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The most abundant neurotransmitter in d brain is


B. Glutamate

C. Dopamine

D. Acetylcholine

E. Norepinephrine

2.Which of the fflg concerning the interaction of the axon is true:

a. It's idiosyncratically and perhaps randomly organised.

b. Excitatory inputs are generally located at the distal ends of dendrites

c. The axon is innervated by chemical contacts with surrounding neuronal cells

d. Inhibitory inputs are generally located at the proximal ends of the dendrites and around the soma

3.The following are contradictions to or precautions to use of TCAs:

A.Acute Myocardial Infarction

B.Presence Intraventricular or bundle block

C.Unexplained black out

D.Elevated Liver Enzymes


4. On the Pharmacology of Hypnosedatives

A.Most hypnosedative enhance the action of GABA

B.Benzodiazepines increase the amount of time spent in stage 3 & 4 sleep

D.Increase REM latency

E.Decrease in amount of time spent in REM sleep

5.Antipsychotics can be used in the following conditions



C.Alzheimer's disease

D.Tourette syndrome


F.Some personality disorders

6.About Memory:

a. Echoic memory hold visual information for 1-2 secs.

b. Iconic memory holds auditory info for 0.25s.

c. Corresponding memory does not include sight

d. The working memory consist of the executive control system but not the visuospatial sketch pad.

e. Picture completion & matrix reasoning are compo

7.Component of paper circuit


B.mamillary bodies

C.Dendate gyrus



8.About neuroleptic malignant syndrome

A.BP always elevated

B.Has a 90% mortality

C.Incidence is 10-30% of those taking antipsychotics

D.Fever is due to inflammation there is Hemoglobinemia

E.BP can be raised or low

F.10% mortality

G.1% of those taking antipsychotics

H.Fever due to impaired sweating

7% of observation falls within 3SD. Concerning the Gaussian curve.I. 12. Interval scale has arbitrary zero point and unit distance. hypersomnia n hypersexuality 10. Ratio scale is the highest level of measurement.Myoglobinaemia 9. 60% of observation falls within 1SD. About Kline Levin syndrome eg of dysomnia Eg of parasomnia Hyperphagia Hypersexuality hypersomia Klein Levin syndrome is a dysomnia characterised by hyperphagia. 13Desynchronised sleep . Which of the following is true about sleep Increase acetyl choline decrease REM Decrease acetyl choline promotes REM Increase dopamine promote wakefulness Decrease dopamine promote sleep Increase norepinephrine promotes wakefulness n REM 11. 99. Ratio scale has true zero point. Almost all values lie within 3SD of the mode. 95% of observation falls within 2SD. Gender and age groups are examples of ordinal scale.With regards to scale. Nominal scale ranks orders of mild-severe.

About receptors Only on cell surface Selectively bind specific substance(s) Only proteins Have specific physiological effe Mechanisms of change in receptor sensitivity to a ligand include Phosphorylation Concealment Reduced synthesis Structural modification Reduced uptake The following r types of genetic probes Radioactive ELISA Western blot Fluorescent Hybridized The following r basis for belief formation Observational Inferential Learning .Same as REM sleep Same as paradoxic sleep Involves cortical synchronization Involves hippocampal desynchronization 14.

Informational Descriptive Lesions of the basal ganglia include Parkinson's disease Huntington's disease Sydenham's chorea Wilson's disease Gaucher's disease Glia in the CNS Ependymal cells Satellite cells Microglia Schwann cells Oligodendrocytes About the ventricles Mesodermal in origin Presence of5th ventricle 3rd located in metencephalon 4th located in part of mesencephalon There is 125ml of csf in each ventricle Two median apertures in the 4th ventricle For the purpose of nationals there is a 5th ventricle if you see am for exams The following can cause normal pressure hydrocephalus except Meningitis .

