You are on page 1of 197

Mohd Faisol Mansor

faisolsmkkgv@gmail.com
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY Page 1

CHAPTER 2 : THE STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM Page 5

CHAPTER 3 : CHEMICAL FORMULAE & EQUATIONS Page 22

CHAPTER 4 : PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS Page 54

CHAPTER 5 : CHEMICAL BONDS Page 79

CHAPTER 6 : ELECTROCHEMISTRY Page 100

CHAPTER 7 : ACIDS & BASES Page 130

CHAPTER 8 : SALTS Page 148

CHAPTER 9 : MANUFACTURED SUBTSANCES Page 175


IN INDUSTRY
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 1

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY

Chemistry Careers
Is the study of the Uses of Chemical Doctor
composition, Chemical Engineer
Salt (NaCl) Geologist
structure, properties
Vinegar (CH3COOH) Biochemist
& interactions of
Tiles/Cement (CaCO3) Pharmacist
matter.

Chemical Industry
Contribution of Chemical
Petroleum Industries
Food
 Financial
Chemical Substance
 Job opportunity
Electronic
 Development of
Agriculture
country

Scientific Method : systematic method used to solve problems in Science.

Making Making Identifying Making


Observation Inference Problem Hypothesis

Collecting Planning Controlling Identifying


Data an Variables Variables
Experiment

Interpreting Making Writing


Data Conclusion Report
1
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 1

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS

2
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 1

Classify each of the following element into their group.


Hydrogen, H Oxygen, O Zinc, Zn
Chlorine, Cl Potassium, K Silver, Ag
Sodium, Na Carbon, C Phosphorus, P
Magnesium, Mg Sulphur, S Fluorine, F
Aluminium, Al Lithium, Li Barium, Ba
Copper, Cu Bromine, Br Lead, Pb
Neon, Ne Argon, Ar Calcium, Ca
Helium, He Iron, Fe Iodine, I

Metal Atom Nonmetal Atom

3
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 1

Classify each of the following element/compound into their group.

Sodium chloride, NaCl Hydrogen gas, H2


Chlorine gas, Cl2 Lead(II) oxide, PbO
Aluminium oxide, Al2O3 Silver bromide, AgBr
Carbon dioxide, CO2 Naphthalene, C10H8
Sugar, C6H12O6 Copper(II) iodide, CuI2
Oxygen gas, O2 Magnesium oxide, MgO
Zinc chloride, ZnCl2 Methane, CH4
Ethanol, C2H6O Water, H2O

Ionic Compound Molecule


(Metal Atom + Nonmetal Atom) (Nonmetal Atom + Nonmetal Atom)

4
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 2

CHAPTER 2
THE STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM

Element
Matter Substance that Compound
consists of only one Substance that contains
Anything that
type of atom. two or more elements
occupies space & has
that are chemically
mass.
bonded together.
Kinetic Theory of Matter
 Matter is made up of
Physical State
Type of Particles tiny & discrete particle.
 Particle vibrate, moving
 Solid
Atom & collide with each other.
 Particles move randomly.  Liquid
Molecule
 There are forces between  Gas
Ion the particle. Stronger the
forces, particle close to
each other. Subatomic Particles
Atom  Higher the temperature,
higher the kinetic energy Electron
Smallest particle of of particle.
an element that can Proton
take place in chemical Neutron
reaction.
Molecule
Diffusion
A group of two or Is a random movement
Ion more atoms which are between different
Is a positive charged chemically bonded particles from high
together. concentration to lower
or negative charged concentration.
particle.

5
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 2

Atom, Molecule & Ion

+ Molecule (ELEMENT)
Atom Atom

+ Molecule (COMPOUND)
Atom Atom

+ + - + - Ionic Compound
Cation Anion

Example: Formation of WATER Water Molecule

+
Oxygen Atom Hydrogen Atom

A Glass of Water

6
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 2

Diffusion in Solid: Test tube is filled with a hot jelly and copper(II) sulphate crystal.

Difussion Rate:

Reason:

Diffusion in Liquid: A beaker is filled with water & potassium manganate (VII).

