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EDU 510

UNIT 1
1. Based on your readings on artificial intelligence, which aspect of human thinking (knowing what you know today)
do you believe would be the most difficult for computers to perform or model? Why do you believe this aspect
would be the most difficult?

Wow, I really enjoyed reading and learning about artificial intelligence through this unit’s materials. After reading
and debating a bit, I think the aspect of human thinking that may be the most difficult for computers to perform or
model would be creativity, or original, unique thinking and design. In reading the Cognitive Science of Teaching and
Learning, I thought the last point in the presentation was eye-opening, “connections bring forth knowledge”. While
considering this from an artificial intelligence prospective, the human brain is able to make connections with what it
learns and in turn forms new ideas, concepts, and opinions based on their knowledge. Artificial intelligence will be
limited in areas of creative and new concepts because all of the knowledge that it obtains is from what human has
coded into it or by experiences that it has seen someone else do. The human mind is a beautiful thing because of it’s
amazing ability to think creatively and have original, uniquely designed, thoughts and ideas. While watching The
Rise of Artificial Intelligence video, I thought it was interesting when they were discussing how intelligence is the
ability to see things in the world and act on them. Or how intelligence is seeing things around you in the world and
building on what you learn. Computers are limited to learning only what has already been created by a human. I
don’t think that AI will never be able to think creatively, I just think it will be the most difficult. As John McCarthy
stated in the Thinking Allowed video, these human abilities may not be impossible for AI, it just may take some time
for engineers to form the algorithms to allow computers to do these types of things.

2. Based on your readings on andragogy and pedagogy, do you think this aspect of human thinking would differ for a
child and an adult? Why or why not?

Creativity is absolutely different from child to adult! While reading about adult learners in Adult Learning Theory, it
discusses how adults learn by drawing form reservoirs of life experiences to help them learn. Adults have a difficult
time thinking creatively because they are limited by the preconceived knowledge of what they have already learned.
Children’s brains are sponges of learning, children develop theories as a way of understanding the world around
them and alter them as they encounter new information (Kuhn & Pease, 2006). While adults may learn quicker than
children, children are able to not be restricted by the limitations of what the world around them has already
conceived as true.

References

Kuhn D. & Pease M. (2006). Do children and adults learn differently?. Columbia university. Journal of cognition
and development, 7 (3), 279-293.

Mishlove, J. (2011). John mccarthy (1927-2011): artificial intelligence (complete). Thinkingallowedtv.

PBS off book. (2013). The rise of artificial intelligence. PBS digital studios.

Slaughter, D. (2012). Edu 510 the cognitive science of teaching & learning. Retrieved from:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dw8ThKmtwrU&feature=youtu.be

Unit 2
1. In your own words, describe the mental representations of logic, rules, and concepts and
their importance as they apply to your own teaching/training environment,
According to Goodman’s A Rational Analysis of Rule-Based Concept Learning,
“Concepts are mental representations; that is, they are things ‘in the head’ that have
some structure that reflects the world”. To describe concepts: they are constructed to
answer questions, “concepts are not the representation of objects in our mind, but they
take part to the relation between objects in the world and objects in the mind”
(Goodman, 2008).

Specifically while teaching ultrasound, in order to help students reach new concepts
regarding ultrasound-related materials, there are several ways to assist student learning
and connecting materials. While teaching new concepts, it is best to offer a hierarchy of
descriptions because they allow the student to make connections with concepts that they
have already learned. Also, teaching in this way allows students to organize and store
the memory of the new concept with concepts that are from the same domain (Pavel,
2009). Similarly with teaching children at a young age, new or foreign concepts are best
taught to adults at a simple level and then connected to bigger, more complex concepts.
While teaching ultrasound, it is best to start with basic and small concepts, before
incorporating a “big picture” concept of how it all comes together. I think the “Learning
Design” platform described in Pavel’s Concept learning-investigating the possibilities
for a human-machine dialogue, is a great place to start incorporating learning new and
foreign concepts. This platform is: (1) define a problem, (2) build a scenario, (3) define
descriptive vocabulary, (4) incorporate tools to support the student’s learning. After
learning a new concept, logic and rules based on the new concept apply. After concepts
have been acquired, “logic can provide new models of knowledge representation, higher
order reasoning, and social cognition” (Isaac & Szymanik, 2010). Basically, logic is
putting concepts into action. As a teacher, it is imperative to help students apply new
concepts to allow logic in that area to shine through. Rules apply when using logic in
concepts. Typically, these rules are simply “if-then” structured. As discussed in the Unit
2 video (Slaughter, 2012). For example, “if I pass this class, then I only have 10 classes
left before graduating”. I would like to teach groups of concepts that progressively build
on each other and then apply the concepts students learn using logic and rules to real
world scenarios. For instance, within the world of ultrasound, there are many different
areas of involvement. There’s basic anatomy and physiology of the human body, there is
pathology, and there is physician interactions and patient interactions. As rules apply,
for example, one of the rules in the thought process of an ultrasound tech should be, “if I
find this pathology, then what will happen with the patient?” Feedback, intrinsic and
extrinsic, is key to successful concept learning (Pavel, 2009). Specifically for
ultrasound, intrinsic feedback seems to be the best. Intrinsic feedback is the “natural
consequences for an action” (Pavel, 2009). Of course extrinsic feedback is beneficial, but
I believe the best way to ultimately test students on concepts that they have learned in
the classroom is to get them out in real-world scenarios and apply what they have
learned.

