement in a two-stroke engine selected for improvement. The two-stroke
engine was tested as it is without incorporating any modifications in the
52

system. The performance obtained was compared with that of the four-stroke
engine.

The internal combustion engine can produce the same amount of torque
at any rpm. The rpm varied using throttle control and dynamometer control.
The speeds were varied in steps of 500 rpm from the minimum speed
prescribed for the engine, i.e., 2500 rpm. Accordingly, the range of brake
power varies from 2 kW to 5 kW, and the performance readings were taken
for these values. The time taken for the consumption of a specific amount of
fuel is noted. Inlet airflow is measured at inlet chamber by measuring the
pressure drop across the orifice between the chamber and inlet pipe.

The emission parameters were directly taken from the display panel of
the exhaust gas analyzer by inserting the probe for sample collection at the
exhaust point. Technical Specifications of exhaust gas analyzer are given in
Appendix 2.

3.3 Experimental Setup

The experimental setup shown in Figure 3.1 was used to conduct the
experiments on the engine and determine the performance of the various
modifications.
53

Figure 3.1 Experimental Setup

Two engines were selected for experiments, first, two-stroke gasoline


engine and second, four-stroke gasoline engine with specifications as
detailed in Table 3.3. Both engines were selected from the market availability
in such a way that the cylinder sizes were comparable and had same output
conditions.

Table 3.3 Engine Specifications


Four-stroke
Type Two-stroke
(Reference)
Engine Displacement 98.00 [cc] 97.2 [cc]
9.8 [Nm] @5000 7.95 [Nm] @ 5000
Max Torque
[rpm] [rpm]
5.8 [kW] @5500
Max power 6.8 [kW] @7000 [rpm]
[rpm]
Max speed 82 [kmph] 90 [kmph]
Transmission Four speeds Four speeds
Bore Diameter 52.4 [mm] 52.4 [mm]
Stroke Length 57.8 [mm] 57.8 [mm]
Mileage 45 [kmpl] 65 [kmpl]

Figure 3.2 shows a schematic sketch of the important components of


the experimental setup. The bypass valve is provided at the exhaust line for
54

regulating the percentage of recirculation. The by-pass exhaust was


connected to the inlet manifold after the carburetor with an orifice for
providing sufficient suction of exhaust to infuse into the incoming air-fuel
mixture. The exhaust recirculation line is provided with an external heat
exchanger to bring down the temperature to about 180 0C and avoid spark
knocking.

The engine is coupled to an eddy current dynamometer, and it delivers a


maximum output of 5.8 kW at a maximum speed of 5500 rpm. The
compression ratio of the engine is 7 and equipped with hemispherical
combustion chamber to create a necessary swirl. Fuel consumption was
determined manually using burette and stopwatch, measuring the time taken
for 50 cc of fuel from the tank. Gaseous emissions namely CO, CO2, HC,
NOx, and O2 were measured using AVL gas analyzer based on nondispersive
infrared (NDIR) technique. While CO and CO2 are measured regarding %
volume, HC and NOx are measured regarding ppm.

Figure 3.2 Schematic diagram of experimental concept


55

3.4 Experimental Procedure

Experiments were carried out in four-stroke as well as a two-stroke,


constant torque, single horizontal cylinder and air-cooled Spark Ignition
Internal Combustion (SIIC) engines.

In the following sections, the parameters observed, the instruments used,


and uncertainty levels of the instruments are explained. The engine was
operated from low to high-speed conditions in steps of brake power kW
respectively at constant torque.

All tests were conducted at steady state condition without modifying test
engine. All measurements were repeated thrice, and an average was used for
determining the derived parameters. The engine was operated initially to
reach warm-up conditions before trials.

3.4.1 Load and speed measurement


The engine was coupled to an Eddy current dynamometer for load
measurements. The dynamometer controller allowed the engine to be
operated in two different modes, constant speed, and constant torque modes.
Since the engine was equipped for operating with different speeds, the
dynamometer was put up in the constant torque mode. Speed was measured
with the aid of digital tachometer. The engine speed was varied by controlling
field current. The dynamometer was calibrated statically by applying a
known torque. The load was measured by the dynamometer with the help of
a strain gauge type of load cell mounted between the stator base and the
frame.

3.4.2 Air and Gas flow rate measurement


Air Intake Tank
56

The air flow rate is passed through an air tank connected to the engine.
The air intake to the engine is connected to this large rigid tank with an orifice
at its inlet. The tank is large enough to dampen out the pulsations in flow and
be free of resonances in the normal speed range of the engine. The flow
generating component is represented by the equation for compressible flow
through the orifice. The equation derived from Bernoulli’s equation
assuming steady state, incompressible, inviscid flow unaffected by gravity is

𝑑𝑚
= 𝐶 ∗ 𝐴√2𝜌(𝑝𝑢𝑝𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 − 𝑝𝑑𝑜𝑤𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 ) ............................3.1
𝑑𝑡

The pressure drop across the orifice is measured by a water tube


manometer. The mass flow rate of air is calculated by using the expression
above. Details of orifice plates are shown in Figure 3.3.

Orifice Plates
57

Figure 3.3 Orifice Plates


Air flow rate and gas flow rates were measured using orifice meter. It
consists of an orifice plate in the flow pipe. A pressure drop was created
across the orifice plate. The pressure drop varies with the flow rate. This
pressure drop was measured using a differential manometer and when
calibrated this pressure drop becomes a measure flow rate. The flow rate is
given by

𝐴2
𝑄𝑎 = 𝐶𝑑 √2𝑔(ℎ2 − ℎ1 )1000 ......................................3.2
2
√1−(𝐴2 )
𝐴1

where Qa is flow rate m3/sec; Cd is discharged coefficient

A1 is a cross-sectional area of pipe m2;

A2 is a cross-sectional area of orifice m2 and

h1 and h2 are static Pressures in cm of H2O

The differential pressure measured by h1 and h2 gives the pressure


difference (P1 - P2) between the upstream and downstream points which
becomes an indication of the flow rate of the fluid through the pipe when
calibrated. The pressure drop across the orifice for air and gas flow rates with
orifice meter is shown in Figure 3.4.
58

Figure 3.4 Air and Gas flow rates with Orifice meter

3.4.3 Fuel flow rate measurement

The mass flow rate of fuel was calculated by the time is taken for
quantity (50cc) of fuel consumed by an engine. Normally, the fuel is drawn
from the petrol tank to burette using the 2-way valve. When the valve is
closed, the fuel is drawn from the graduated burette to the engine. The time
taken for a certain quantity of fuel (50cc) consumed by the engine is noted.
After measuring the flow rate, the valve was opened for the flow to take place
from the tank to engine through a burette. For getting accurate readings, the
experiment was repeated thrice.

3.4.4 Temperature Measurement

Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) was measured by Chromel Alumel


(K-Type) thermocouples of size 1/8inch. Digital indicator by an automatic
room temperature compensation facility was used, and it was calibrated
periodically using known oil bath temperature.

3.4.5 Exhaust Gas Analyzer


59

Exhaust gas analyzer (AVL 444 DIGAS) was used to quantify the
exhaust gas emissions in the exhaust. The photographic view of the exhaust
gas analyzer is shown in Figure 3.5 The amount of Carbon monoxide (CO),
Carbon dioxide (CO2), Hydrocarbons (HC), Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) and
Air fuel ratio are displayed in the analyzer. The photographic view of the
exhaust gas pipe is shown in Figure.3.5. The exhaust pipe removed from the
engine is shown in Figure 3.6.

3.4.6. Uncertainty associated with instruments

Instruments used for measurement of various field parameters have


accuracy levels indicated by the manufacturers. These data are given in
Table 3.4 below.

Figure 3.5 Photographic View of the Exhaust Gas Analyzer


60

Figure 3.6 Photographic View of the Exhaust Gas Pipe

Table 3.4 Uncertainty associated with instruments


Measurement Accuracy Uncertainty % Technique
Load 0.1 kg ±0.20 Load cell
Speed 10 rpm ±0.10 Tachometer
Fuel 0.1 cc ±1.00 Volumetric
Time 0.1 sec ±0.20 Stopwatch
Manometer 1 mm ±1.00 Water Column
CO 0.02 % ±0.20 NDIR
HC 20 ppm ±0.20 NDIR
CO2 0.03 % ±0.15 NDIR
NOx 10 ppm ±1.00 NDIR
Temperature 1o C ±0.15 K type
thermocouple

The error analysis and uncertainty levels of calculated values are


explained in Appendix 3.
61

3.5 Software Analysis of Experimental Results


3.5.1 Excel

Microsoft Excel has the basic features of all spreadsheets, using a grid
of cells arranged in numbered rows and letter-named columns to organize
data manipulations like arithmetic operations. It has a battery of supplied
functions to answer statistical, engineering and financial needs. Also, it can
display data as line graphs, histograms and charts, and with a very limited
three-dimensional graphical display. Excel is not just used as a database here.
The input data were stored in the Microsoft Excel software, and
calculations were carried out to determine the performance and output values
of the performance characteristics. These data were exported to MATLAB
for further analysis, and the results were retrieved as reports after the analysis
was over. Model output from Excel is shown in Appendix 4.

3.5.2 MATLAB

MATLAB software, being versatile, and capable of analyzing complex


engineering problems was used to analyze the experimental data in our study.
MATLAB platform was optimized for analyzing and solving engineering and
scientific problems. The vast library of pre-built tool boxes helped us with
algorithms essential in our domain. The interface with Excel made it possible
to do further analysis with MATLAB in this study. Curve fitting for all
characteristics and data visualization by comparison plots were carried out as
explained in Appendix 5.

