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DMX5533 – Dynamics of Mechanical Systems

(1) This assignment is based on Book 01
(2) Answer all questions.
(3) Write your registration number clearly on your answer script.
(4) Send your answer scripts under registered cover to the address given below or deposit them in
the assignment box available at the Department of Mechanical Engineering (Research Lab in
new SNT building), Nawala.
(5) Last date of submission is 03rd August 2018
(6) No late submissions will be accepted.

Course Information

Course Material

Course material of this course consists of book 01 (Mechanical Vibrations) and book 02
(Control Engineering). You have already received your first dispatch of course material book
01 and you will receive the remaining units at the second dispatch.

Assignments (TMAs)

TMA 01 and TMA 02 will be uploaded in the MYOUSL. Deadlines for submission of TMAs are
given in the activity schedule. However a grace period of one weeks is given to you for
submission of TMAs of this course and all TMAs should be received at the department before
the end of the corresponding grace period.

Therefore please ensure that all TMAs reach the department whether posted or deposited in
the Assignment box (available at the Research Lab, Department of Mechanical Engineering)
before the grace period ends. (See table below)

Assignment Least date of submission (as given in the activity diary )

Activity Due Date End of the Grace Period

TMA 01 03/08/2018 10/08/2018

TMA 02 02/11/2018 09/11/2018

As Model answers to assignments will be posted on the day immediately following the end of
the respective grace period, no late submission will be accepted under any circumstances.

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Continuous Assessment Tests (CATs)

Each CAT paper consists four or five compulsory questions. Questions for the CATs will be set
from the course material as indicated below.

CAT 01 – Book 01 – Assignment 01, Day school 01 and 02

CAT 02 – Book 02 – Assignment 02, Day school 03

Final Examination

Final Examination paper consists five compulsory questions from book 01 and book 02.

Case Studies/ Laboratory Practice

Details regarding case studies/ laboratory practices will be informed to you in due course.


Please note the following.

1. Plagiarism in any form is not allowed. If plagiarism is detected in any script, the
relevant answer/ answers will be given zero marks.
2. Cover pages of assignments, labs reports, case studies etc. should have, among other
things, a case to enter the marks of each question and the total.
3. Hand writing should be legible and all the steps of calculations should be clearly
4. Course updates will be published in the MYOUSL.


Eng. HS Lakmal Perera

Academic Coordinator – DMX5533
TEL: 0112881265/ 0777290079

Mr. D Batagoda (Surya)

Course Coordinator – DMX5533

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Question 01

You are expected to derive expressions from fundamentals for the transmissibility of vibrations
emanating from a machine to two different types of foundations namely,

(a) Rigid Foundation

(b) Flexible Foundation

(a) Rigid Foundation

When a machine is bolted directly to a rigid foundation the foundation will be subjected to a
harmonic load due to unbalance in the machine in addition to the static load due to the weight of
the machine. Hence an elastic or resilient member is placed between the machine and the rigid
foundation to reduce the force transmitted to the foundation. The system can then be idealized as
a single degree of freedom system, as shown in Fig. Q1 (a). The resilient member is assumed to
have both elasticity and damping and is modelled as a spring k and a dashpot c, as shown. It is
assumed that the operation of the machine gives rise to harmonically varying force
𝐹(𝑡) = 𝐹0 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜔𝑡

Derive the equation of motion and obtain an expression for the transmitted force (𝐹𝑡 ) and show
that the transmissibility or transmission ration of the isolator (𝑇𝑟 ) can be expressed, in the usual
notation, as
𝐹𝑡 1 + (2𝛽𝑟)2
𝑇𝑟 = =[ ]
𝐹0 (1 − 𝑟 2 )2 + (2𝛽𝑟)2

Draw graphs of 𝑻𝒓 Vs r for 𝛽 = 0.2, 0.4, 𝑎𝑛𝑑 0.6 and indicate the isolation region clearly on the

Fig. Q1 (a)

(b) Flexible Foundation

In many practical situations, the structure or foundation to which the isolator is connected moves
when the machine mounted on the isolator operates. For example, in the case of a turbine
supported on the hull of a ship or an aircraft engine mounted on the wing of an air plane, the area
surrounding the point of support also moves with the isolator. In such cases the system can be
represented as having two degrees of freedom.