2. Based on your readings and research into problem solving, describe the cognitive
processes of problem-solving and how these processes might differ between children
and adults.
While reading McLeod’s Jean Piaget, I found a lot of similarities in child and adult
learning. Of course, there are stages of basic childhood learning but it seems that
learning new concepts is quite similar. Like I discussed above, intrinsic feedback seems
to be the best. I feel like this is very similar to “discovery learning” discussed in the
article about Jean Piaget. “Discovery Learning” is described as the idea that children
learn best through doing and actively exploring (McLeod, 2012). Surprisingly, it seems
that children are better at problem solving than adults are in some cases. Children are
not limited by pre-conceived ideas or thoughts about something (U.C. Berkely, 2014).

References
Goodman, N. D., Tenenbaum, J. B., Feldman, J., & Griffiths, T. L. (2008). A rational
analysis of rule-based concept learning. Cognitive Science, 32(1), 108-154.
doi:10.1080/03640210701802071
Isaac, A. & Szymanik, J. (2010). Logic in cognitive science: bridging the gap between symbolic
and connectionist paradigms. Department of philosophy, Stanford University.
McLeod, S. (2015). Jean Piaget. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from
www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
Pavel, G. (2009). Concept learning-investigating the possibilities for a human-machine
dialogue. Knowledge media institute.
Slaughter, D. (2012). EDUC510 Unit 2 Video Presentation. Retrieved from:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uMX8ZM5s4fc&feature=youtu.be
UC Berkely. (2014, March 6). Kids Outsmart Grown-ups: Berkeley Research. Retrieved
from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bHQ0DemKcEA.

UNIT 3

1. Do you think your results are valid (reflect your learning style)? Why/why not?

I did find that my results were pretty spot on. My main 2 learning styles were visual and

sensing learning. While reading the descriptions of the different learning styles, I

discovered “sensing” as a learning style. Honestly, coming from a mainly medical

background, I had very limited knowledge about different learning styles. I had heard

the visual, auditory and kinesthetic learning styles but hadn’t put much thought into

learning styles. While in college, I discovered the best ways for myself to retain and learn

new concepts and didn’t think about how others were trying to learn (I know how selfish

that sounds, but at that point I had no idea I would be a teacher!) I loved learning about

sensing and how I prefer to learn facts, solve problems with well-established methods
(Felder & Solomon, N.D.). Sensors also don’t like taking courses that have no apparent

connection to the real world. This is especially true for me because I have a terrible time

finding enthusiasm for learning things that don’t pertain to the “big picture” of what I’m

trying to accomplish. I also found it extremely helpful to read through the opposing side

of my personal learning types and consider the areas and ways that I struggle learning.

It was also extremely interesting to think about the vast difference in learning types!

2. What connection(s) can be made between learning styles and brain processing/neural

synapses?

Learning styles and brain processing/neural synapses have many connections and

similarities. Learning styles are related to how an individual grasps a new concept,

stores it in memories, and relates that concept to other subjects or the outside world.

Analogies are what allow and help the brain make connections of new concepts to

persons, places, things, or events. Brain processing is very similar, our brains receive

new information through visual, auditory, taste, smell, or touch. It stores memory,

makes connections to similar knowledge previously learned, and has the ability to

respond to the environment (Chudler, 2001). Are brains are unique to the analogies

we’ve created based on what we’ve learned and perceive in the world. Learning styles are

unique to the person as well.

3. How does this information impact your own educational setting and inform your

practice?

I really enjoyed the video in the materials, Learning Styles Don’t Exist, Professor

Willingham did an excellent job describing the importance of connecting meaning to

what students are learning. I have to admit, I disagree with his comments at the end of
the video stating that “Good teaching is good teaching, and teachers don’t need adjust

their teaching to the individual learning style” (Willingham, 2001). I think

understanding student’s learning styles is extremely important to success as an

educator. As educators, we should constantly be striving to meet students where they

are at individually. All of the materials leading up to this unit support that. It is essential

to meet students where they are fundamentally before adding new concepts. Teachers

should not be stuck in rut of how to “their teaching style”, they should be excelling and

advancing to meet the needs of the student. Offering many avenues of learning is the

best way to allow students to form connections and grasp new concepts. Seeing students

as individuals who have unique brains and learning styles helps teachers strive to meet

those learning needs!

Chudler, Eric 2001. A Computer in Your Head. Odyssey magazine.