It is safe to co-administer it with MAOI About Serotonin Syndrome. benzodiazepines. cardiovascular collapse. Rigidity and hyperthermia. autonomic instability. coma and even death are all features of the syndrome. Anticonvulsants. Cause prominent blockage of Norepinephrine reuptake. . cooling blankets and chlorpromazine can be used for the treatment. status epilepticus.mesocortical tract projects from its cell bodies in the ventral tegmental area to most areas of the cerebral cortex and the limbic system The tuberoinfundibular tract projects from its cell bodies in the arcuate nucleus and the periventricular area of the hypothalamus to the infundibulum and posterior pitutary It is selectively metabolised by MOA-b About SSRIs Clinical efficacy is associated with 70-80% receptor occupancy. Have weight gain as one of its side effects. Delirium. Have prominent cardio-toxic effects. Other features could include shivering. hyperreflexia. agitation. cyproheptadine.Venous thrombosis Schizophrenia mood disorder Tumor Concerning Dopamine The nigrostraital DA originates from its cell body in the substantia nigra and terminates in the main ventral part of the corpus striatum The mesolimbic. diarrhea.

Menstrual disturbances are due to blockage of the meso-limbo-cortical pathway. Parkinsonism results from blockage at the Nigro-striatal pathway. Pimozide is very potent as 1mg is equivalent to 100mg chlorpromazine. 10-15mg Loxapine is equivalent to 100mg chlorpromazine. Molindone is more potent than Pimozide. It is the same as SSRIs withdrawal syndrome. Akathisia can be protracted and may result in Tardive Akathisia. About the potency of antipsychotics. Akathisia is a subjective feeling of physical restlessness. Acute dystonia is commoner with Butyrophenones and piperidines.Nitroglycerine. tongue protrusion and grimacing are features of A About yerkes-dodson law Stress is always bad for the body Stress is always good for the mind Low levels of stress may improve performance High levels of stress may provide motivation . About side effects of Antipsychotics. Haloperidol Thiothixene are less potent than chlorpromazine. mechanical ventilation and paralyzing agents could also be used. Tardive dyskinesia is commoner in women and those with diffuse brain pathology. In Acute dystonic reaction patients describe a sensation having Ants in their pants. About side effects of antipsychotics. Akathisia involve inability to keep still and pacing up and down. Torticolis. Trifluoperazine is less potent than Thioridazine. Infertility due low sperm count ant reduced libido is possible.

reinforcement elicits response. b .. In classical conditioning. reinforcement Follows a response. B. the following are true or false A.. D. conditioned stimulus produces unconditioned response after Association with unconditioned stimulus D. In operant conditioning. Accommodation is a form of Association Inhibitory amino neurotransmitters in the brain include the following a..Excessive stress damages only the mind About psychological conflicts leading to stress The approach-approach conflict involves choosing between 2 methods of achieving the same objective The approach-approach conflict involves deciding between two equally enticing choices The approach-avoidance conflict involves choosing between an enticing and non-enticing choices The approach-avoidance conflict involves deciding whether to partake in something that has enticing and non-enticing features The avoidance-avoidance conflict may be likened to having to make a hypothetical choice between the devil and the deep blue sea concerning learning. C.. glutamate c. Valinic acid About psychodynamic theory of personality development Oedipus complex occurs in the 3rd stage Oral fixation may result in extremely dependent personality The latency stage doors not end until adulthood Children mostly play with the opposite gender during the genital stage Displacement of the Oedipus/Electra complex occurs in the genital stage The following are invariant mental disorders . learning could be defined as profit in from experience E. G-amino butyric acid. Amino acid glycine. N-Methyl-D-aspartate E..

