CHAPTER 2: CELL AS A UNIT OF LIFE CELLS Basic unit of living thing. Differ in size, shape & function.

2 types: - Animal cells & Plant cells. ANIMAL CELLS Variable / irregular shapes. General structure: -

Characteristics & functions of each animal cells’ parts: Function - Support the cell Thick layer of cellulose - Maintain the shape of Cell Wall around cell membrane cell Controls what goes in & Cell Membrane Thin layer around the cell out of cell Consists of nucleus & Has the functions of Protoplasm cytoplasm nucleus & cytoplasm Place where chemical Watery, jelly-like & process (metabolism) Cytoplasm colourless mixture in cell occurred Controls all of activities Contains chromosomes Nucleus in cell - Cell sap contains water that dissolves sugar & Large space that contains salt Vacuoles cell sap - Cell sap makes cell firm (taking water) or makes cell wilt (losing water) Chlorophyll traps light Tiny discs shape that energy to make food Chloroplast contain chlorophyll (photosynthesize) Tiny grains of starch in Represent stored food Starch Granules cytoplasm SIMILARITIES & DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ANIMAL & PLANT CELLS Similarities of both cells: - Have nuclei. - Have cell membranes. - Have cytoplasm. Differences between both cells: - Plant cells have cellulose cell wall, chloroplasts, starch granules, cell sap (in vacuoles). - Vacuoles in plant cells are larger compared to animal cells. - Plant cells have fixed shapes while animal cells have variable shape. Cell Part Characteristic

Characteristics & functions of each animal cells’ parts: Cell Part Cell Membrane Protoplasm Cytoplasm Nucleus Vacuoles PLANT CELLS Regular / fixed shapes General structure: Characteristic Thin layer around the cell Consists of nucleus & cytoplasm Watery, jelly-like & colourless mixture in cell Contains chromosomes Small but numerous tiny spaces Function Controls what goes in & out of cell Has the functions of nucleus & cytoplasm Place where chemical process (metabolism) occurred Controls all of activities in cell Stores water, liquids & food particles

UNICELLULAR ORGANISMS Made up of one cell only. Example: Amoeba, bacterium, euglena, paramecium, yeast. Very tiny & can only be seen under microscope. Most of unicellular organisms are microorganisms.

MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS Made up of more than one cell. Example: Earthworm, hydra, spirogyra Various in sizes. Some are tiny & can only be seen under microscope while others are big & clearly visible.

CELLS, TISSUES, ORGANS & SYSTEMS IN THE HUMAN BODY Organization of cells in human body: Cells Tissues Organs Systems Human Tissue is made up of groups / layer of similar cells. Every cell in a tissue performs the same types of function. Organ is made up of groups of different types of tissues. Different types of tissues perform different functions. Body system is made up of various types of organs that working together to perform a main body function.

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