Fiedler, R. and Solomon. B. (N.D.). Learning styles and strategies. North Carolina State

University. Retrieved

from http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/ILSdir/styles.h

tm

Willingham, D. (2008). Learning styles don’t exist. Dept. of psychology university of

Virginia. Retrived from

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sIv9rz2NTUk&feature=youtu.be

Blog Post Unit 3

1. Create a blog posting that connects what you have learned in Units 1 - 3 to your own educational setting (present or
future). Discuss the three most important implications of cognitive science based on what you have learned in Units
1-3 on your own teaching/learning setting. This should be written in conversational style or as a personal
reflection. The choice is yours, as long as it still thoroughly addresses the connections. Remember to include
citations and references. Do not copy and paste your DB responses, but if you wish to, craft a new article using the
information you have already discussed in your DB posts for Units 1-3.
2. Add a picture that you create or find on the internet, which visually supports your connection and fits the look and
feel of your blog. (Make sure you respect copyright law. You can search for copyright free or “with attribution”
graphics from http://search.creativecommons.org/).
3. Add at least one additional and helpful resource related to your post…it could be a website, another blog, twitter
post, YouTube video, podcast, etc. Be creative and try to find some new resources to share with your classmates
and your greater learning community.
4. Post the link to your blog in the discussion designated for the blog assignment. Please make sure the link is a
clickable link to ensure smoother cross-referencing.

Learning Styles, Concepts, Analogies.

While considering the implications of cognitive science for my ultrasound

program, three very distinct implications have been highlighted to me over the course of

the last three units. The first is the importance of exploring my own learning style and

knowing my students learning styles. Learning styles revolve directly around a student

and how they learn best. There are different teaching techniques to help reach students

within the way they learn best. Kinesthetic learners need to participate in hand-on

activities and learn best by doing. Visual learners learn best through visual aids and

learn best by writing notes and having images or graphs. Auditory learners learn best

from listening or discussing new concepts (Heritagecollegevideo, 2009). I think

understanding student’s learning styles is extremely important to success as an

educator. As educators, we should constantly be striving to meet students where they

are at individually. Offering many avenues of learning is the best way to allow students

to form connections and grasp new concepts. Seeing students as individuals who have

unique brains and learning styles helps teachers strive to meet those learning needs!
The second implication that I have found to be extremely important is how

students learn new concepts and how to teach them. In order to help students reach new

concepts regarding ultrasound-related materials, there are several ways to assist student

learning and connecting materials. It is best to offer a hierarchy of descriptions while

teaching new concepts because it allows the student to make connections with concepts

that they have already learned. Teaching in this way helps students organize and store

the memory of the new concept with concepts they have previously learned from the

same field (Pavel, 2009). No matter the student’s age, child or adult, new or foreign

concepts are best taught at a simple level and then connected to bigger, more complex

concepts. While teaching ultrasound, it is best to start with basic and small concepts,

before incorporating a “big picture” concept of how it all comes together. I would like to

teach groups of concepts that progressively build on each other and then apply those

concepts to real world scenarios. For instance, within the world of ultrasound, there are

many different areas of involvement. Basic concepts would be: anatomy and physiology
of the human body, ultrasound machine knobology and probe use. More complicated

concepts would be: pathology, ultrasound physics, specializing in one field of ultrasound

(such as Obstetrics and Gynecology, Abdomen, or Vascular), and lastly, physician and

patient interactions. Educators must first provide a fundamental foundation of

understanding for students to build upon to make connections while learning new

concepts (Mcleod, 2015).

This brings me to the last implication that I have found extremely important

while learning about cognitive science. Analogies are what allow and help the brain

make connections to new concepts; to persons, places, things, or events (Slaughter,

2012). Brains are unique to the analogies that have been created based on what has been

learned and perceived in the world. In order for students to learn new concepts, they

must be able to make connections to concepts they have already achieved. Helping

students make those connections is a crucial component for teachers to understand. I

found an excellent article on the Post University Library that discusses the importance

of helping students understand and make connections to concepts that they have

previously learned. It also discusses helpful tips for educators on how to create common

domains between two concepts to help students make analogies. Here is the link to the

article:

http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.postu.idm.oclc.org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=5

e961e91-da30-4840-a188-c85f46e034bf%40sessionmgr102

Understanding the importance of cognitive science in education has been eye-

opening for me. On reflecting on the implications of learning styles, concepts, and

analogies in my teaching methods, I find myself imaging how I will incorporate all of

these areas into my teaching practices. As an educator it is imperative to apply these


implications in my every day teaching order to connect with students and help them

retain and learn new concepts.

References

HeritageCollegeVideo. (2009). Teaching strategies-learning styles. Retrieved

from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oNxCporOofo.

McLeod, S. (2015). Jean Piaget. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from

www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html

Pavel, G. (2009). Concept learning-investigating the possibilities for a human-machine

dialogue. Knowledge media institute.

Slaughter, D. (2012). EDU510 Unit 3 Presentation. Retrieved from

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bZJlAnvbNI0&feature=youtu.be

Vendetti, M. S., Matlen, B. J., Richland, L. E., & Bunge, S. A. (2015). Analogical

Reasoning in the Classroom: Insights From Cognitive Science. Mind, Brain &

Education, 9(2), 100-106. doi:10.1111/mbe.12080

N.A. (2009). VAKT learning styles model. BC ministry of advanced education and

labour market development. Retrieved from

https://mytrainingbc.ca/eslsap/training/mod_2/m2_005.html

Unit 4
1. In what ways do emotions impact a learner's motivation and

teachers'/trainers' attempts to make the game worth playing?