Folate B. Docosahexaenoic acid The following improve the level of abstract thought except? A. It produces disorders of motor learning E. It does initiate movement and coordinate precisely B. Thiamin E. B6 E. A. Riboflavin D.Damage to it can cause Paralysis D. It does not receives input from Spinal cord C. B3 The following can be used to assess Working Memory except? A. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy About cerebellum. Digit symbol coding D. Computerized Topography B. Arithmetic Commonly used Neuroimaging techniques in Psychiatry include the following except? A. Digit span B. B2 C. Hypotonia and Resting tremor are associated with cerebellar lesion .Schizophrenia Bipolar disorder Delirium tremens Agoraphobia Anorexia nervosa Koro ADHD Antisocial personality disorder Those that don't vary are called invariant and include Schizophrenia spectrum disorders Mood disorders Intellectual impairment Substance use disorders Organic medical disorders Following may be essential in the Rx and prevention of depression. Photon Emission tomography D. Pyridoxine C. Magnetic resonance imaging C. the following statements are true? A. Single Positron Emission Computed Tomography E.Ataxia. B9 B. Letter-Number sequencing C. B1 D. Block design E.

STM C.Working memory Concerning memory Glutamate is an important neurotransmitter The temporal lobe handles working memory The frontal lobe is responsible for conversion of STM to LTM The limbic system is of no consequence Epilepsy can be associated with memory deficits One of the ffg help regulate thyroid hormone? A. Zinc E.LTM E.The following are types of memory except A. Selenium B.Iodine The following are true about perception Object in a distance appear bigger Blind people can perceive Amputated limb can be perceived Superimposed objects are smaller Taller objects appear bigger Thinking Inductive reasoning is based on theory of probability. When we think deductively we are accurate When we think inductively we are accurate Logical reasoning are inductive and true Forgetting can occur through Interference . Manganese C.Haptic unit D. Iron D. Sensory unit B.

Storage decay Encoding failure Repression Distraction Case control study For investigating cause of dx Not important in rare dx Prospective study Retrospective study Requires control Application of PCR HLA typing Forensics Prenatal diagnosis Infectious diseases Detection of chromosomal translocation Regarding sleep Dopamine decrease promote wakefulness ACH increase but not decrease induces NREm sleep ACH decrease suppress Rem sleep Stage 1 & 2 sleep are slow wave sleep Presence of saw tooth wave wave pattern in stage 2 sleep Is located behind the pons and medulla HaS a ratio of 1:8 with the brain .

It is covered by falx cerebri In aldult weighs 1500g It is the largest part of the brain stem The following are part of the limbic cortex Uncus Dentate gyrus Hippocampus Amygdala Fornix Septal cortex Striatum Nc accumbens Primary olfactory cortex includes Hippocampus Parahippocampal gyrus Septal nucleus Olfactory tubercle Anterior perforated space concerning connections of the limbic system Hippocampus to Amygdala interconnection is the least important intrinsic circuit It receives direct somatosensory afferents Output is through hippocampus and mamillary body .

Papez circuit involves the anterior thalamus It receives serotonergic afferents fron the midbrain the following are part of the original reversing circuit of papez Anterior thalamus Mamillary bodies Cingulate gyrus Dentate gyrus Fornix Amygdala Kluver Bucy sydrome Visual apathy Physical blindness Hyper aggression Docility Hyperorality Paraphilia Uncinate fits Not associated with temporal lobe epilepsy Visual aura Dejavu Schizophrenia like behaviour changes Involvement of the uncus Concerning endocrine disorders and their relationship to mental health .

Thyroid disorders are the commonest endocrine disorders associated Thyroid disorders modulate the expression of affective disorders Thyroid disorders may present like anxiety disorders T3 supplementation may accelerate response to antidepressants in acute depression Behavioral problems in young people is associated with cortisol imbalance About hormones and sexual behavior Oestrogen increases a females willingness to accept a male's proposal Progesterone enhance a female's attractiveness Progesterone can increase a female's sexual receptivity Progesterone can reduce a female's sexual receptivity Progesterone enhances paternal behavior About hypothyroidism Associated with depression Cognitive impairment can be present Psychotic symptoms in severe cases Myxedema mimics melancholic depression The following are associated with anxiety states Hypothyroidism Hyperthyroidism Menopause Phaeochromocytoma Conn's syndrome .