Difussion Rate:

Reason:

Diffusion in Gas: A gas jar is filled with few drop of bromine liquid.

Difussion Rate:

Reason:

7
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 2

States Particles Forces between Particles Motion


Arrangement particles

Held together Vibrate and rotate at


SOLID
very strong fixed position
Packed closely in
orderly manner

Vibrate, rotate and


Strong but weaker move through liquid &
LIQUID
than solid collide against each
other
Packed closely not in
orderly arrangement

Vibrate, rotate and


GAS weak
move freely
Far apart from each
other

Solid Liquid Gas


Shape : Shape : Shape :

Ability to be Ability to be Ability to be


compressed: compressed: compressed:

8
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 2

Change in the State of Matter

Changes in the Heat Energy

9
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 2

Heating of Naphthalene Cooling of Naphthalene

1. Why is solid naphthalene, C10H8 not heated directly with Bunsen burner?

2. Why is water bath used to heat the naphthalene?

3. During the cooling of naphthalene, explain why


a) the boiling tube must place in a conical flask?

b) the naphthalene must stirred continuously?

4. What happens to the temperature of naphthalene during


a) melting? Give a reason.

b) freezing? Give a reason.

5. The melting point of sugar is 184oC. The melting point of sugar cannot be
determined using same apparatus. Why? What apparatus can be used
instead?

10
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 2

The Heating Curve of Naphthalene

Temperature (oC)

B C

Time (min)

Why the temperature


Melting Point Physical State
increase from A to B?
When solid is heated,
Is the temperature at AB =
heat energy is
which a solid changes into .
a liquid at a particular BC = This cause particles to
pressure. kinetic energy
CD = and vibrate .

Why the temperature Why the temperature


remains constant at BC? increase from C to D?
Heat energy Also known as When liquid is heated,
by the particles is used to latent heat of heat energy is
overcome the force .
between the particles so fusion. This cause particles to
that the solid turn into kinetic energy
liquid. and move .

* label the melting point of the naphthalene in the diagram above as MP.

11
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 2

The Cooling Curve of Naphthalene

Temperature (oC)

F G

Time (min)

Why the temperature


Freezing Point Physical State
decrease from E to F?
When liquid is cooled,
Is the temperature at EF =
heat energy is
which a liquid changes .
into a solid at a particular FG = This cause particles to
pressure. kinetic energy
GH = and move .

Why the temperature Why the temperature


How to avoid supercooling?
remains constant at FG? decrease from G to H?
Heat energy When solid is cooled,
to the surroundings is heat energy is
exactly same as the heat .
energy released by This cause particles to
particle to form the kinetic energy
forces to become a solid. and vibrate .

* label the freezing point of the naphthalene in the diagram above as FP.

12
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 2

The Atomic Structure


[Draw the atomic model & briefly explain]

(1) John Dalton


(1766 – 1844)

(2) J.J. Thomson


(1856 – 1940)
(3) Ernest Rutherford
(1871 - 1937)

(5) James Chadwick


(1891 - 1974)

(4) Neils Bohr


(1885 - 1962)

13
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 2

Subatomic Particles of an Atom

NEUTRON
Symbol : n
PROTON
Relative electric
Symbol : p charge : 0

Relative electric Relative mass: 1


charge : +1

Relative mass: 1 ELECTRON


Symbol : e

Relative electric
NUCLEUS
charge : -1
Proton + Neutron
Relative mass: 0.0005
NUCLEON NUMBER =

Proton + Number of
Number Neutron Definition

Nucleon number is
NEUTRAL ATOM the total number of
Number of proton proton and neutrons
is equal to the in its atom.
number of electron.
Atom Q has a proton number
of 11 and a nucleon number of
23. How many protons, Definition
electrons and neutrons are
Proton number is the
present in the atom?
number of protons in
its atom.