3.5.3 Maple

Built over 20 years of success and experience in high-performance


mathematical computing, Maple has introduced a new product line designed
to deliver advanced modeling techniques. This software is capable of
increasing research efficiency by order of magnitude. It is so easy to use and
62

intuitive that one can easily manage its power and gain greater insight into
the nature of physical system modeling.

In Maple software, the optimum performance data were compared to


obtain the modification group that provides the performance close to that of
the four-stroke engine in tabular form and graphical form. The software
programme and the execution results are shown in Appendix 6.

Regulated emissions (CO, CO2, NOx) were measured running the


engine models in various steady-state conditions with gasoline fuel. The aim
is an analysis of the impact of cooled and uncooled EGR with modified
orifice inlet manifold and finds the optimum model.

3.5.4 Summary

Based on the need for improving the performance of a two-stroke gasoline


engine used in two-wheelers, an experimental setup was made to test the
performance of modified engines.

Tests were carried out to obtain the data necessary for determining the
performance and emission characteristics.

The data analysis was carried out in three steps.

1. Data were plotted on a graph for physical observation of the nature of


variation in performance characteristics concerning that of the four-stroke
engine.
2. The data was used to predict the behavior by fixing a polynomial equation
for each characteristic of all modified configurations.
3. The above equations were solved for optimum performance points (Brake
Power) and performance (characteristic) values.
63

All these data analyses and the results are discussed in the next
chapter.

CHAPTER 4 Commented [V4]: 5cm below top page


Second Title 2 spaaces below
Third title 4 spaces below
1.5 spaces afterwards
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3 spaces between paragraphs
3 spaces before and after the figures and tables
1 spacing between title and fig or table
1.1.12 Ramakrishnan

4.1 Introduction

The purpose of this study was to improve the performance of a two-


stroke gasoline engine to match that of a four-stroke gasoline engine with
reduced emission using simple modifications. For this purpose, the two
engines, a four-stroke spark ignition gasoline engine, and a spark ignition
two-stroke gasoline engine were taken and tested for comparison. Further
tests were carried out with inlet modified configurations on the spark ignition
two-stroke gasoline engine. The test results obtained with various
configurations evolved for developing an optimal design are compared in this
section. There are three configurations selected for development and testing.

a) Configuration 1 is referred as D4 with a modified inlet having 4 mm


orifice diameter in the two-stroke gasoline engine.
64

b) Configuration 2 is referred as D6 with a modified inlet having 6 mm


orifice diameter in the two-stroke gasoline engine.
c) Configuration 3 is referred as D8 with a modified inlet having 8 mm
orifice diameter in the two-stroke gasoline engine.

The experiments were conducted with varying percentage of both


cooled and uncooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR).

a) The percentage recirculation for cooled exhaust gas is referred as P5C,


P10C, and P15C for 5 %, 10 %, and 15 % cooled EGR respectively.
b) The percentage recirculation for uncooled exhaust gas is referred as
P5H, P10H, and P15H for 5 %, 10 % and 15 % uncooled EGR
respectively.

Brake Thermal Efficiency, Specific Fuel Consumption, Mass flow


Rate, CO, CO2, NOx and HC Emissions, Scavenging Efficiency, and
Trapping Efficiency are the different parameters obtained from the test
results of the modified two-stroke engines. These parameter values varied
with changing speed conditions, uncooled and cooled EGR. These variations
in values are analyzed and discussed here to determine the best combination
of configuration, uncooled or cooled EGR and percentage of EGR to match
the performance of a four-stroke gasoline engine.

4.2 Brake thermal efficiency

4.2.1 Brake thermal efficiency for 5 % uncooled and cooled EGR

Brake power vs. Brake thermal efficiency variations in the two-stroke


engine using inlet manifold, modified with the orifice of diameters 4 mm,
6mm and 8mm are shown for 5 % uncooled EGR in Fig.4.1 and for 5 %
cooled EGR in Fig.4.2. The performance of the two-stroke gasoline base
engine without modifications and the reference four-stroke gasoline engine
are also plotted in the same graph to get a visual comparison and the level of
65

improvement achieved. There is a variation in brake thermal efficiency as


compared to the two-stroke base engine in all the six configurations namely,
2SD4UC, 2SD6UC, 2SD8UC, 2SD4C, 2SD6C and 2SD8C for 5 % EGR.

The efficiency values were observed for the various configurations with
5 % uncooled exhaust gas recirculation, at the optimum brake power point of
4.287 kW for two-stroke gasoline base engine.

Figure 4.1 Brake Power vs. Brake Thermal Efficiency


5 % Uncooled EGR

The brake thermal efficiency is 34.2 % for two-stroke base engine, and
brake thermal efficiency values are 37.7 %, 38.3 % and 37.2 % for 2SD4P5H,
2SD6P5H, and 2SD8P5H respectively. It can be observed that the increment
66

in efficiency values are 3.5 %, 4.1 %, and 3.0 % for 2SD4P5H, 2SD6P5H
and 2SD8P5H respectively over the efficiency of two-stroke gasoline base
engine.

Similarly, for cooled exhaust recirculation, the efficiency values were


observed for the various configurations with 5 % exhaust gas recirculation,
at the optimum brake power point of 4.287 kW for two-stroke gasoline base
engine.

The brake thermal efficiency is 34.2 % for two-stroke base engine, and
brake thermal efficiency values are 39.6 %, 40.3 % and 39.9 % for 2SD4P5C,
2SD6P5C, and 2SD8P5C respectively. It can be observed that the increment
in efficiency values are 5.4 %, 6.1 %, and 5.7 % for 2SD4P5C, 2SD6P5C and
2SD8P5C respectively over the efficiency of two-stroke gasoline base
engine.

Figure 4.2 Brake Power vs. Brake Thermal Efficiency


5 % Cooled EGR
67

Maximum increment in efficiency is observed in the case of 2SD6P5C


configuration is 6.1 % over that of two-stroke gasoline base engine.
Comparing the efficiency values of 38.3 % and 40.3 % observed in 2SD6P5H
and 2SD6P5C configurations, it can be observed that there is an increment
of 2.0 % efficiency for cooled exhaust recirculation.

It has been concluded from the observations that there is a variation in


performance concerning orifice diameters with a maximum improvement of
6.1 % at 6 mm orifice configurations with 5 % cooled exhaust gas
recirculation.

4.2.2 Brake thermal efficiency for 10 % uncooled and cooled EGR

Brake power vs. Brake thermal efficiency variations in the two-stroke


engine using inlet manifold, modified with the orifice of diameters 4 mm,
6mm and 8mm are shown for 10 % uncooled EGR in Fig.4.3 and for 10 %
cooled EGR in Fig.4.4. The efficiency values were observed for the various
configurations with 10 % uncooled exhaust gas recirculation, at the optimum
brake power point of 4.287 kW for two-stroke gasoline base engine.
68

Figure 4.3 Brake Power vs. Brake Thermal Efficiency


10 % Uncooled EGR

The brake thermal efficiency is 34.2 % for two-stroke base engine and
brake thermal efficiency values are 38.9 %, 39.8 % and 37.7 % for
2SD4P10H, 2SD6P10H and 2SD8P10H respectively. It can be observed that
the increment in efficiency values are 4.7, 5.6, and 3.5 % for 2SD4P10H,
2SD6P10H and 2SD8P10H respectively over the efficiency of two-stroke
gasoline base engine.

Similarly, for cooled exhaust recirculation, the efficiency values were


observed for the various configurations with 10 % exhaust gas recirculation,
at the optimum brake power point of 4.287 kW for two-stroke gasoline base
engine.
69

Figure 4.4 Brake Power vs. Brake Thermal Efficiency


10 % Cooled EGR

The brake thermal efficiency is 34.2 % for two-stroke base engine and
brake thermal efficiency values are 40.9 %, 41.4 % and 40.5 % for
2SD4P10C, 2SD6P10C and 2SD8P10C respectively. It can be observed that
the increment in efficiency values are 6.7, 7.2, and 6.3 % for 2SD4P10C,
2SD6P10C and 2SD8P10C respectively over the efficiency of two-stroke
gasoline base engine.

Maximum increment in efficiency observed in the case of 2SD6P10C


configuration is 7.2 % over that of two-stroke gasoline base engine.
Comparing the efficiency values of 39.8 % and 41.4 % observed in
2SD6P10H and 2SD6P10C configurations, it can be observed that there is an
increase of 1.6 % efficiency for cooled exhaust recirculation.
70

It has been concluded from the observations that there is a variation


in performance concerning orifice diameters with maximum improvement
7.2 % at 6 mm orifice configurations with 10 % cooled exhaust gas
recirculation.

4.2.3 Brake thermal efficiency for 15 % uncooled and cooled EGR

Brake power vs. Brake thermal efficiency variations in the two-stroke


engine using inlet manifold, modified with the orifice of diameters 4 mm,
6mm and 8mm are shown for 15 % uncooled EGR in Fig.4.5 and for 15 %
cooled EGR in Fig.4.6. The efficiency values were observed for the various
configurations with 15 % uncooled exhaust gas recirculation, at the optimum
brake power point of 4.287 kW for two-stroke gasoline base engine.