.Cushing syndrome Hypoglycemia Hyperglycemia Hyperinsulinaemia about risk and probability Odds ratio is for retrospective study Relative risk is for prospective studies OR >1 means the event is more likely in the group of interest compared with the control/referred OR of zero implies that the probability of the event is the same b between the group of interest and control RR is a good approximation for a population when studying rare diseases About regression Linear regression is an example Simple linear regression is used for categorical variables ANOVA increases risk of you're 2 error when used for multivariate statistics multiple linear regression can include categorical variables Logistic regression is used when the outcome variable is categorical About statistical error Type 1 error is alpha error Type 2 error is rejecting a true null hypothesis Beta error is failure to reject a false null hypothesis Alpha error is accepting a false alternate hypothesis Pls reminder abeg incase it comes out. Answers needed ..

Are isolated from bacteria Application of PCR A.. Infectious diseases . its primarily state independent Answers needed. Specific endonuclease B. Its a special kind of biomarker D.The following genes have been implicated I schizophrenia A. Restriction enzymes A.FABP7 D. prenatal diagnosis D. its a psychiatric concept B. it is heritable C.COMT gene. CHRNA7 C. Endophenotype A. palindromes C. HLA typing B.DTNBP1 E... its associated with illness in population E... RELN B. forensics C. Usually recognizes sequences at 4 or 6 bases D..

Manganese E. ruffini C. Zinc The following are non-encapsulated receptors A.muscle spindle D. Iron D. kruase bulbs B.E. Vit E B. Selinium C. detection of chromosomal translocation **Neurotransmitters coreleased **Health seeking behaviour ** Alzheimers **Down syndrome **Amnesia ** Brain tracts for neurotransmitters Which of the following vitamins serve as antioxidant A. Hair cells **Autosomal recessive and dorminant ** Autism **Neurotransmitters especially dopamine **Fugue ** Vitamins esp thiamine .

Student T Kruskal walis Man Whitney U **Corpus callosum Inborn metab disorders. Gauchers Fragile X Lesch Nyan Phenylketonuria . D. E.**Functional neuroimaging types [22/03 19:16] +234 803 287 4335: **Pataus syndrome xters [22/03 19:18] +234 803 287 4335: **Eg of neuro peptides ** Component of reflex arc Damage to the dominant parietal lobe causes : A. C.dyscalculia. **Conduct disorder :** Ascending serotonin system Facial nerve palsy. B.getting lost in familiar environment. Finger agnosia ** Derivatives of rhombencephalon **Sick role Non parametric tests. Left to right disorientation. Dysgraphia. Pseudobulbar palsy Nose deviation .

Osmoreceptor C. First described by Pavlov C.Mmenongioma C. Extinction may occur etc ***Questions for Riboflavin. Aka instrumental learning B. Mechanoreceptor etc Types of Glioblastomers A. Discrimination etc Operant conditioning A.Organoreceptor B. First described by Skinner B. Thymine etc Classical condition A.Oligodendrocytoma Which of the vitamins is Sensitive to light.Melanoma B.Loss of lacrimation Loss of taste sensation to the post 2/3rd of the tongue Functional imaging Pet Spet Skull xray CT Magnetic neuroimaging The following are types of receptors? A. Thiamine on Korsakoff and Burning feet Factors for considering society classes Area of residence Tribalism Education *finance Education Synthesis of Noradrenaline Tyrosine is a precursor Tryptophan is a precursor Dopamine is an intermediate Serotonin is an intermediate .Riboflavin Other options Niacin. A.