14
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 2

Symbol of Elements

Element Symbol Element Symbol Element Symbol Element Symbol

Hydrogen Carbon Sodium Sulphur

Helium Nitrogen Magnesium Chlorine

Lithium Oxygen Aluminium Argon

Beryllium Fluorine Silicon Potassium

Boron Neon Phosphorus Calcium

23
11 Na A fluorine atom has 9 protons and
10 neutrons. What is the proton
number and nucleon number of
Also represented the atom? Represent the atom in
the form of .
by sodium-23

Bromine-80 has 45 neutrons.


What are the proton number
and nucleon number of the
atom? Represent the atom
in the form of .

15
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 2

Nucleon Proton No. of No. of


Element
ISOTOPES Number Number Neutron Electron
Hydrogen-1 1
Atoms of the same Hydrogen-2
element has same Hydrogen-3
proton number but Carbon-12 6
different number of Carbon-13
neutron Carbon-14
Oxygen-16 8
Why isotopes element Oxygen-17
has similar chemical Oxygen-18
properties? Chlorine-35 17
Chlorine-37
Bromine-80 35
Bromine-81

To determine
To determine the the age of
rate of absorption artifact.
of fertilisers by
plants.
To detect leaks in
USES OF underground
ISOTOPES petroleum pipe.

To detect the
location of a
tumor in the brain.
To treat
cancer.
16
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 2

The Electronic Structure of an Atom

Maximum number
For atoms with The last shell filled
of electron filled in
more than 20 with electrons
the shell:
electrons, the third known as the
1st = 2 electrons outermost
shell can filled up
2nd = 8 electrons
to 18 electrons. occupied shell.
3rd = 8 electrons
4th = 8 electrons

Electron Write the electron


Valence Electrons Configuration arrangement for
potassium & state the
Chlorine has valence electrons.
Electrons in the
proton number 17.
outermost
occupied shell.

17
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 2

Electron
Proton Number of Configuration
Element Electronic Structure
Number Electron & Valence
Electrons

Hydrogen 1

Helium 2

Lithium
3

Beryllium
4

Boron
5

Carbon
6

Nitrogen 7

18
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 2

Electron
Proton Number of Configuration
Element Electronic Structure
Number Electron & Valence
Electron

Oxygen 8

Fluorine
9

Neon 10

Sodium 11

Magnesium 12

Aluminium
13

19
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 2

Electron
Proton Number of Configuration &
Element Electronic Structure
Number Electron Valence
Electron

Silicon 14

15
Phosphorus

Sulphur
16

Chlorine
17

Argon
18

20
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 2

Electron
Proton Number of Configuration &
Element Electronic Structure
Number Electron Valence
Electron

Potassium 19

Calcium 20

21
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 3

CHAPTER 3
CHEMICAL FORMULAE & EQUATIONS

Relative Atomic Mass Relative Molecular Mass Relative Formula Mass

Average mass of Average mass of Average mass of


one atom of an one molecule one formula unit
element 1/12 x mass of an 1/12 x mass of an
1/12 x mass of an atom of carbon-12 atom of carbon-12
atom of carbon-12

Example
2) The relative atomic mass of helium,
nitrogen and sulphur is 4, 14, and 32
1) Element mercury is 20 times
respectively.
heavier than helium. Determine
a) How many times is one atom of
the relative atomic mass of
sulphur heavier than one atom of
element mercury if the relative
helium.
atomic mass of helium is 4.

b) Calculate the number of atoms of


helium that have the same mass as two
atoms of nitrogen.

Relative Molecular Mass (RMM)/Relative Formula Mass (RFM) can


be calculated by adding up the Relative Atomic Mass (RAM).

+ -
Water, H2O Sodium Chloride, NaCl
RMM = RFM =
22
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 3

Example

1. Calculate relative molecular mass of the following element or compound.

a) Oxygen gas, O2 b) Chlorine gas, Cl2

c) Carbon dioxide, CO2 d) Ammonia, NH3

e) Iodine gas, I2 f) Sulphur dioxide, SO2

g) Sugar, C6H12O6 h) Ethanol, C2H6O

2. Calculate relative formula mass of the following compound.

a) Magnesium oxide, MgO b) Potassium iodide, KI

c) Calcium carbonate, CaCO3 d) Copper(II) nitrate, Cu(NO3)2

e) Aluminium oxide, Al2O3 f) Zinc Sulphate, ZnSO4

g) Hydrated magnesium sulphate, h) Hydrated copper(II) sulphate,


MgSO4.7H2O CuSO4.5H2O

23
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 3

The Mole, Number of Particles, Mass & Volume of Substances.