Emotions connect directly to students and their motivation to learn. Emotions are a key

aspect of learning and memory. Emotion and cognition are interdependent to one

another (Pessoa, 2009). Involving emotions within teaching is a key aspect of playing
the whole game. Connecting emotions to learning helps students have a deeper

understanding of and connect to the concept that they are learning. Helping students

connect emotionally to a topic is a key aspect to making the game worth playing.

Connecting emotions to learning supports the aim of playing the whole game which is

supporting deeper understanding. Playing the whole game is never emotionally flat, it

involves discovery, creativity, and curiosity (Perkins, 2009). Emotions and learning are

a huge part of early brain development. As Dr. Daniel Siegel described in the video, We

Feel-Therefore We Learn, experiences are what ignite neuron firing in the brain which

forms concepts.

As a foster mama, I could not help but think of a class that my husband and I took that

described ACES (Adverse Childhood Experiences), and how childhood trauma affects

brain development and restricts learning in developing brains. There are also many

health risks to people who have experiences trauma at a young age. One of the videos

that we watched was very informative.

Here’s the link if you’d like to check it out:

https://www.ted.com/talks/nadine_burke_harris_how_childhood_trauma_affects_he

alth_across_a_lifetime

2. Are you motivated differently as an adult than you were as a child?

I am absolutely motivated differently than I was as a child. Children are motivated

mainly by extrinsic forces, while adults are mainly motivated intrinsically (Houde,
2006). Examples of intrinsic motivators would be self-esteem, quality of life, happiness,

and self-actualization.

3. Within your own setting, where do you see intrinsic motivation come into

play? Extrinsic?

For me personally, I am extremely motivated intrinsically. I am very goal-oriented and

think a lot about the future and accomplishments I wish to obtain. I mainly have

motivation because I put pressure on myself to be better. Extrinsic motivators for me

will always be just the natural consequences to my job. Most of my extrinsic motivators

are negative. For example, if I don’t go to work today than eventually I won’t be able to

pay my mortgage and other bills.

References

Happy & Well. (2012, April 4). Dr. Daniel Siegel 'We feel, therefore we learn' at Mind &

Its Potential 2009. Retrieved

from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iPkaAevFHWU.

Harris, N. (2014). How childhood trauma affects health across a lifetime. TEDMED.

Retrieved from

https://www.ted.com/talks/nadine_burke_harris_how_childhood_trauma_affe

cts_health_across_a_lifetime

Houde, J. (2006). Andragogy and motivation: an examination of the principles of

andragogy through two motivation theories. North Carolina State University.


Perkins, D. N., & ebrary, I. (2009). Making learning whole : how seven principles of

teaching can transform education. San Francisco, Calif: Jossey-Bass.

Pessoa, L. (2009). Cognition and emotion. Indiana University. Retrieved from

http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Cognition_and_emotion

Unit 5
1. What aspects of attention and memory should influence

your anticipation and instruction of these “hard parts”?

According to this unit’s presentation video, adding new knowledge to attention

results in memory (Slaughter, 2012). Aspects that influence my instruction, with this in

mind, would be first, the timing of my instruction and then the length. It’s important to

know the baseline of where my students are at in their learning and build concepts upon

that. I love the description in Sheckley & Bell’s Experience, Consciousness, and

Learning: Implications for Instruction, that described student’s past experience as

“Velcro strips” that instructors can use to adhere new concepts and ideas to. Instructors

must know where their students are at to begin with before moving forward with new

concepts. As in pertains to the “hard parts” of instruction, as Perkins describes, students

grasping the hard parts isn’t accomplished with practice, it involves deconstructing and

reconstructing it with the students (Perkins, 2009). This is most effectively done by

making sure that you have good timing! When, where and how much information is of

crucial importance to students retaining new memory of a subject. Peter Doolittle

described it very well in one of the videos in our unit’s materials, How your “working
memory” makes sense of the world, working memory only lasts about 10 seconds before

we forget it. The only way we can convert working memory into long-term memory is by

“doing something with it”. The average person can only learn about 4 things at a time

(Ted, 2013). A person’s capacity of attention to new knowledge must be taken into

consideration when approaching new concepts. Keeping these issues at the fore-front of

instruction will help ensure that students are able to pay attention to the new topic and

“do something with it”, essentially, transfer it to memory (learning).

2. What teaching strategies would best support these "hard parts" in

relationship to your own learning environment (present or future)?

Teaching strategies that would be the best support in the “hard parts” within my

learning environment would be promoting multidimensional consciousness through

experiences. The best way to do this is enriching student’s consciousness beyond their

personal experience and past experiences. Introducing students to new concepts, new

ideas, and new perspectives, especially with adult learners, is very difficult. Adult

learners tend to have difficultly learning new concepts because they are limited by their

personal history of a situation and history of a circumstance. In order to best support

adult learners in the ultrasound field, it is best to expose them to the “whole-game”,

even the “hard parts”, early. According to Sheckley & Bell’s Experience, Consciousness,

and Learning: Implications for Instruction, involving learners directly in complex

activities allows them to learn implicitly. Learning happens on some levels without

instruction! Students must experience the “hard parts” first hand in repetitive ways. As

instructor, I must expose students to a wide range of different “change of body state”

neural activities. The different dimensions should consist of real life problems,
connections to history and the present, discussions of topics with peers/class.