Norepinephrine Examples of Excitatory Amino acids. Mesolimbic C.women B.Depth perception etc The ffg are Superficial reflex. D. Biceps-C5. Dopamine D. Abdominal B.simplest Examples of inhibitory NTs ** About Nitric oxide ** Ectacy.. Colour vision B. Nigrostiatal B.dishonest etc The ffg SSRIs can activate CYP450.. Jaw jack-CN VII B.E..leaders C.. Plantar etc The ffg are correctly matched? A. Dihydroxyphenylalanine B.then questions follow ** The following neurotransmitters are secreted together. C.2 stems were twisted ** There was a question about SSRI and activation of Cyt450 **Patau syndrome ** Inborn errors of metabolism Persuasive communicator are A..6 C. A. Triceps-... Mesocortical Etc Primitive reflexes Sucking Plantar * * * At birth the following perception are present? A. Ankle etc Which of the ffg NTs are Tyrosine derived except? A.Fluvoxamine . B. Cremasteric C. Glutamate-Glycin. A.. Serotonin E.A.Paroxetin ....Rebexetin B.. Epinephrine C..substanceP ** Read indept about Abraham Maslow hierarchy of needs. Glutamate.* The ffg are long dopaminergic tracts? A.

Amphetamine.Hypothermia.BP instability etc Rigidity Urinary incontinence A question *Compared Vascular dementia to Alzheimer's dementia* options are a bit lengthy but easy..On statistics... Two stems on increase in homocysteine B1.. **Alcohol use & presence of Lilliputian hallucinations Neuroleptic malignant syndrome. .. Cocaine and so on A question on Second messenger...repeated twice. B...SD curve and mean The following are neuroglia cells: a) Schwann cells b) Ependyma cells c) Satellite cells d) Microglia e) Astrocytes :Vitamins linkage to Increase Homocysteine? Cant remember how was asked specifically Classification of neurotransmitters.. All or non phenomenon B it's patient's awareness of symptoms bla bla bla Drugs dat increase dopamine.. About insight A. Decreased BP **Psychosis and hallucinatory experiences? **Organic psychotic disorder.....Pallor C. B9&B12 : Present in REM sleep? A.there was A..Muscle atonia B.

height 12 months–3 years Strangers.Fragile X C.Gossophageal and facial! Bupropion and 5HT relationship There was a clinical question that has de Gilles Tourette syndrome as its option E. etc About xmosomes containing.H--syndrome 2 questions on Taste and CN supply of the tongue. Serotonin... exons.Tardive dyskinesia viz Up regulation The ffg are Autosomal recessive A. death Adulthood Neurotic/stress-related disorders Don't forget Emotion Aggression & Attachment examples of qualitative nd quantitative data eg of measure of dispersion *** note that d 4th stage is most decisive(erik eriksen) the example on mean. both.. codon Components of cortical limbic sx Hippocampus Fornix Amygdala The ffwing are correct Newborn Visual cliff 6–12 months Darkness. separation 3–6 years Learn fear responses. illness.Hurler syndrome B. entrons..mode median in d update came out verbatim . thyroid.can anyone remember! A question on hormones in depression:. animals 6–12 years Social shame Teenage onwards Failure.

Sigmund freud.median eg affected by extreme value or not calculation came out on chi square example of scales of measuremnt:eg ordinal scale -socioeconomics status **read about dementia well ** about their developmental theory ** read about Jean piaget.shock nd denial-anger-bergaining-depression- acceptance. it was twisted example was given .specifically on Id on ERIK ERIKSON:question came out from the psychosocial theory i mean socially most decisive stage @ stage 4 note the 7th stage dat is period of middle adulthood.mourning question came out on KUBLER -ROSS 5 stages of death.questions were lifted from the book : on basic psychology:question came out on learning theory.mode. bereavement.nd dat the oda features on Sigmund freud:question came out on psychosexual theory.accronym will b helpful : read this part(human growth nd development)from revision note.definition of mean.note the age.there was a question like dat dat was lifted from KAPLAN verbatim Read about attachment and bonding question came out dat attachment is only to the mother(false) attachment provides security for d mother(false)is for the baby attachment is same as bonding(false) note dat attachment is fully established by 6/12 question came out on stranger anxiety:note d period is btw 8 months-1yr question came out on separation anxiety read abt impact of bereavement nd parental divorce on children question came out on effects of prematurity : read abt GRief .Erik Erikson well on jean Piaget:question came out on sensorimotor stage.