NUMBER OF MASS OF
PARTICLES SUBSTANCES

One mole of substance The mass of one mole


contains of the substance
6.02 x 1023 equal to the mass of
particles. 6.02 x 1023 particles.

MOLE
Avogadro Constant Amount of substance
NA = 6.02 x 1023 Molar Mass
that contains as many
= RAM/RMM/RFM
particles as the number
mole = no of particles of atoms in exactly 12 g mole = Mass
NA of carbon-12 Molar Mass

No of particles
= mole x NA Mass = mole x MM

VOLUME OF GAS
One mole of any gas
always has the same
volume under the
same temperature & Molar Volume
pressure. 1) Room Condition
= 24 dm3 mol -1
2) At S.T.P
= 22.4 dm3 mol -1
Unit conversion
1 dm3 = 1000 cm3 mole = Volume
Molar Volume

Volume = mole x MV

24
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 3

Example 1

1. A closed glass bottle contains 0.5 mol of oxygen gas, O2.


a) How many oxygen molecules, O2 are there in the bottle?

b) How many oxygen atoms are there in the bottle?

2. Find the number of moles of hydrogen gas, H2 containing

a) 3.01 x 1024 hydrogen molecule, H2

b) 6.02 x 1023 hydrogen atoms.

3. Find the number of moles of molecules in a sample containing 9.03 x 1023


molecules of carbon dioxide, CO2.

4. A sample contains 6.02 x 1025 molecule of water. How many moles of water
are there in the sample?

25
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 3

5. A container contains 1.806 x 1023 oxygen molecules, O2. A sample of 0.5 mol
of oxygen gas, O2 is added to the container. How many molecules are there
altogether in the container?

6. Calcium is needed for the formation of bones and teeth. How many calcium
ions are there in a serving of cereal that contains 0.007 mol of calcium ions?

7. A beaker contains 0.1 mol of zinc chloride, ZnCl2

a) Calculate the number of moles of chloride ions in the beaker.

b) Find the total number of ions in the beaker.

26
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 3

Example 2

1. What is the mass of

a) 0.1 mol of magnesium? [RAM: Mg, 24]

b) 2.408 x 1023 atoms of magnesium? [RAM: Mg, 24 ; NA = 6.02 x 1023]

2. How many moles of molecules are there in 16 g of sulphur dioxide gas, SO2?
[RAM: O, 16 ; S, 32]

3. How many chloride ions are there in 27.2 g of zinc chloride, ZnCl2?
[RAM: Cl, 35.5 ; Zn, 65 ; NA = 6.02 x 1023]

27
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 3

4. What is the mass of carbon that contains 6.02 x 1023 carbon atoms?

5. What is the mass of

a) 0.01 mol of ammonia gas, NH3?

b) 6.02 x 1024 nitrogen molecules, N2?

6. How many moles of molecules are there in 2.8 g of carbon monoxide, CO?

28
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 3

Example 3

1. What is the volume of 1.2 mol of ammonia gas, NH3 at STP?


[Molar volume: 22.4 dm3 mol-1]

2. How many moles of ammonia gas, NH3 are present in 600 cm3 of the gas
measured at room conditions? [molar volume: 24 dm3 mol-1]

3. Calculate the volume of the following gases.

a) 0.3 mol of oxygen gas, O2, at room condition.

b) 4 mol of helium gas measured at STP.

4. Calculate the number of moles of 48 dm3 of chlorine gas, Cl2, at room


condition.