Experienced-based programs boast participants who are not only proficient in their

performance but also in the complexity of their thought (Sheckley & Bell, 2006).

Another tactic I would implement would be Perkin’s description of ongoing

assessments. I think it’s absolutely beneficial to assess early and often. With adults, this

should involve self-regulation and metacognition. In order to ensure learning has

happened, instructors must ask specific questions that strengthen the student’s

understanding (Perkins, 2009).

Perkins, D. N., & ebrary, I. (2009). Making learning whole : how seven principles of

teaching can transform education. San Francisco, Calif: Jossey-Bass.

Sheckley, B.G. & Bell, S. (2006). Experience, consciousness, and learning: Implications

for instruction. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, Vol. 110.

Wiley Perodicals, Inc.

Slaughter, D. (2012). EDU510 Unit 5 Presentation. Retrieved from

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=waYfslJFUIE&feature=youtu.be

Ted Talks. (2013). Peter Doolittle: How your "working memory" makes sense of the

world. Retrieved from

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UWKvpFZJwcE&feature=youtu.be
1. Create a blog posting that reflects on three (3) of our Unit 4 and 5 concepts/topics in relationship to your own
learning environment (present or future), or reflect on any three (3) connections or insights you have gained in the
past two units. As a concluding point, discuss the implications of "The Game" on that setting and your own
teaching strategies. This may be written in journalistic style or as a personal reflection. The choice is yours, as long
as it still thoroughly addresses the connections. Remember to include all citations and references.

2. Add a picture that you create or find on the internet, which visually describes your connection and fits the look and
feel of your blog. (Make sure you respect copyright law. You can search for copyright free or “with attribution”
graphics from http://search.creativecommons.org/).

3. Add at least one helpful link to a good resource(s) related to your post…it could be a website, another blog, twitter
post, YouTube video, podcast, etc. Be creative and try to find some new resources to share with your classmates
and your greater learning community.

4. Post the link to your blog in the discussion designated for the blog assignment. Make sure the link is a clickable link
to ensure smoother cross-referencing.

While pondering the concepts of unit 4 and 5 of EDU 510, the 3 concepts that I

have related to my personal learning environment the most are emotions, memory and

consciousness.

Emotions are key to learning and memory. They connect students directly to their

motivation to learn (Pessoa, 2009). The aim of playing the whole game is to support

deeper understanding which is done by connecting emotions and learning. Playing the

whole game is never emotionally flat, it involves discovery, creativity, and curiosity

(Perkins, 2009). Involving emotions within my learning environment would consist of

discussing specific real-world scenarios that apply directly to what we are learning. For

example, if we are discussing fetal echocardiography, I would engage student’s emotions

by showing a picture of an actual baby with the specific heart condition we are

discussing. Here is a link to a great article describing the relationship between emotion,

learning and memory:

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01454/full
Learning this last week about long term memory and working memory was very

interesting to me. As an educator, it is essential that I understand how students retain

knowledge. As Perkins describes, students grasp the hard parts by deconstructing and

then reconstructing them (Perkins, 2009). This is most effectively done by making sure

that as an educator you have good timing! When, where and how much information is of

crucial importance to a student retaining new memory of a subject. Peter Doolittle

described the transfer of working memory to long term memory very well in the

YouTube video, How your “working memory” makes sense of the world. He explains

how for the average person’s working memory (WM) only lasts about 10 seconds before

they forget it and how WM is only converted to long-term memory “by doing something

with it” (Ted, 2013). Here are some ways to “do something” with working memory:

discuss it, apply it directly to a concept that the student already knows, write it down, or

create something with it. This list can go on and on! Knowing the baseline of students

learning is important to know as an educator because new concepts are built upon

already learned concepts. The description in Sheckley & Bell’s, Experience,

Consciousness, and Learning: Implications for Instruction, describes student’s past

experience as “Velcro strips” that instructors can use to adhere new concepts and ideas

to (Page 47).
Consciousness by definition is a person's awareness or perception of something

(English Oxford, 2018). In many cases with adult learners, there are misperceptions of

topics because of past experiences. Part of the “hard parts” included in teaching adults is

changing the consciousness of an adult’s misperception of a topic. Experience is at the

core of consciousness and consciousness is at the core of cognitive function (Sheckley &

Bell, 2006). Sheckley & Bell describe several strategies that I found very helpful in

aiding adults in opening their consciousness to new concepts. Offering new experiences

to the learner is the key to helping them form new concepts, perceptions, and ideas

about a topic. Involving learners directly in complex activities allows them to learn

implicitly. Learning happens on some levels without instruction! Experienced-based

programs boast participants who are not only proficient in their performance but also in

the complexity of their thought (Sheckley & Bell, 2006).


Specifically for ultrasound, one of the “hard parts” that will need to be

deconstructed and constructed again will be a student’s misperception of what being an

ultrasonographer consists of. All jobs have areas that are not fun or that a person does

not like; the same is true for ultrasound. Helping students work through second-

guessing their career choice and constructing a positive outlook and enthusiasm for the

whole game of ultrasound will be among some of the hard parts of teaching it.