d. ?internal carotid Cavernous sinus .read abt it Mind theory:lifted from KAPLAN also Reliability yerke dodson law(arousal/anxiety nd performance) question on it Central anticholinergic effects of typical antipsychotic drugs include: Dry mouth Convulsions Blurred vision Urinary retention Constipation The anastomosis btwn antr and postr circulation is by: it well. Antr communicating artery.Action potential.question came out dat availability of tryptophan is d rate limiting in serotonin synthesis(true). Postr comm artery.matrilemeal Attitude:cognitive dissonance.note the types of descent:bilateral. Middle cerebral art.lifted from KAPLAN Dem like snri. all dat unusual classes of antidepressants on neurotransmitter:question came out on examples of biogenic amine NT acetylcholine nd ALZHEIMER some questions came out on Dopamine NT note the examples of neuropeptide NT on neurophysiology:there were terrible questions on synapses. Meta-analysis.question on it questuon came out on Randomized controlled trial. c.neurons.patrilineal.questions were lifted from it on social sciences:kinship. b.a question on it Validity.the various was badly twisted.u can read the update for dat bye nd large read NT from KAPLAN.

.. More in schizophrenia of high society class c.. Basilar artery. corresponding of lateral ventricle The diencephalic stuctuew that produce melanin Allo cortex correspongmding. Wais . Draw a picture test.. More in rural areas due to recession d. MMPI. A.. area 6. Ventricles. .7. .. The name is synonymous to: a..All dose communicating artery Major blood supply to the pons Artery that supplies d pons. There will be no change B.8 Cell* Eric Erickson stages. The membrane potential will Increase C.. b. c. Pavlov hierarchy of need Gene expression Characteristics of neurotransmission / synapse Thurstone theory of intelligence Suicide. The membrane will become more excitable . B.. low socioeconomic.atomic b. : Christiana morgan. A. Aperception test. Pre central gyrus . a. read all materials u can find on it : If the membrane is permeable to K+ and permeability to Na+ is constant.

Parasympathetic has its ganglia in @ .. Optic nerve C. acetylcholine Serotonin in humans alone not in animal 90% in got In chromatin crlls [ Opiods... Occulomotor nerve B. In pituitary Already 20 types is known Inhibitory neuropeptide Mechanism of antipsychotic action [: Melatonin ingestion Eeg patterns of cocaine ingestion Structural abnormality. E...D. Thoracic nucleus b. Facial nerve D.. Glosopharyngeal nerve E. Thoracic spine b. Cervical spine Cervical nucleus The preganglionic of sympathetic nerve. Vagus nerve ... Action potential will be initiated. Etc One of the following doesnt have parasympathetic function A..

Tectospinal tract D... Transient emotional tone C. Hypothalamus B Epithalamus .pulvina is located at A... I tink social psychology n like 2-3areas DT I cnt remember now.... Pituitary E.genetics 10qs. Rubrospinal tract C.. Anterior part of thalamus B.neurochemistry.... A. Sustained emotional tone B... Westenblot m northern blot question from nuerogenetics Neuroanatomy 20qs.neurophysiology.. postetior part of thalamus C. : Which of the following is not an example of exrrapyramidal Tract A. Cirticospinal tract B.... E... Post central gyrus D.... Answer is A One of The following is part of mesenchephalon A... Synonymous with Mood D...psycholological assessment 26qs. Affect is. Vestibulospinal tract E..

Purkinje layer C.... The structure in the medial wall of4th ventricle Nucleus of the 3rd can at the level of 3rd cranial nerve About voltage gated channels Which of the following is not part of the cells of the cerebellar cortex A. Answer C Components of grief A. Tegmentum D.. Shock B. Stellate cells .. Denial C.... E.... Depression Cavernous sinuses Nuclei in the cerebellum The cerebellum connect to the brain stem by. Molecular layer B.. Comfront E. Granular layer D.C. Anger D..