The brake thermal efficiency is 34.2 % for two-stroke base engine and
brake thermal efficiency values are 37.0 %, 37.2 % and 36.4 % for
2SD4P15H, 2SD6P15H and 2SD8P15H respectively. It can be observed that
the increment in efficiency values are 2.8, 3.0, and 2.2 % for 2SD4P15H,
2SD6P15H and 2SD8P15H respectively over the efficiency of two-stroke
gasoline base engine.

Similarly, for cooled exhaust recirculation, the efficiency values were


observed for the various configurations with 15 % exhaust gas recirculation,
at the optimum brake power point of 4.287 kW for two-stroke gasoline base
engine.
71

Figure 4.5 Brake Power vs. Brake Thermal Efficiency


15 % Uncooled EGR

The brake thermal efficiency is 34.2 % for two-stroke base engine, and
brake thermal efficiency values are 39.3 %, 39.6 % and 39.0 % for
2SD4P15C, 2SD6P15C and 2SD8P15C respectively. It can be observed that
the increment in efficiency values are 5.1, 5.4, and 5.0 % for 2SD4P5C,
2SD6P5C and 2SD8P5C respectively over the efficiency of two-stroke
gasoline base engine.

Maximum increment in efficiency is observed in the case of 2SD6P15C


configuration is 5.4 % over that of two-stroke gasoline base engine.
Comparing the efficiency values of 37.2 % and 39.6 % observed in
2SD6P15H and 2SD6P15C configurations, it can be observed that there is an
increase of 2.4 % efficiency for cooled exhaust recirculation.
72

Figure 4.6 Brake Power vs. Brake Thermal Efficiency


15 % Cooled EGR

It has been concluded from the observations that there is a variation in


performance concerning orifice diameters. Since the maximum improvement
of 7.2 % obtained at 6 mm orifice configuration with 10 % cooled EGR, and
therefore, 10 % EGR can be considered as the optimum value.

The brake thermal efficiency increases with increasing orifice diameter


up to 6 mm. There is a decrease in the rate of increment beyond 6 mm as seen
from the graphs. The performance also increases with increasing EGR flow,
and there is a decrease in the rate of increment beyond 10 % EGR as seen
from the graphs. Therefore, there is an improvement in efficiency from 5 %
EGR to 10 % EGR and decrease in efficiency from 10 % EGR to 15 % EGR.
However, there is always an improvement with cooled EGR as compared to
uncooled EGR as well as two-stroke gasoline base engine. Further, from the
73

graphs, it can be inferred that increase in performance is comparatively


higher with cooled EGR than with uncooled EGR.

4.2.4 Brake thermal efficiency for 6 mm orifice and cooled EGR

Figure 4.7 shows the comparison of efficiency values for the


configuration with 6 mm orifice diameter and 5 %, 10 % and 15 % cooled
EGR. It gives a comparison of the percentage of recirculation for the
optimum orifice diameter configuration.

Figure 4.7 Brake Power vs. Brake Thermal Efficiency


6 mm Orifice and Cooled EGR

Though the intended purpose of cooling is to prevent in-cylinder


uncooled spark knocking, cooling of EGR also increases mass density
entering the crankcase contributing to an increase in trapping efficiency.
Therefore, the performance of the engine is more compared to that of
uncooled EGR.
74

In all these cases, since exhaust gas enters first, the fresh air-fuel
mixture is prevented from a short circuit in scavenging process. Short circuit
prevention retains the air-fuel mixture for complete burning to take place
[Raju Hurakadli et al., (2015)]. By recycling the exhaust gas in the
combustion chamber, a lean mixture of air-fuel is obtained inside. As the
mixture becomes lean, there is a loss of energy and the temperature rise
during the combustion becomes less. The lower temperature results in lower
specific heat and causes lower chemical equilibrium losses. Due to this brake
thermal efficiency of the engine increases when compared to the normal two-
stroke gasoline base engine.

Table 4.1 gives the comparison of brake thermal efficiency at optimum


brake power for all configurations discussed in this chapter. A maximum
improvement of 7.2 % is obtained at 6 mm orifice (2SD6) configuration with
10 % cooled EGR over the normal two-stroke gasoline base engine with no
EGR.

Table 4.1 Brake Thermal Efficiency (%) for all configurations at


optimum Brake Power

When uncooled EGR takes place, the temperature inside the


combustion chamber increases. At higher temperatures, the compression
power required becomes more decreasing the network available from the
75

engine [Miqdam Tariq Chaichan et al., (2016)]. Therefore, the efficiency of


the engine becomes low in uncooled EGR case. In the case of cooled EGR,
the lower combustion temperature is achieved to obtain more work and
efficiency. Thus, there is always an increase in performance when cooled
EGR takes place as compared to uncooled EGR in all the cases. With
increasing percentage of recirculation beyond 10 %, there is an adverse effect
on density and impurity levels resulting in deteriorating efficiency levels.
Also, an increase in exhaust flow recirculation is always with a proportional
reduction in air-fuel flow and therefore insufficient air mass results in oxygen
starvation leading to deficient performance beyond 10 % recirculation. By
the method of modifying the inlet manifold using 6 mm orifice and 10 %
cooled EGR, we can improve the performance to match that of a four-stroke
gasoline engine as shown in Figure 4.7.

7.4 Specific Fuel Consumption

7.4.1 Specific Fuel Consumption for 5 % uncooled and cooled EGR

Brake power vs. Specific Fuel Consumption variations in the two-


stroke engine using inlet manifold, modified with the orifice of diameters
4 mm, 6mm and 8mm are shown for 5% uncooled EGR in Fig.4.8 and for
5% cooled EGR in Fig.4.9. The performance of the two-stroke gasoline base
engine without modifications and the reference four-stroke gasoline engine
are also plotted in the same graph to get a visual comparison and the level of
improvement achieved. There is an improvement in Specific Fuel
Consumption compared to the two-stroke base engine in all the six
configurations namely, 2SD4UC, 2SD6UC, 2SD8UC, 2SD4C, 2SD6C and
2SD8C for 5 % EGR.

The Specific Fuel Consumption values were observed for the various
configurations with 5 % uncooled exhaust gas recirculation, at the optimum
brake power point of 4.287 kW for two-stroke gasoline base engine. The
76

Specific Fuel Consumption is 244 g/kWh for two-stroke base engine, and
Specific Fuel Consumptions are 222 g/kWh, 218 g/kWh and 225 g/kWh for
2SD4P5H, 2SD6P5H, and 2SD8P5H respectively. It can be observed that the
decrement in Specific Fuel Consumption values is 22 g/kWh, 26 g/kWh and
19 g/kWh for 2SD4P5H, 2SD6P5H and 2SD8P5H respectively over the
Specific Fuel Consumption of two-stroke gasoline base engine.

Figure 4.8 Brake Power vs. Specific Fuel Consumption


5 % Uncooled EGR

Similarly, for cooled exhaust recirculation the Specific Fuel


Consumption values were observed for the various configurations with 5%
exhaust gas recirculation, at the optimum brake power point of 4.287 kW
for two-stroke gasoline base engine.
77

The Specific Fuel Consumption is 244 g/kWh for two-stroke base


engine, and Specific Fuel Consumptions are 211 g/kWh, 207 g/kWh and 209
g/kWh for 2SD4P5H, 2SD6P5H and 2SD8P5H for 2SD4P5C, 2SD6P5C and
2SD8P5C respectively. It can be observed that the decrement in Specific Fuel
Consumption values is 33 g/kWh, 37 g/kWh and 35 g/kWh for 2SD4P5C,
2SD6P5C and 2SD8P5C respectively over the Specific Fuel Consumption of
two-stroke gasoline base engine.

Figure 4.9 Brake Power vs. Specific Fuel Consumption


5 % Cooled EGR

The maximum decrement in Specific Fuel Consumption is observed in


the case of 2SD6P5C configuration is 37 g/kWh over that of two-stroke
gasoline base engine. Comparing the Specific Fuel Consumption values of
218 g/kWh and 207 g/kWh observed in 2SD6P5H and 2SD6P5C
78

configurations, it can be observed that there is a decrease of 11 g/kWh


Specific Fuel Consumption for cooled exhaust recirculation as compared to
uncooled exhaust recirculation.

It has been concluded from the observations that there is a variation in


Specific Fuel Consumption concerning orifice diameters with a maximum
decrement of 37 g/kWh at 6 mm orifice configurations with 5 % cooled
exhaust gas recirculation.

7.4.2 Specific Fuel Consumption for 10 % uncooled and cooled EGR

Figure 4.10 Brake Power vs. Specific Fuel Consumption


10 % Uncooled EGR

Brake power vs. Specific Fuel Consumption variations in the two-


stroke engine using inlet manifold, modified with the orifice of diameters 4
79

mm, 6mm and 8mm are shown for 10 % uncooled EGR in Fig.4.10 and for
10 % cooled EGR in Fig.4.11. The Specific Fuel Consumption values were
observed for the various configurations with 10 % uncooled exhaust gas
recirculation, at the optimum brake power point of 4.287 kW for two-stroke
gasoline base engine.

Figure 4.11 Brake Power vs. Specific Fuel Consumption


10 % Cooled EGR

The Specific Fuel Consumption is 244 g/kWh for two-stroke base


engine, and Specific Fuel Consumptions are 214 g/kWh, 210 g/kWh and 221
g/kWh for 2SD4P10H, 2SD6P10H and 2SD8P10H respectively. It can be
observed that the decrement in Specific Fuel Consumption values is 30
g/kWh, 34 g/kWh and 23 g/kWh for 2SD4P10H, 2SD6P10H and 2SD8P10H
80

respectively over the Specific Fuel Consumption of two-stroke gasoline base


engine.