References

English oxford living dictionaries. (2018). Consciousness. Oxford press. Retrieved from

https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/consciousness

Perkins, D. N., & ebrary, I. (2009). Making learning whole: how seven principles of

teaching can transform education. San Francisco, Calif: Jossey-Bass.

Sheckley, B.G. & Bell, S. (2006). Experience, consciousness, and learning: Implications

for instruction. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, Vol. 110.

Wiley Perodicals, Inc.

Ted Talks. (2013). Peter Doolittle: How your "working memory" makes sense of the

world. Retrieved from

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UWKvpFZJwcE&feature=youtu.

Tyng, C., Amin, H., Saad, M., & Malik, A. (2017). The Influences of Emotion on Learning

and Memory. Frontiers in psychology. Retrieved from

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01454/full
Unit 6

1. If you could contribute to the cognitive scientists’ exploration:

2. What could you tell them about the impact of social contexts on your
development? Describe a social context/system in which you developed and the
knowledge you acquired/applied in that context.

3. Do you think "hidden games" might be present in any of these contexts/systems?

A microsystem, as described by Bronfenbrenner, is “a pattern of activities, social

roles, and interpersonal relations experienced by the developing person”

(Bronfenbrenner, 1994, p. 39). When thinking of my personal microsystem, I had a lot

of face-to-face time with my parents and nanny as a child. My brother and I were

homeschooled through Junior high which greatly impacted me in some negative and

positive aspects. There was a lot socially that I had to learn at a late age because I had

missed out on social interactions within a classroom/group setting. I had grown up with

my brother who was a year younger than me, so I did have some child-to-child

interaction, but really not within a group or class setting. There were some benefits,

however, to homeschooling from a scholastic standpoint. I was able to learn and work

ahead at my own pace. This has promoted a life-long self-motivation, and, I believe, a

life-long love of learning. This developmental choice by my parents within the

preliminary processes of my life has allowed me to “self-manage” well within a didactic

setting. We were also able to travel more with my parents and have learning

opportunities outside of a class-setting. When I did go to a public school, the

mesosystem between my relationship with home and school changed. A mesosystem is

the “links and processes taking place between two or more settings containing the
developing person” (Bronfenbrenner, 1994, p. 40). It was a difficult transition to say the

least. Scholastically, I was doing fine, but there were many “hidden games” that I was

unaware of and didn’t understand. I had little to no experience within this type of

setting. Within high school, specifically on a social level, there are hidden games about

how to be comfortable in your own skin, make friends, and be accepted. As an insecure

teenager, this was a very difficult time for me because I didn’t know the hidden games

and just wanted to fit in. As described by Perkins, “research shows that what people

‘know’ tends to be tainted by a number of serious misconceptions that can influence

daily choices” (Perkins, 2009, Page 135). I definitely made some poor choices in this

stage of my life because I was trying to figure out the hidden game.

One of the effects of the exosystem within my personal development would

actually result in what is my current career. My mom is an ultrasound tech and parents

own an ultrasound company. As a child my mom would come home from work and talk

about her day in detail. This affected me at a young age and I decided to follow in her

career path early in life. An exosystem is the “linkage and processes taking place

between two or more settings, at least one of which does not contain the developing

person, but indirectly influence processes with the immediate setting” (Bronfenbrenner,

1994, p. 40). This can also describe a portion of the macrosystem in my development. If

my mom hadn’t done ultrasound, who knows what career choice I would have made?

The macrosystem consists of the patterns of culture within the developing person’s life.

Examples of macrosystems would be: belief systems, bodies of knowledge, material

resources, customs, opportunity structures, and life course options (Bronfenbrenner,

1994). Other examples of my macrosystem are that both of my parents went to college,
and were able to offer me the opportunities go to college. Also, the belief system that

was implemented in my home as a child, is one that I follow today.

In reading Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Models of Human Development, I agree

completely that human development is greatly impacted by the ecological factors

surrounding a person’s early processes.

References

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1994). Ecological models of human development. In International

Encyclopedia of Education, Vol. 3, 3nd Ed. Oxford: Elsevier. Reprinted in:

Gauvain, M. & Cole, M. (Eds.) Readings on the development of children, 2nd Ed.

(1993, pp 37-43). NY: Freeman.

Perkins, D. N., & ebrary, I. (2009). Making Learning Whole: How Seven Principles of

Teaching Can Transform Education. San Francisco, Calif: Jossey-Bass.

Sheckley, B.G. & Bell, S. (2006). Experience, consciousness, and learning: implications

for instruction. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, Vol. 110.

Wiley Perodicals, Inc.

Unit 7

1. How can the presence of illusions complicate cognitive sciences’ efforts to expand
mental representation models as a dynamic system and our instructional efforts with
children and adults?
The human brain is one of the most complex dynamic systems. It changes over time and is

affected by one’s environment (Booth, 2012). As a person gets older, the experiences they have

within the world make a lasting impression on their brain, how they form concepts and use logic.
According to the World-Mysteries.com, “Cognitive ‘illusions’ rely on stored knowledge about the

world (depth, rabbits, women) and are also under some degree of conscious control (we can generally

reverse the perception at will)” (2011). Characteristics of a person and the environments they are

exposed to produces their behavior (Booth, 2012). With adults, there can be many misdirected

perceptions of a topic simply based on their prior experiences (McLeod, 2015). While educating

adults, the teacher must first understand the fundamental structure of what the adult knows about the

topic and then address the misconceptions that they may have. These misconceptions fall under the

“hard parts” that Perkins (2009) describes. Addressing and debunking misconceptions that students

have can be a difficult process that takes the educator forming a junior game that gives the learner

new ways to have experience that will redirect their misconceptions.


