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concrete information PORTLAND CEMENT fea ASSOCIATION Mineral Pigments for Use in Coloring Concrete Coloring Materials Only commercially pure mineral pigments should be used, 4s other pigments are likely to fade or reduce the strength of the stuczo, mortar, or concrete in a marked degree. The amount of coloring materials added should not exceed 10 percent by weight of the cement, as larger quan: tities may affect the strength of the mortar or concrete to ‘an injurious degree. Deep shades can generally be produced with less than this amount of color by judicious choice of pigments. Different shades of color can be secured by vary- ing the amount of coloring material used or by mixing (0- gether two or more pigments. The full coloring value of pigments can be obtained only with white portland cement. White cement must be used to obtain the more delicate shades of the lighter colors and for white finishes. When clear white is desired, white sand and white cement should be used. The use of white portland cement with yellow and brown sand will produce varying shades of cream, yellow, and buff. If the colors desired can be secured without pig. ‘ments, such practice is to be recommended, Variations in the color of the materials are such as to make color formulas only approximate. Best results are obtained by experiment or trial. After selecting the primary color desired, the exact shade may be determined by pre- paring a number of small panels which should be made of the same materials and proportions as are intended to be used in the actual work, varying the ratio of pigment to cement. Store the samples for about five days under condi- tions similar to the actual work. Panels will have a darker shade when damp than when dry Mixing the Materials Weigh out carefully the aggregate and cement. Add to this the predetermined amount of pigment, by weight. The whole should then be uniformly mixed dry until the entice batch is of uniform color. Water should then be added to bring the mixture to the proper consistency. Another method which has been successfully used is to ‘grind the cement and pigment in the desired proportions in 4 simall ball mill. This mixture is then added to the aggre: gate and the batch thoroughly mixed dry to a uniform color before adding water. ‘The intensities of shades produced by mineral pigments will be slightly increased by thorough mixing of the mortar or concrete. Materials Used in Coloring ‘A general guide to the selection of colors and coloring ma- terials to obtain various effects follows: For blues use cobalt oxide. For browns use brown oxide of iron. For buffs use synthetic yellow oxide of iron. For greens use chromium oxide. For reds use red oxide of iron, For grays or slate effects use black iron oxide or carbon black, preferably black iron oxide. Common lampblack should not be used. Tests to Determine Quality Most architects and builders depend upon the reputation of the manufacturer of pigments for assurance that the quality of the material is satisfactory. There are, however, a few simple tests that can easily be made which will often be of assistance in determining the suitability of pigments, al though a complete examination would involve extensive physical and chemical tests. ‘The finer a pigment is ground, the greater is its coloring ability and the less the amount required to produce a given shade ‘The ability to resist the action of lime can be tested by ‘mixing a sample pat of 20 parts of cement and 1 part of the pigment and observing it for several days, meanwhile Keep. Ing the specimen moist. Any pronounced fading indicates Copyright, 1961 by Portland Cement Association that the pigment is not limeproof To test the durability of color under the influence of light takes some time, unless a special artificial light is at hand, Pronounced fading of a colored mortar on exposure to sunlight for one month is evidence that the pigment is unsuitable. ‘This publication is intended for the ute of profesional personnel competent to evaluate the significance and limitations of its con Tents end who will socept responsibility forthe application of th ‘roteral i contains. The Portland Cement Assocation disclaims {and all responsiblity for any other application ofthe procedures oF Principles stated herein Caution: Avoid prolonged contact between unhardened (wet) cement or concrete mixtures and skin surfaces. To Prevent such contact, it is advisable to wear protective clothing, Skin areas that have been exposed to wet cement for concrete, either directly or through saturated clothing, should be thoroughly washed with water PORTLAND CEMENT [Til ASSOCIATION An rpzton of emen mana imprinted the wef portind coment ad concrete ugh cet esearch engineering lw ad ue develops 5420 Old Orchard Road, Skokie, Illinois 60076 Printed in USA Isiatozr