Similarly, for cooled exhaust recirculation the Specific Fuel


Consumption values were observed for the various configurations with 10 %
exhaust gas recirculation, at the optimum brake power point of 4.287 kW for
two-stroke gasoline base engine.

The Specific Fuel Consumption is 244 g/kWh for two-stroke base


engine, and Specific Fuel Consumptions are 204 g/kWh, 202 g/kWh and 206
g/kWh for 2SD4P10C, 2SD6P10C and 2SD8P10C respectively. It can be
observed that the decrement in Specific Fuel Consumption values is 40
g/kWh, 42 g/kWh and 38 g/kWh for 2SD4P10C, 2SD6P10C and 2SD8P10C
respectively over the Specific Fuel Consumption of two-stroke gasoline base
engine.

The maximum decrement in Specific Fuel Consumption observed in the


case of 2SD6P10C configuration is 42 g/kWh over that of two-stroke
gasoline base engine. Comparing the Specific Fuel Consumption values of
210 g/kWh and 202 g/kWh observed in 2SD6P10H and 2SD6P10C
configurations, it can be observed that there is a decrement of 8 g/kWh
Specific Fuel Consumption for cooled exhaust recirculation as compared to
uncooled exhaust recirculation.

It has been concluded from the observations that there is a variation


in Specific Fuel Consumption concerning orifice diameters with a maximum
decrement of 42 g/kWh at 6 mm orifice configurations with 10 % cooled
exhaust gas recirculation.

7.4.3 Specific Fuel Consumption for 15 % uncooled and cooled EGR

Brake power vs. Specific Fuel Consumption variations in the two-


stroke engine using inlet manifold, modified with the orifice of diameters 4
81

mm, 6mm and 8mm are shown for 15% uncooled EGR in Fig.4.12 and for
15% cooled EGR in Fig.4.13. The Specific Fuel Consumption values were
observed for the various configurations with 15 % uncooled exhaust gas
recirculation, at the optimum brake power point of 4.287 kW for two-stroke
gasoline base engine.

Figure 4.12 Brake Power vs. Specific Fuel Consumption


15 % Uncooled EGR

The Specific Fuel Consumption is 244 g/kWh for two-stroke base


engine, and Specific Fuel Consumptions are 226 g/kWh, 225 g/kWh and 229
g/kWh for 2SD4P15H, 2SD6P15H and 2SD8P15H respectively. It can be
observed that the decrement in Specific Fuel Consumption values is 18
g/kWh, 19 g/kWh and 15 g/kWh for 2SD4P15H, 2SD6P15H and 2SD8P15H
82

respectively over the Specific Fuel Consumption of two-stroke gasoline base


engine.

Similarly, for cooled exhaust recirculation, the Specific Fuel


Consumption values were observed for the various configurations with 15 %
exhaust gas recirculation, at the optimum brake power point of 4.287 kW for
two-stroke gasoline base engine.

Figure 4.13 Brake Power vs. Specific Fuel Consumption


15 % Cooled EGR

The Specific Fuel Consumption is 244 g/kWh for two-stroke base


engine, and Specific Fuel Consumptions are 213 g/kWh, 211 g/kWh and 214
g/kWh for 2SD4P15C, 2SD6P15C and 2SD8P15C respectively. It can be
observed that the decrement in Specific Fuel Consumption values is 31
g/kWh, 33 g/kWh and 30 g/kWh for 2SD4P15C, 2SD6P15C and 2SD8P15H
83

respectively over the Specific Fuel Consumption of two-stroke gasoline base


engine.

The maximum decrement in Specific Fuel Consumption is observed in


the case of 2SD6P15C configuration is 33 g/kWh over that of two-stroke
gasoline base engine. Comparing the Specific Fuel Consumption values of
225 g/kWh and 211 g/kWh observed in 2SD6P15H and 2SD6P15C
configurations, it can be observed that there is a decrement of 14 g/kWh
Specific Fuel Consumption for cooled exhaust recirculation as compared to
uncooled exhaust recirculation.

It has been concluded from the observations that there is a variation in


Specific Fuel Consumption concerning orifice diameters with a maximum
decrement of 33 g/kWh at 6 mm orifice configurations with 15 % cooled
exhaust gas recirculation. However, the maximum decrement of 42 g/kWh
obtained at 6 mm orifice configuration with 10 % cooled exhaust gas
recirculation more than 33 g/kWh obtained here for the same configuration
with 15 % cooled exhaust gas recirculation.

The Specific Fuel Consumption decreases with increasing orifice


diameter up to 6 mm. There is an increase in Specific Fuel Consumption
beyond 6 mm as seen from the graphs. The Specific Fuel Consumption also
decreases with increasing EGR flow, and there is an increase in the Specific
Fuel Consumption beyond 10 % EGR as seen from the graphs. Therefore, as
compared to normal two-stroke gasoline base engine, there is a decrement in
Specific Fuel Consumption from 5 % EGR to 10 % EGR and increment in
Specific Fuel Consumption from 10 % EGR to 15 % EGR for all
configurations. Also, there is always more decrement in Specific Fuel
Consumption with cooled EGR as compared to uncooled EGR for all
configurations. Further, from the graphs, it can be inferred that improvement
84

in performance over normal two-stroke gasoline base engine is


comparatively more with cooled EGR than with uncooled EGR.

It is therefore important to study the comparison of Specific Fuel


Consumption at optimum configuration (D6) for varying cooled % EGR to
arrive at the best combination.

7.4.4 Specific Fuel Consumption for 6 mm orifice and cooled EGR

Figure 4.14 shows the comparison of Specific Fuel Consumption values


for the configuration with 6 mm orifice diameter and cooled exhaust gas
recirculation. It gives a comparison of the percentage of recirculation for the
optimum orifice diameter configuration.

Figure 4.14 Brake Power vs. Specific Fuel Consumption


6 mm Orifice and Cooled EGR
85

Table 4.2 gives the comparison of specific fuel consumption at


optimum brake power for all configurations discussed in this chapter. The
maximum decrement in Specific Fuel Consumption observed in the case of
2SD6P10C configuration is 42 g/kWh over the normal two-stroke gasoline
base engine with no EGR.

Table 4.2 Specific Fuel (g/kWh) Consumption for all configurations


at optimum Brake Power

There is always an improvement in performance when cooled EGR


takes place as compared to uncooled EGR in all the cases. With increasing
percentage of recirculation beyond 10 %, there is an adverse effect on density
and impurity levels resulting in deteriorating performance level. Also, an
increase in exhaust flow recirculation is always with a proportional reduction
in air-fuel flow and therefore insufficient air mass results in oxygen
starvation leading to deficient performance beyond 10 % recirculation.

7.5 Mass Flow Rate

The detailed study of variation in brake thermal efficiency and Specific


fuel consumption for various configurations have shown that the combination
of 6 mm orifice configuration and 10 % cooled EGR provides the optimum
performance. To consolidate the findings, tests were continued to plot and
86

study the mass flow rate characteristics for the two cases: (a) Mass flow rate
for 10 % cooled EGR and orifice diameters 4 mm, 6 mm and 8 mm; (b) Mass
flow rate for configuration with 6 mm orifice diameter and 5 %, 10 %, and
15 % cooled EGR. A close observation of these plots would be sufficient to
confirm the conclusion of best combination.

7.5.1 Mass Flow Rate of 10 % cooled EGR

Brake power vs. mass flow rate variations in the two-stroke engine
using inlet manifold, modified with the orifice of diameters 4 mm, 6mm and
8mm are shown for 10 % cooled EGR in Fig.4.15. It can be observed that the
mass flow rate increases with brake power in all the cases. However, the mass
flow rate for all the modified configurations is always lower as compared to
that of the two-stroke gasoline base engine.

Fig.4.15 Brake Power vs. Mass Flow Rate 10 % cooled EGR


87

The Mass Flow Rate is 19.815 kg/kWh for two-stroke gasoline base
engine, and Mass Flow Rates are 16.537 kg/kWh, 16.384 kg/kWh and 16.741
kg/kWh for 2SD4P10C, 2SD6P10C and 2SD8P10C respectively. It can be
observed that the decrement in Mass Flow Rate values is 3.278 kg/kWh,
3.431 kg/kWh and 3.074 kg/kWh for 2SD4P10C, 2SD6P10C and 2SD8P10C
respectively over the Mass Flow Rate of two-stroke gasoline base engine at
the optimum brake power. The maximum decrement in Mass Flow Rate
observed in the case of 2SD6P10C configuration is 3.431 kg/kWh over that
of two-stroke gasoline base engine.

Brake power vs. mass flow rate variations in the two-stroke engine
using inlet manifold, modified with the orifice of diameters 6 mm for 5 %,
10 %, and 15 % cooled EGR in Fig.4.16. It can be observed that the mass
flow rate increases with brake power in all the cases. However, the mass flow
rate for all the modified configurations is always lower as compared to that
of the two-stroke gasoline base engine.

7.5.2 Mass Flow Rate for 6 mm orifice and cooled EGR

The Mass Flow Rate is 19.815 kg/kWh for two-stroke base engine, and
Mass Flow Rates are 16.793 kg/kWh, 16.384 kg/kWh and 17.118 kg/kWh
for 2SD6P15C, 2SD6P10C and 2SD6P15C respectively. It can be observed
that the decrement in Mass Flow Rate values are 3.022 kg/kWh, 3.431
kg/kWh and 2/697 kg/kWh for 2SD6P5C, 2SD6P10C and 2SD6P15C
respectively over the Mass Flow Rate of two-stroke gasoline base engine at
the optimum brake power. The maximum decrement in Mass Flow Rate
observed is in the case of 2SD6P10C configuration, i.e. 3.431 kg/kWh over
that of two-stroke gasoline base engine.