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In Fig. Q1 (b) m1 and m2 denote the masses of the machine and the supporting structure that
moves with the isolator, respectively. The isolator is represented by a spring k, and the damping is
disregarded for the sake of simplicity.

Derive the equation of motion and obtain an expression for the force transmitted to the supporting
structure (𝐹𝑡 ) and show that the transmissibility of the isolator (𝑇𝑟 ) can be expresses, in the usual
notation, as;

𝐹𝑡 𝑚2 1
𝑇𝑟 = = ( )( )
𝐹0 𝑚1 + 𝑚2 1 − 𝜔2
Where 𝜔2 is the natural frequency of the system and it is given as;
(𝑚1 + 𝑚2 ) 𝑘
𝜔2 = √
𝑚1 𝑚2

Fig. Q1 (b)
Question 02
Figure Q 02(a) shows a motorcycle with a rider. Develop a sequence of three mathematical models
of the system for investigating vibration in the vertical direction. Consider the elasticity of the tires,
elasticity and damping of the struts (in the vertical direction), masses of the wheels, and elasticity,
damping, and mass of the rider.

Fig. Q 02(a)

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A vehicle has a mass of 2000 kg and a 3 m wheelbase. The mass moment of inertia about the
centre of mass is 500 kgm2, and the centre of mass is located 1 m from the front axle. Considering
the vehicle as a two degree of freedom system as shown in fig. Q 02(b).
Find the natural frequencies and the corresponding modes of vibration, if the front and rear springs
have stiffnesses of 50kN/m and 80kN/m respectively.
The expansion joints of a concrete road are 5 m apart. These joints cause a series of impulses at
equal intervals to vehicles travelling at a constant speed.
Determine the speeds at which pitching motion and up and down motion are most likely to arise
for the above vehicle.

Fig. Q 02(b).
Question 03
Figure Q 03 (a) shows a three-stepped shaft fixed at one end and subjected to a torsional moment
T at the other end. The length of step i is ii and its diameter is Di, i = 1, 2, 3. All the steps are made
of the same material with shear modulus Gi = G, i = 1, 2, 3.

Fig. Q 03(a)

i. Find the torsional spring constant (or stiffness) 𝑘𝑡𝑖 of step i (i = 1, 2, 3).
ii. Find the equivalent torsional spring constant (or stiffness) of the stepped shaft 𝑘𝑡𝑒𝑞 , so that
𝑇 = 𝑘𝑡𝑒𝑞 𝜃
iii. Indicate whether the steps behave as series or parallel torsional springs.

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The figure Q 03(b) shows a steel shaft which can rotate in frictionless bearings, and which has three
discs rigidly attached to it in the positions shown. Each of the three discs is solid, uniform, and of
diameter 280 mm. The modulus of rigidity of the shaft material is 83 GN/m2, and the density of the
discs is 7000 kg/m3. Find the frequencies of free torsional vibrations of the system.

Fig. Q 03(b)

Question 04

Figure Q 04 shows a beam of uniform cross section, flexural rigidity EI, mass per unit length m, and
total length 3L that supported at x = 0 and x = 2L. Determine the value of 𝛼 if the deflected shape
could be assumed to be 𝑦(𝑥, 𝑡) = sin ( − 𝛼𝑥) sin 𝜔𝑡 . Obtained the value of bending
moment at x = 3L.
Find the frequency of natural transverse vibration of the beam using Rayleigh’s method.

Fig. Q 04

Question 05
A light horizontal shaft supported in bearings at its ends and carries a rotor of mass M at its span.
The center of mass of the rotor is at a distance e from the shaft axis. Show that the deflection y of
the shaft at its mid span when running at an angular speed 𝜔 is given by;
y= 2
( 𝜔𝑐 ) − 1
where 𝜔𝑐 is the critical speed of the shaft.
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A uniform shaft of diameter 20 mm and mass 3.5kg is supported horizontally in frictionless short
bearings. The span of the shaft is 1.5 m. A disc of mass 8 kg is attached to the mid span of the shaft
and the disc has an eccentricity of 4.4 mm. Assuming that one half of the mass of the shaft is
concentrated at mid span determine;

i. Critical speed of the shaft

ii. Maximum amplitude of vibration
iii. Maximum dynamic force transmitted to each bearing

 The speed of the shaft – 360 rev/min
 The modules of elasticity of the shaft material – 200 GN/m2


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