1. What outside resources did you find that assisted you with some of the concepts for this week? Post at least one and
describe how it represents dynamic systems.

http://www.canr.msu.edu/od/uploads/files/PD/Facilitating_Adult_Learning.pdf

I came across this document when doing some searching for outside resources and it addresses a lot

in regard to the dynamic systems of adult learners. It discusses their motivation, their experiences,

and learning styles.

References

Booth, A. (2012). Dynamic Systems Theory. Retrieved from

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qyOQyw7ws-c&feature=youtu.be

McLeod, S. (2015). Jean Piaget. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from

www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html

Cognitive Illusions. (2011). Retried from http://old.world-mysteries.com/illusions/sci_illusions3.htm

BLOG POST #3
For your final blog posting, I would like you to reflect on what you have learned in
our class and how it impacts and influences (a) your present or future
professional learning environment, (b) the world of education and training, and
(c) your personal learning journey. The purpose of reflective writing is to give you an
opportunity to examine your learning experience, integrate it, and make it relevant for
your own purposes.

With this in mind, you should focus your attention on writing about the three (3) most
important connections or influences of your learning experience in the last few units of
this class to your personal and professional learning. You will need to decide what is
interesting and important to you and cover those three (3) connections. Reflection is
not the same as writing a summary. You will summarize your experience only to help
your reader understand what you are trying to convey. Although the content will be
based on what you think and how you connect the concepts, there should also be
depth, evidence of understanding, and broad integration of ideas. There are many ways
to do this, but the list below may assist you in getting started:

As we wrap up the final week of EDU 510, The Cognitive Science of Teaching &

Learning, I feel excited about all of the new information! Also, quite honestly,

overwhelmed as to how to apply it all in respect to my vision of an ultrasound program. I

began working on my final project which has helped me ponder the importance of

playing the whole game and how to incorporate it into my curriculum. The entirety of

the dream I have of writing a curriculum seems rather daunting. I think of how all the

pieces must come together and it seems impossible at times. Each class I take gives me

more and more pieces to make my vision of writing a successful, excellent ultrasound

program possible. While considering the topic of cognitive science, this class could have

been a year-long! There are so many aspects to how people learn and how connections

are formed. I am thankful for the eight weeks that we had to discuss in detail some

excellent topics of cognitive science which have broadened my perspectives of student

learning, as well as my own. Cognitive science must be at the core of my ultrasound

program. The dynamics I will especially focus on are: playing the whole game,
discovering the hard parts, and ultimately, helping students find their love of learning so

they can be life-long learners!

Within my ultrasound program, teaching student to play the whole game is

essential. Without experience and a “big picture” vision, students will be unable to be

successful in a real-world environment. I’ve thought a lot about how to incorporate the

whole game of ultrasound into junior versions that are palatable for my students. Junior

versions will include: reading about a topic, followed by discussion and real-life scenario

applications, and then actual application with lots of hands-on scanning time! While

taking this class, my eyes were really opened up to the hard parts of ultrasound. The

hard parts won’t necessarily be scholastically-related, there are many misconceptions of

the what being an ultrasonographer consists of. I saw this first hand, not realizing it at

the time, when a student in my class dropped out during her senior year. She was

unaware of the many difficult aspects to what our job consists of. I never want my

students to be unaware of the hard parts. Understanding them, is a key aspect in

mastering the whole game of ultrasound. Lastly, in regard to the ultrasound program,

the connection that I want to influence is learning the game of learning. I desire to foster

an environment where students understand that their learning doesn’t stop when they

graduate, it is only the beginning! I hope that my students will love and strive to learn as

much as do. The beauty of ultrasound is that one can never know it all! I will expect

students to be in the drivers’ seat of their learning while in the program in hopes that

they will be proactive, vivacious learners in the work force.


Figure 1: Childhood. (Kishor, 2017).

In regards to how understanding cognitive science affects the world of education

and training: educators will only be successful if they strive to meet students where they

are. To put it plainly, students are completely formed by their experiences within the

world and the environment in which they are raised (Booth, 2012). Sheckley & Bell

(2006) describe it best, “Experience is at the core of consciousness” (p. 43). Teachers

must begin with a baseline of prior experience before they can begin to add additional

knowledge. Teaching in this way is most efficient but is difficult because of limited

teacher time and resources. I do wonder how teachers can effectively accomplish this,

especially at junior high, or high school age. It seems impossible for a teacher to fully

grasp a students’ background or history of experiences to meet them where they are at

individually. I thought the article added in the link below offered interesting approaches
and strategies to get to know students. There are examples of quizzes and games

included that may help educators discover cues of how to best understand a student’s

history and environment. See the link below to read the article:

http://www.d.umn.edu/~hrallis/courses/3204fa04/assignments/eg_assignment

s/brianne_us_eg.htm

While learning about cognitive science, I have gleaned a lot for my own personal

learning journey. In learning about playing the whole game, I have often asked myself

what hard parts I am not addressing or what the hidden games are within different

educational and work-related contexts. I have found that playing the whole game relates

to much more than just in a teaching context. There are life-lesson implications related

to personal and work relationships along with their dynamics. I think that playing the

whole game can actually be translated to all areas of life. For example: I want to play the

whole game of taking each class while obtaining my M. Ed. I want to discover areas that

are individually difficult, uncover the hidden games within each situation, transfer

knowledge from other contexts of my experiences, ask questions and collaborate with

people who are more experienced than I am, reflect on my motivations in difficult times