It is also observed that the configuration 2SD6P10C (i.e., 6 mm orifice


diameter with 10 % cooled EGR) gives the best mass flow rate among the
following cases, i.e. (a) 5%, 10 %, and 15 % cooled EGR for 6 mm orifice
88

diameter and (b) 4 mm, 6 mm and 8 mm orifice diameters for 10 % cooled


EGR.

The mass flow rate improves for all the three configurations compared
to the base engine. For all the three configurations, the improvement is
significant up to medium load range and is attributed to lower fresh charge
losses during scavenging. At higher outputs, more exhaust entry leads to a
drop in trapped charge density, and higher combustion temperature
counteracts the improvement in mass flow rate.

Fig.4.16 Brake Power vs. Mass Flow Rate 6 mm orifice

Table 4.3 gives the comparison of the mass flow rate at optimum brake
power for 2SD6 configuration, and 10 % cooled EGR (P10C) conditions. For
2SD6 configuration, 10 % cooled EGR (P10C), the mass flow rate is lower
89

as compared to 5 % cooled EGR (P5C), and 15 % cooled EGR (P15C).


Concerning configurations, mass flow rate tends to increase with orifice
dimensions resulting in variations in pollutants emission.

Table 4.3 Mass Flow Rate (kg/kWh) for all configurations

7.6 Scavenging Efficiency and Trapping Efficiency

The efficiency of an engine depends upon volumetric efficiency.


Volumetric efficiency is defined as the ratio of the mass density of the air-
fuel mixture drawn into the cylinder at atmospheric pressure (during the
intake stroke) to the mass density of the same volume of air in the intake
manifold. Since intake and exhaust partly overlap in a two-stroke engine, the
term volumetric efficiency as applied to a normal four-stroke engine is
replaced by the terms scavenging and trapping efficiency in the case of a two-
stroke engine. Scavenging efficiency gives the ratio of the mass of fresh
charge retained or trapped to the mass of total charge including residuals
trapped. Trapping efficiency gives the ratio of the mass of fresh charge
retained or trapped to the mass of fresh charge delivered or ingested.
90

7.6.1 Scavenging Efficiency for varying cooled EGR

Scavenging efficiency indicates the measure of success in clearing the


cylinder of residual gases from the preceding cycle and replacement by the
fresh air-fuel mixture. Fig.4.17 shows the variation in scavenging efficiency
for the configuration D6 at 5 %, 10 %, and 15 % cooled EGR variations
concerning brake power in kW.

Fig.4.17 Brake Power vs. Scavenging Efficiency 6 mm orifice

The Scavenging Efficiency is 17.3 % for the two-stroke base engine


without EGR, and Scavenging Efficiencies are 19.2 %, 20.1 % and 18.9 %
for 2SD6P5C, 2SD6P10C and 2SD6P15C respectively. It can be observed
that the increment in Scavenging Efficiency values is 1.9 %, 2.8 % and 1.6
% for 2SD6P5C, 2SD6P10C and 2SD6P15C respectively over the
Scavenging Efficiency of two-stroke gasoline base engine without EGR for
91

the optimum brake power. The maximum increment in Scavenging


Efficiency observed is in the case of 2SD6P10C configuration, i.e., 2.8 %
over that of two-stroke gasoline base engine without EGR. With increasing
EGR to 15 %, the scavenging efficiency drops down leading to unavailability
of enough combustible mixture and thus resulting in the poorer performance
of the engine. With 10 % EGR, the temperature conditions and combustion
mixture together contribute to a better combustion performance and
efficiency.

7.6.2 Trapping Efficiency for varying cooled EGR

Fig.4.18 Brake Power vs. Trapping Efficiency 6 mm orifice

The Trapping Efficiency is 65.4 % for two-stroke base engine and


Trapping Efficiencies are 67.9 %, 68.8 % and 67.5 % for 2SD6P5C,
92

2SD6P10C and 2SD6P15C respectively. It can be observed that the


increment in Trapping Efficiency values are 2.5 %, 3.4 % and 2.1 % for
2SD6P5C, 2SD6P10C and 2SD6P15C respectively over the Trapping
Efficiency of two-stroke gasoline base engine without EGR for the optimum
brake power. The maximum increment in Trapping Efficiency observed is in
the case of 2SD6P10C configuration, i.e., 3.4 % over that of two-stroke
gasoline base engine.

Since scavenging is mostly done by the recirculated exhaust gas, the


fresh mixture is fully retained in the combustion chamber. The kinetic energy
of exhaust gas is fully utilized in scavenging. The delivered fresh air mixture
is thus trapped to the maximum extent in the combustion chamber [Mohsen
Ghazikhani et al., (2016)].

Miqdam Tariq Chaichan (2016) has suggested the shortened ignition


delay with an increase in engine load as reasons for the effects. The
increasing load increases the residual gas temperature, and the wall
temperature raised resulting in higher exhaust gas temperatures. Hence the
use of cool EGR will be favorable regarding improved values of thermal
efficiency. The same trend can be noticed in Figure 4.4 in which the brake
thermal efficiency is found to be maximum at 10 % Cooled EGR. Combining
exhaust gas recirculation with lowered EGR temperatures produced better-
operating conditions. Combining oxygenated alternative fuels with exhaust
gas recirculation, volumetric efficiency is substantially increased.

7.7 Carbon Monoxide Emission

7.7.1 Carbon Monoxide Emission for varying uncooled EGR

Figure 4.19 shows the emission of Carbon Monoxide is observed for 5


%, 10 % and 15 % uncooled exhaust gas recirculation, at the optimum brake
power point of 4.287 kW for two-stroke gasoline engine with configurations
2SD4UC, 2SD6UC, and 2SD8UC.
93

The Carbon Monoxide emission is 0.14 % for without EGR conditions


in the two-stroke gasoline base engine. Carbon Monoxide emissions are 0.17
%, 0.162 % and 0.165 % for 2SD4UC, 2SD6UC and 2SD8UC respectively
at 5 % EGR. It can be observed that the increment in emission values are 0.03
%, 0.022 % and 0.025 % for 2SD4UC, 2SD6UC, and 2SD8UC respectively
at 5 % EGR over the emission value for two-stroke gasoline base engine
without EGR.

Figure 4.19 EGR Rate vs. CO Emission for uncooled EGR

The Carbon Monoxide emission is 0.14 % for without EGR conditions


in the two-stroke gasoline base engine. Carbon Monoxide emissions are
0.185 %, 0.175 % and 0.180 % for 2SD4UC, 2SD6UC and 2SD8UC
respectively at 10 % EGR. It can be observed that the increment in emission
values are 0.045 %, 0.035 % and 0.040 % for 2SD4UC, 2SD6UC, and
94

2SD8UC respectively at 10 % EGR over the emission value for two-stroke


gasoline base engine without EGR.

The Carbon Monoxide emission is 0.14 % for without EGR conditions


in the two-stroke gasoline base engine. Carbon Monoxide emissions are
0.194 %, 0.190 % and 0.192 % for 2SD4UC, 2SD6UC and 2SD8UC
respectively at 15 % EGR. It can be observed that the increment in emission
values are 0.054 %, 0.05 % and 0.052 % for 2SD4UC, 2SD6UC, and
2SD8UC respectively at 15 % EGR over the emission value for two-stroke
gasoline base engine without EGR.

7.7.2 Carbon Monoxide Emission for varying cooled EGR

Similarly, the emission of Carbon Monoxide is observed for 5 %, 10 %,


and 15 % cooled exhaust gas recirculation, at the optimum brake power point
of 4.287 kW for two-stroke gasoline engine with configurations 2SD4C,
2SD6C and 2SD8C and shown in Figure 4.20.

The Carbon Monoxide emission is 0.14 % for no EGR conditions for


all the configurations. Carbon Monoxide emissions are 0.16 %, 0.145 % and
0.15 % for 2SD4C, 2SD6C and 2SD8C respectively at 5 % EGR. It can be
observed that the increment in emission values are 0.02 %, 0.025 % and 0.01
% for 2SD4C, 2SD6C, and 2SD8C respectively at 5 % EGR over the
emission value for two-stroke gasoline base engine without EGR.
95

Figure 4.20 EGR Rate vs. CO Emission cooled EGR

The Carbon Monoxide emission is 0.14 % for no EGR conditions for


all the configurations. Carbon Monoxide emissions are 0.175 %, 0.165 % and
0.170 % for 2SD4C, 2SD6C and 2SD8C respectively at 10 % EGR. It can be
observed that the increment in emission values are 0.035 %, 0.025 % and
0.030 % for 2SD4C, 2SD6C and 2SD8C respectively at 10 % EGR over the
emission value for two-stroke gasoline base engine without EGR.

The Carbon Monoxide emission is 0.14 % for no EGR conditions for


all the configurations. Carbon Monoxide emissions are 0.182 %, 0.180 % and
0.180 % for 2SD4C, 2SD6C and 2SD8C respectively at 15 % EGR. It can be
observed that the increment in emission values are 0.042 %, 0.04 % and 0.040
% for 2SD4C, 2SD6C and 2SD8C respectively at 15 % EGR over the
emission value for two-stroke gasoline base engine without EGR.
96

Table 4.4 gives the comparison of carbon monoxide emission at


optimum brake power for all configurations. The maximum reduction in
carbon monoxide emission is obtained with 2SD6 configuration at 10 %
cooled EGR.

Table 4.4 Carbon Monoxide Emission (%) for all configurations

Increasing scavenging efficiency has increased the output, with the


corresponding improvement in combustion performance and reduction in
specific fuel consumption and CO emission. Khan and Shaikh (2016) have
also found the influence of dual spark on the performance of the two-stroke
engine and report increase in efficiency experimentally, decrease in fuel
consumption and CO emission but increase in NOx emissions with
increasing outputs.

Carbon monoxide (CO) is produced from the partial oxidation of


carbon-containing compounds; due to insufficient oxygen present in the
combustion chamber and Mohsen Ghazikhani et al., (2013) have reported
that the addition of ethanol results in a reduction of CO, HC, and NOx in a
two-stroke engine. In the present case, with an increase in EGR rate
recirculation exhaust gas results in insufficient oxygen and higher CO
emission. Raju Hurakadli et al., (2015) in their experiments on two-stroke SI
engines, varied the EGR rate between 0-20% and reported. As per the report,
97

experiments were carried out for mass flow measuring of EGR with
simplifying adjustment (manual designed EGR system) on the engine. The
performance was measured based on brake thermal efficiency and brake
specific fuel consumption. The emission species measured were NOx,
unburnt hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide. The tests were conducted at
2600, 3200 and 4000 rpm. The findings showed that EGR would be one
option to increase thermal efficiency and reduce brake specific fuel
consumption and NOx concentrations in the engine exhaust, but with a rise
in EGR rate beyond the optimum value, the CO and UHC concentrations in
the engine exhaust would increase.

7.8 Carbon Dioxide Emission

7.8.1 Carbon Dioxide Emission for varying uncooled EGR

Figure 4.21 shows the emission of Carbon Dioxide is observed for 5 %,


10 % and 15 % uncooled exhaust gas recirculation, at the optimum brake
power point of 4.287 kW for two-stroke gasoline engine with configurations
2SD4UC, 2SD6UC, and 2SD8UC.

The Carbon Dioxide emission is 9 % for without EGR conditions in


the two-stroke gasoline base engine. Carbon Dioxide emissions are 10 %,
10.3 % and 9.7 % for 2SD4UC, 2SD6UC and 2SD8UC respectively at 5 %
EGR. It can be observed that the increment in emission values are 1 %, 1.3
% and 0.7 % for 2SD4UC, 2SD6UC, and 2SD8UC respectively at 5 % EGR
over the emission value for two-stroke gasoline base engine without EGR.

The Carbon Dioxide emission is 9 % for without EGR conditions in the


two-stroke gasoline base engine. Carbon Dioxide emissions are 11 %, 11.3
% and 10.8 % for 2SD4UC, 2SD6UC and 2SD8UC respectively at 10 %
EGR. It can be observed that the increment in emission values are 2 %, 2.3
% and 1.8 % ppm for 2SD4UC, 2SD6UC and 2SD8UC respectively at 10 %
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EGR over the emission value for two-stroke gasoline base engine without
EGR.

Figure 4.21 EGR Rate vs. CO2 Emission

The Carbon Dioxide emission is 9 % for without EGR conditions in the


two-stroke gasoline base engine. Carbon Dioxide emissions are 11.5 %, 11.6
% and 11.5 % for 2SD4UC, 2SD6UC and 2SD8UC respectively at 15 %
EGR. It can be observed that the increment in emission values are 2.5 %, 2.6
% and 2.5 % for 2SD4UC, 2SD6UC, and 2SD8UC respectively at 15 % EGR
over the emission value for two-stroke gasoline base engine without EGR.

7.8.2 Carbon Dioxide Emission for varying cooled EGR

Similarly, the emission of Carbon Dioxide is observed for 5 %, 10 %,


and 15 % cooled exhaust gas recirculation, at the optimum brake power point
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of 4.287 kW for two-stroke gasoline engine with configurations 2SD4C,


2SD6C and 2SD8C and shown in Figure 4.22.

Figure 4.22 EGR Rate vs. CO2 Emission

The Carbon Dioxide emission is 9 % for without EGR conditions in the


two-stroke gasoline base engine. Carbon Dioxide emissions are 10.6 %, 11.7
% and 12 % for 2SD4C, 2SD6C and 2SD8C respectively at 5 % EGR. It can
be observed that the increment in emission values are 1.6 %, 2.7 % and 3 %
for 2SD4C, 2SD6C, and 2SD8C respectively at 5 % EGR over the emission
value for two-stroke gasoline base engine without EGR.

The Carbon Dioxide emission is 9 % for without EGR conditions in the


two-stroke gasoline base engine. Carbon Dioxide emissions are 10.9 %, 11.9
% and 12.1 % for 2SD4C, 2SD6C and 2SD8C respectively at 10 % EGR. It
100

can be observed that the increment in emission values are 1.9 %, 2.9 % and
3.1 % for 2SD4C, 2SD6C, and 2SD8C respectively at 10 % EGR over the
emission value for two-stroke gasoline base engine without EGR.

The Carbon Dioxide emission is 9 % for without EGR conditions in the


two-stroke gasoline base engine. Carbon Dioxide emissions are 12.4 % for
all the configurations i.e. 2SD4C, 2SD6C and 2SD8C at 15 % EGR. It can
be observed that the emission value for all the configurations is 3.4 % higher
than that of two-stroke gasoline base engine without EGR.

The Carbon Dioxide emission is higher for the configurations 2SD6 as


compared to 2SD4 and 2SD8 for both uncooled and cooled exhaust gas
recirculation at 5 % and 10 %. There is an increase in thermal efficiency due
to the increase in mass density entering the crankcase contributing to an
increase in trapping efficiency. Therefore, complete combustion takes place
leading to emission of more carbon dioxide and heat release rate. Due to
improved scavenging efficiency, the air-fuel mixture is retained for complete
burning to take place.

It is also observed that the Carbon Dioxide emission has the same value
in all the configurations, i.e. 2SD4, 2SD6 and 2SD8 for both uncooled and
cooled exhaust gas recirculation at 15 %. Further increase in EGR beyond 10
% results in an adverse effect on density and impurity levels resulting in
deteriorating efficiency levels. The proportional reduction in air-fuel flow
leads to insufficient air mass resulting in oxygen starvation and deficient
combustion and emission of the product of combustion, carbon dioxide. With
the result, a saturation limit is reached for carbon dioxide formation.

Table 4.5 gives the comparison of carbon dioxide emission at optimum


brake power for all configurations. Carbon dioxide emission is maximum for
2SD6 configuration with 10 % cooled EGR due to the maximum output
produced.
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Table 4.5 Carbon Dioxide Emission (%) for all configurations

The increase in volumetric efficiency and carbon dioxide emission


(from 10 % to 12 %) is also referred in the findings by Nazar Yahya Ibrahim
et al., (2015) on SI Engine using 98 % gasoline with 2 % lubricant. The
improvement in brake thermal efficiency is also confirmed by the increase in
the formation of the product of reaction carbon dioxide. However, after-
treatment methods need to be followed to prevent the global warming effect
due to this emission from a large number of vehicles plying on the roads.

7.9 Hydrocarbon Emission

7.9.1 Hydrocarbon Emission for varying uncooled EGR

Martin et al., (2012) classified the exhaust gas constituents into three
categories, harmful to health, objectionable and potentially objectionable.
Among them, the objectionable constituents are either odorous or irritating
and include aldehydes and other compounds resulting from the partial
oxidation or reaction of the fuel. These compounds appear as smoke. The
potentially objectionable constituents are those materials which may react
directly or indirectly to form irritating and lachrymating pollutants. Certain
hydrocarbons may react in the presence of oxides of nitrogen and ozone to
form eye and nose irritants; hydrocarbons must be considered in this
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classification. Carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and hydrocarbons are


those compounds believed to be of greatest importance to air pollution.

Figure 4.23 shows the emission of Hydro Carbon observed for 5 %, 10


% and 15 % uncooled exhaust gas recirculation, at the optimum brake power
point of 4.287 kW for two-stroke gasoline engine with configurations
2SD4UC, 2SD6UC, and 2SD8UC.

The Hydrocarbon emission is 3510 ppm for without EGR conditions in


the two-stroke gasoline base engine. Hydro Carbon emissions are 3200 ppm,
2850 ppm and 3030 ppm for 2SD4UC, 2SD6UC and 2SD8UC respectively
at 5 % EGR. It can be observed that the decrement in emission values are 310
ppm, 660 ppm and 480 ppm for 2SD4UC, 2SD6UC and 2SD8UC
respectively at 5 % EGR over the emission value for two-stroke gasoline base
engine without EGR.

Figure 4.23 EGR Rate vs. HC Emission


103

The Hydrocarbon emission is 3510 ppm for without EGR conditions in


the two-stroke gasoline base engine. Hydro Carbon emissions are 3009 ppm,
2673 ppm and 2870 ppm for 2SD4UC, 2SD6UC and 2SD8UC respectively
at 10 % EGR. It can be observed that the decrement in emission values are
501 ppm, 837 ppm and 680 ppm for 2SD4UC, 2SD6UC and 2SD8UC
respectively at 10 % EGR over the emission value for two-stroke gasoline
base engine without EGR.