(like being sleep deprived and strapped for time with a new foster baby!), and always

remember that “most of what we need to learn still lies ahead of us” (Perkins, 2009, p.

211).

EDU 510 has been excellent and enlightening. I am excited to apply this

knowledge to the whole puzzle of my personal learning as well as my ultrasound

program.

References
Booth, A. (2012). Dynamic Systems Theory. Retrieved from
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qyOQyw7ws-c&feature=youtu.be

Kishor, N. (2017). Childhood. Flickr. Retrieved from

http://www.d.umn.edu/~hrallis/courses/3204fa04/assignments/eg_assignment

s/brianne_us_eg.htm

Perkins, D. N., & ebrary, I. (2009). Making Learning Whole: How Seven Principles of

Teaching Can Transform Education. San Francisco, Calif: Jossey-Bass.

 In your own words, summarize your understanding of the class concepts or


connections,
 Use your own experiences to support your perspective and position,
 Question elements or conclusions that you did not connect with,
 Feel free to draw your own conclusions, and
 Identify any remaining questions in order to have a point of reference while completing
your degree program.
Additional Requirements:
1. Add a picture that you create or find on the internet, which visually describes your
connection and fits the look and feel of your blog. (Make sure you respect copyright
law. You can search for copyright free or “with attribution” graphics
from http://search.creativecommons.org/).
2. Add at least one helpful link to a good resource(s) related to your post…it could be a
website, another blog, twitter post, YouTube video, podcast, etc. Be creative and try to
find some new resources to share with your classmates and your greater learning
community.
3. Post the link to your blog in the discussion designated for the blog assignment. Make
sure the link is a clickable link to ensure smoother cross-referencing.

Unit 8
1. Perkins notes that, “for long lives in a world of change, the game of learning could be the most
important game to learn.” How could that “game of learning” be enhanced based on what you
have learned about cognitive sciences and teaching?
Understanding the factors of how people learn and retain memories is a key aspect

to the “game of learning”. For me personally, understanding how I learn and retain

information has been critical in my learning process. I specifically remember my first

semester of college and struggling to figure out how I could retain the mass amount of

information that I was expected to learn. It’s upsetting that it took me this long,

honestly, I don’t think that it was because my educators in high school hadn’t tried to

help me understand my learning style or didn’t offered me advise on how to play the

game of learning. It had to come from my personal growth as a learner. I had to find my

desire to learn and motivation internally to ultimately be successful in playing the game

of learning. Understanding this about myself has changed my views on teaching also.

Especially as I teach adult learners, I must help intrinsically motivate them. For life-long

success, the game of learning must be self-discovered and intrinsically motivated.

4. The 21st Century Skills website FAQ page states "to successfully face rigorous higher
education coursework, career challenges and a globally competitive workforce, U.S. schools
must align classroom environments with real world environments by fusing the three Rs and
four Cs".
How does what you just learned in our class reflect on this?
The 21st Century Skills in many ways parallels Perkins (2009) view of playing the

whole game. Educators must integrate real-life junior versions of real-world scenarios to

prepare students in the classroom. This entails playing the whole game of real world

work environments. The 4Cs are incorporated into the whole game as in pertains to the

fundamental subjects. For example: (1) communication (make the game worth playing,

working on the hard parts, uncover the hidden game), (2) collaboration (learn from the

team), (3) creativity falls under learning the game of learning as well as make the game

worth playing, and (4) critical thinking requires finding the hidden games and working
on the hard parts. I’m sure there’s other connections that can be made to Perkins (2009)

book throughout these 4Cs and how to help students play the whole game while

teaching the fundamental subjects.

3....and to revisit our first discussion: Knowing what you know now - what aspects of the "mind"
are the most important in your field of teaching/learning?
While considering the aspects that include the mind (logic, rules, concepts,

analogies, and images), I believe that analogies are the most important aspect to my

personal learning environment. Students must be able to make connections to what they

already know to form new concepts. This is especially true when teaching adults, and

can a challenge also because adults may have misconceptions from previous personal

experiences.

It has been a wonderful 8 weeks learning with you fellow classmates! I wish you

the best on your final project and in your pursuit of your M. Ed.!

Melissa

References

Perkins, D. N., & ebrary, I. (2009). Making Learning Whole: How Seven Principles of

Teaching Can Transform Education. San Francisco, Calif: Jossey-Bass.

P21. (2016). Framework for 21st Century learning. Retrieved

from http://www.p21.org/storage/documents/docs/P21_framework_0816.pdf.