The Hydrocarbon emission is 3510 ppm for without EGR conditions in


the two-stroke gasoline base engine. Hydro Carbon emissions are 3084 ppm,
2759 ppm and 2908 ppm for 2SD4UC, 2SD6UC and 2SD8UC respectively
at 15 % EGR. It can be observed that the decrement in emission values are
426 ppm, 751 ppm and 602 ppm for 2SD4UC, 2SD6UC and 2SD8UC
respectively at 15 % EGR over the emission value for two-stroke gasoline
base engine without EGR.

7.9.2 Hydrocarbon Emission for varying cooled EGR

Similarly, the emission of Hydro Carbon is observed for 5 %, 10 %, and


15 % cooled exhaust gas recirculation, at the optimum brake power point of
4.287 kW for two-stroke gasoline engine with configurations 2SD4C, 2SD6C
and 2SD8C and shown in Figure 4.24.

The Hydrocarbon emission is 3510 ppm for without EGR conditions in


the two-stroke gasoline base engine. Hydro Carbon emissions are 3100 ppm,
2750 ppm and 2930 ppm for 2SD4C, 2SD6C and 2SD8C respectively at 5 %
EGR. It can be observed that the decrement in emission values are 410 ppm,
760 ppm and 580 ppm for 2SD4C, 2SD6C, and 2SD8C respectively at 5 %
EGR over the emission value for two-stroke gasoline base engine without
EGR.
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The Hydrocarbon emission is 3510 ppm for without EGR conditions in


the two-stroke gasoline base engine. Hydro Carbon emissions are 2905 ppm,
2566 ppm and 2725 ppm for 2SD4C, 2SD6C and 2SD8C respectively at 10
% EGR. It can be observed that the decrement in emission values are 605
ppm, 944 ppm and 785 ppm for 2SD4C, 2SD6C, and 2SD8C respectively at
10 % EGR over the emission value for two-stroke gasoline base engine
without EGR.

Figure 4.24 EGR Rate vs. HC Emission

The Hydrocarbon emission is 3510 ppm for without EGR conditions in


the two-stroke gasoline base engine. Hydro Carbon emissions are 2995 ppm,
2666 ppm and 2805 ppm for 2SD4C, 2SD6C and 2SD8C respectively at 15
% EGR. It can be observed that the decrement in emission values are 515
ppm, 844 ppm and 705 ppm for 2SD4C, 2SD6C, and 2SD8C respectively at
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15 % EGR over the emission value for two-stroke gasoline base engine
without EGR.

The Hydrocarbon emission is lower for the configurations 2SD6 as


compared to 2SD4 and 2SD8 for both uncooled and cooled exhaust gas
recirculation at 5 % and 10 %. The improved thermal efficiency resulting in
maximum utilization of carbon in combustion reaction leaves less unburnt
hydrocarbons. At 5 % EGR, the combustion temperature is lower and hence
poor combustion with more unburnt hydrocarbons. At 10 % EGR, the
temperature is higher, and more oxygen atoms are used for nitrogen oxides
formation, and thus unburnt hydrocarbons tend to increase.

Table 4.6 gives the comparison of hydrocarbon emission at optimum


brake power for all configurations. The maximum reduction in hydrocarbon
emission is obtained with 2SD6 configuration with 10 % cooled EGR.

Table 4.6 Hydrocarbon Emission (ppm) for all configurations

The reduction in HC emission is also due to improved scavenging


efficiency with EGR rates yielding more fresh air-fuel mixture for burning in
the combustion chamber. Report by Juhi Sharaf (2013) recommends the
recycled exhaust to dilute the engine intake mixture lowers the NOx level.
During the warm-up period from the starting of the engine, vaporization is
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slow and requires rich mixture resulting in high HC and CO emission. At part
load conditions lean mixtures are permitted thus reducing the HC and CO
emissions.

AFR yielded reduced hydrocarbons for lean combustion. Ignition


timing played a vital part in hydrocarbon emissions for all configurations and
was attributed to the effects of enriched AFR's found with ignition retard.
Also, Loganathan et al., (2006) confirm the conclusion that at higher loads
and speeds, NO levels become higher due to use of leaner mixtures with
oxygen availability and higher combustion temperatures. HC emissions are
considerably lower in carburetted versions at all speeds.

7.10 Nitrogen Oxides Emission

7.10.1 Nitrogen Oxides Emission for varying uncooled EGR

Figure 4.25 shows the emission of Nitrogen Oxides observed for 5 %,


10 % and 15 % uncooled exhaust gas recirculation, at the optimum brake
power point of 4.287 kW for two-stroke gasoline engine with configurations
2SD4UC, 2SD6UC, and 2SD8UC.

The Nitrogen Oxides emission is 1250 ppm for without EGR conditions
for two-stroke gasoline base engine. Nitrogen Oxides emissions are 1095
ppm, 920 ppm and 1025 ppm for 2SD4UC, 2SD6UC and 2SD8UC
respectively at 5 % EGR. It can be observed that the decrement in emission
values are 155 ppm, 330 ppm, and 225 ppm for 2SD4UC, 2SD6UC, and
2SD8UC respectively at 5 % EGR over the emission value for two-stroke
gasoline base engine without EGR.

The Nitrogen Oxides emission is 1250 ppm for without EGR conditions
for two-stroke gasoline base engine. Nitrogen Oxides emissions are 950 ppm,
840 ppm and 908 ppm for 2SD4UC, 2SD6UC and 2SD8UC respectively at
10 % EGR. It can be observed that the decrement in emission values are 300
107

ppm, 410 ppm, and 342 ppm for 2SD4UC, 2SD6UC, and 2SD8UC
respectively at 10 % EGR over the emission value for two-stroke gasoline
base engine without EGR.

Figure 4.25 EGR Rate vs. NOx Emission

The Nitrogen Oxides emission is 1250 ppm for without EGR conditions
for two-stroke gasoline base engine. Nitrogen Oxides emissions are 960 ppm,
870 ppm and 920 ppm for 2SD4UC, 2SD6UC and 2SD8UC respectively at
15 % EGR. It can be observed that the decrement in emission values are 290
ppm, 380 ppm, and 330 ppm for 2SD4UC, 2SD6UC, and 2SD8UC
respectively at 15 % EGR over the emission value for two-stroke gasoline
base engine without EGR.
108

7.10.2 Nitrogen Oxides Emission for varying cooled EGR

Similarly, the emission of Nitrogen Oxides is observed for 5 %, 10 %,


and 15 % cooled exhaust gas recirculation, at the optimum brake power point
of 4.287 kW for two-stroke gasoline engine with configurations 2SD4C,
2SD6C and 2SD8C and shown in Figure 4.26.

Figure 4.26 EGR Rate vs. NOx Emission

The Nitrogen Oxides emission is 1250 ppm for without EGR conditions
in the two-stroke gasoline base engine. Nitrogen Oxides emissions are 9850
ppm, 820 ppm and 905 ppm for 2SD4C, 2SD6C and 2SD8C respectively at
5 % EGR. It can be observed that the decrement in emission values are 265
ppm, 430 ppm and 345 ppm for 2SD4C, 2SD6C, and 2SD8C respectively at
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5 % EGR over the emission value for two-stroke gasoline base engine
without EGR.

The Nitrogen Oxides emission is 1250 ppm for without EGR conditions
in the two-stroke gasoline base engine. Nitrogen Oxides emissions are 800
ppm, 700 ppm and 738 ppm for 2SD4C, 2SD6C and 2SD8C respectively at
10 % EGR. It can be observed that the decrement in emission values are 450
ppm, 550 ppm and 512 ppm for 2SD4C, 2SD6C, and 2SD8C respectively at
10 % EGR over the emission value for two-stroke gasoline base engine
without EGR.

The Nitrogen Oxides emission is 1250 ppm for without EGR conditions
in the two-stroke gasoline base engine. Nitrogen Oxides emissions are 830
ppm, 740 ppm and 770 ppm for 2SD4C, 2SD6C and 2SD8C respectively at
10 % EGR. It can be observed that the decrement in emission values are 420
ppm, 510 ppm and 480 ppm for 2SD4C, 2SD6C, and 2SD8C respectively at
10 % EGR over the emission value for two-stroke gasoline base engine
without EGR.

Table 4.7 gives the comparison of nitrogen oxides emission at optimum


brake power for all configurations. Maximum reduction of 550 ppm in
nitrogen oxides emission is obtained with 2SD6 configuration with 10 %
cooled EGR over the normal two-stroke gasoline base engine with no EGR.

Table 4.7 Nitrogen Oxides Emission (ppm) for all configurations


110

The efficiency of the EGR in inhibiting the formation of NO and,


consequently, reducing the emission of NOx with the engine under the
optimum brake power can be observed. Under these circumstances, the
recirculation allowed an increase in the pressure, while keeping lower
emissions of NOx. Increasing the EGR rate results in dilution, decreased
combustion temperature and therefore lower NOx emission was observed.
Results indicate that the efficiency on account of the recirculation would be
much higher than that for the naturally aspirated base engine without EGR.
The trends will be the same, regardless of the orifice diameter, even though
the engine emission and hence the performance shows a negative sensibility
to the increase of the recirculation beyond 10 %.

Jerzy Kowalski and Wieslaw Tarelko (2009) have dealt with a model
of the NOx formation in the combustion chamber of a two-stroke engine. It
consists of both the thermodynamic model of a combustion process and the
kinetic model of chemical reactions taking place during an engine working
process. Engine working parameters are sufficient to work with this model
and study the formation of NOx emission. These results have shown lower
NOx formation.

Derek Johnson (2016) also reported comparable results by experimental


investigations that volumetric EGR rates of 2.5% showed reduced NOx
emissions and improved fuel efficiency while rates beyond 5% did not yield
NOx reductions in SI engines using alternative fuel. The addition of 2.5%
EGR could be used to reduce NOx emissions but increasing to 5% yielded
increased NOx emissions. Overall, the addition of EGR improved
combustion stability and BSFC apart from limiting the emission. As EGR
rate increased, the AFR enriched. AFR enrichment is expected due to the
increasing amount of displaced air with increased EGR rates, in addition to
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increased intake air temperature. At 2.5% EGR, improvements in BSFC and


fuel efficiency were prevalent and attributed to increased engine stability. For
5% EGR, the improvements in efficiency and BSFC were not as dramatic in
magnitude and were not statistically different.

Dinesh K, Aravind S (2016) also confirms the results of their study


reports. Exhaust Gas Recirculation is a very simple method, very useful, and
can be modified further to attain better standards. It can be easily fitted to
two-wheelers to eliminate Nitrous Oxides gas from IC Engine. From
emission test reports in their study, it was concluded that emissions of NOx
decrease with increase in % of EGR due to diminished oxygen content and
diminished flame temperature in the combustible blend. It was also found
that fuel efficiency of the engine increased. These observations were
consistent with thermodynamic predictions that lower combustion chamber
temperatures restrict the formation of oxides of nitrogen. Driving condition
has a marked effect on the emission rate of all constituents. As low as 1 grams
per cubic meter to 16 grams per cubic meter during deceleration stage. (12 %
to 36 % by weight of fuel).

Ajinkya and Nilesh (2016) have found that Monatomic nitrogen (2N)
reacts with oxygen to form NOx. More is the temperature more N2 will
dissociate, and more NOx will be formed. At low temperature, less amount
of NOx is created. In addition to temperature, NOx formation depends on
pressure and air-fuel mixture. At low load condition, the engine requires high
EGR ratio because recirculating gases contains a high amount of oxygen and
low carbon dioxide while at high load the oxygen in exhaust gas decreases
and inert gas constituents star increasing with increased temperature. At high
EGR rate of about 44% reduces NO emissions but significantly affect fuel
economy. About 2000 ppm of oxides of nitrogen is present in the exhaust of
the engine. Mostly this contains nitrogen oxide (NO) and a small amount of
nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and other combinations.
112

Many of theoretical and experimental investigation shows that the


concentration of NOx in the exhaust gas is closely related to peak cycle
temperature and available amount of oxygen in the combustion chamber.
Any process to reduce cylinder peak temperature and the concentration of
oxygen will reduce the oxides of nitrogen. Temperature and oxygen
availability suggests some methods are used for reducing the level of nitrogen
oxides. Among these the dilution of fuel-air mixture entering the engine
cylinder with non-combustible substance is one which absorbs portion
energy released during combustion, thereby affecting an overall reduction in
combustion temperature and consequently in the NOx emission level.

Exhaust Gas Recirculation done by diverting some exhaust gases back


into the inlet port combines with exhaust residual of the previous cycle left
in the cylinder to reduce the maximum burning temperature. As the specific
heat of EGR is much higher than ambient air, increases the heat capacity of
charge and leads to decreasing the temperature rise for the same heat output.
EGR displaces fresh air entering the chamber with CO2 and water vapor
present in the exhaust. Hence due to this displacement, amount of oxygen in
the air-fuel mixture reduces and reduces the effective air-fuel ratio which
influences the exhaust emission substantially. EGR increases the heat
capacity of intake mixture, which results in decreasing flame temperature and
NOx formation reactions.

7.11 Summary

Controlled combustion temperature and kinematic conditions are very


important to achieve optimum performance in an IC engine. Allowing
recirculation through orifice flow control device in the inlet manifold is a
simple method that can be adopted to achieve this purpose. With increasing
orifice dimension, exhaust entry raises to reduce the combustion temperature
and improves the performance. If the exhaust is uncooled, then temperature
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rise occurs defeating the very purpose improving combustion efficiency. At


smaller orifice dimension, the exhaust entry being lower, carbon monoxide
reactions continue to occur even with oxygen present in the exhaust, thus
speeding up combustion process. At higher orifice dimension, exhaust at
higher temperature enters. Formation of nitrogen oxide at higher temperature
is very sensitive preventing the carbon monoxide from reacting with oxygen
molecules for carbon dioxide formation. Pollution is thus transferred from
CO to NO2. Therefore, there exist optimum limits for orifice diameter as well
as percentage EGR rates up to which performance can be improved with low
emission.

To summarise the discussion, increased efficiency, with reduced


emission levels are obtained in the two-stroke engine with 6 mm orifice
introduced in the inlet manifold, and 10 % recirculation cooled exhaust gas.
The two-stroke engines are therefore worth reconsidering for usage at select
sectors where it would be economical. Stationary engines used in marine and
plant applications are a few that fall into this category.
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CHAPTER 5 Commented [V5]: 5cm below top page


Second Title 2 spaaces below
Third title 4 spaces below
1.5 spaces afterwards
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE 3 spaces between paragraphs
3 spaces before and after the figures and tables
1 spacing between title and fig or table
5.1 Conclusion 1.1.12 Ramakrishnan

Euro norms and BS norms are forcing the researchers and


manufacturers to create innovative ideas to improve the performance to meet
the emission standards. Therefore, the novel method of using inlet manifold
modified using Orifice control and varying percentage of cooled exhaust gas
recirculation in a two-stroke gasoline engine would contribute to the extent
of minimizing the emission of harmful exhausts and maximizing the
efficiency of the engine and the vehicle.

A comparison of carbon monoxide emission at optimum brake power


for all configurations discussed have shown that maximum reduction in
carbon monoxide emission is obtained with 2SD6 configuration at 10 %
cooled EGR.

A comparison of carbon dioxide emission at optimum brake power for


all configurations have shown that carbon dioxide emission is maximum for
2SD6 configuration with 10 % cooled EGR due to the maximum output
produced.

A comparison of hydrocarbon emission at optimum brake power for all


configurations have shown that maximum reduction in hydrocarbon emission
is obtained with 2SD6 configuration with 10 % cooled EGR.

A comparison of nitrogen oxides emission at optimum brake power for


all configurations have shown that maximum reduction in nitrogen oxides
emission is obtained with 2SD6 configuration with 10 % cooled EGR.
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A comparison between the engine performance obtained with gasoline


engine without Orifice and EGR and a gasoline engine with Orifice and EGR
has highlighted a very significant increase in brake thermal efficiency and
considerable reduction of both unburned hydrocarbons and specific fuel
consumption.

Out of the various combinations of the orifice and percentage


recirculation, it has been found out that the following combination would
give the maximum efficiency and minimum emission.

• Orifice dimension 6 mm
• Percentage recirculation 10 %
• Exhaust condition required: Cooled gas through the heat exchanger

Performance improvement and Emission reduction obtained with the


above modifications in the two-stroke gasoline engine as per the test results:

• Brake thermal efficiency : 41.35 %


• Specific Fuel Consumption : 202 g/kWh
• Mass Flow Rate : 16.384 kg/kWh
• Scavenging efficiency : 20.1 %
• Trapping Efficiency : 68.8 %
• HC emission : 2566 ppm
• CO emission : 0.165 %
• CO2 emission : 11.9 %
• NOx emission : 700 ppm

EGR dilution is a promising way to improve the fuel economy of Spark-


Ignited (SI) gasoline engines. At high load, it is very efficient in a mitigating
knock at low speed and to decrease exhaust temperature at high speed so that
fuel enrichment can be avoided.

With turbulent exhaust entry before fresh charge into the combustion
chamber leads to rising in pressure and results in an improved rate of
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evaporation and combustion of fuel. The NOx emission and combustion


temperature tend to increase limits, and smoke emission tend to decrease.

Mixing of the EGR and fresh air mixture is very important since by
controlling the EGR stratification, the combustion timing can be controlled.
In a homogeneous cooled EGR, fresh air and EGR gases are mixed upstream
of the intake port and thus well mixed before injection. Homogeneous EGR
supply is more advantageous for overall performance improvement namely
combustion efficiency, fuel economy and a significant reduction in NOx
emissions. The use of these technologies ensures rapid combustion of the fuel
in the combustion chamber, lower emissions and thereby an increase in the
fuel efficiency.

It can be concluded that the application of these techniques in the


present day two-wheelers with two-stroke engines will give the present
generation what they want, i.e. power bikes with fuel efficiency. Since these
technologies also minimize the fuel consumption and harmful emission
levels, they can also be considered as one of the solutions to overcome
increasing fuel costs and global warming.

We can hope for more creative technologies, which can achieve still
better results because there is no end to innovation.

5.2 Further Scope

To further reduce the environmental impact of two-stroke gasoline


engines, proposed modifications can be made to perform better using
appropriate control units and accurate sensors. Apart from EGR, selective
catalytic reduction (SCR) is another technique worth pursuing to meet the
emission norms and contribute to the greener environment.

Also, customer education is more important on maintenance and


operation of the systems under their possession. Timely servicing and
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maintenance improve the performance and life of the vehicles. Start-Stop


system is another key area which has proven to benefit the owners and
economy by way of fuel saving and cost reduction.

Components modifications, replacement components, alternative fuels,


Fuel blending, are the other major areas of study for improvement in mobility
development and growth. Research at the global level is the need of the hour
to look for alternative energy sources and avoid the hydrocarbon fuels
altogether.

More and more people should come forward to use mass transport over
preference to personalized transport.