29
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 3

Example 4

1. What is the volume of 12.8 g of oxygen gas, O2, in cm3, at STP?


[RAM: O, 16 ; Molar volume: 22.4 dm3 mol-1]

2. How many molecules of carbon dioxide, CO2, are produced when 120 cm3 of
the gas is released during chemical reaction between an acid and a
carbonate at room conditions?
[Molar volume: 24 dm3 mol-1 ; NA = 6.02 x 1023]

3. What is the mass of 0.6 dm3 of chlorine gas, Cl2 at room condition?
[RAM: Cl, 35.5 ; Molar volume = 24 dm3 mol-1]

4. 3 dm3 of an unknown gas has a mass of 6.0 g at room conditions. Find the
molar mass of the gas.

30
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 3

CHEMICAL FORMULAE Magnesium Nitrate Water


A representation
of a chemical Mg(NO3)2 H2O
substance using
letters and
subscript numbers.
[state the number of particles consist in the substance above]

Molecular Empirical
Compound n
Empirical Formula Formula Formula

Water H2O
The simplest
number ratio of Ethene CH2 2
atoms in the Glucose C6H12O6
compound.
Molecular Formula = (Empirical Formula)n

Molecular Formula RMM of Molecular Formula


=n
The actual number RMM of Empirical Formula
of atoms that are
present in the
The empirical formula of a compound
compound. is CH2. Its relative molecular mass is 42.
Find its molecular formula.
[RAM: H, 1 ; C, 12]

Copper(II) Oxide

Magnesium Oxide
31
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 3

To determine Empirical Formulae of Magnesium Oxide

1. Why is the magnesium ribbon cleaned with


sand paper before used?

2. Name the white fumes produced.

3. State the reason:


a) covering the crucible with its lid as soon as
the magnesium start burning.
b) raising the lid of the crucible at intervals
during heating.
c) heating, cooling & weighing are repeated
until constant mass is obtained.

4. Why is it important not to let any white fumes


escape from the crucible?

To determine Empirical Formulae of Copper(II) Oxide

1. Why do we start off with copper(II) oxide instead of allowing copper to react with
oxygen in the air in this experiment?

2. How do you test that the air in the tube has been removed completely?

3. Explain what will happen if we burn excess hydrogen gas without removing the air
completely in combustion tube?

4. Why we need to continue the flow of hydrogen gas after the heating of copper(II)
oxide?

5. Why do we need to repeat heating, cooling and weighing until constant mass is
obtained?

32
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 3

Example 1

a) A sample of aluminium oxide contains 1.08 g of aluminium and 0.96 g of


oxygen. What is the empirical formula of this compound? [RAM: O, 16 ; Al, 27]

Element Al O

Mass of Element (g)

Number of Mole

Ratio of Mole

Simplest Ratio

Empirical Formula of Aluminium Oxide =

b) 0.20 g of calcium reacts with fluorine to give 0.39 g of calcium fluoride. Find
the empirical formula of the calcium fluoride produced. [RAM: F, 19 ; Ca, 40]

33
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 3

c) Find the empirical formula of a compound that consists of 32.4% of sodium,


22.6% of sulphur and 45.0% of oxygen. [RAM: O, 16, Na, 23 ; S, 32]

d) 60 g of aluminium sulphide contains 38.4 g of sulphur. Find the empirical


formula of the compound. [RAM: Al, 27 ; S, 32]

34
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 3

Example 2

a) Butane has empirical formula of C2H5 and relative molecular mass of 58. Find
its molecular formula.

b) Ethanoic acid is an important ingredient of vinegar. The empirical formula of


this acid is CH2O. Given that its molar mass is 60 g mol-1, find its molecular
formula.

c) 6.24 g of element X combines with 1.28 g of oxygen to produce a compound


with an empirical formula of X2O. What is relative atomic mass of X?
[RAM: O, 16]

35
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 3

d) Element Y react with oxygen to produce a compound with molecular


formula YO3. Given that the mass of 1 mol of the compound is 80 g.
Determine the relative atomic mass of element Y.

e) Determine the percentage composition by mass of water in hydrated


copper(II) sulphate, CuSO4.5H2O. [RAM: H, 1 ; O, 16 ; S, 32 ; Cu, 64]

f) Due to its high nitrogen content, urea, CO(NH2)2 is commercially used as


fertilizers. Calculate the percentage composition by mass of nitrogen in urea,
CO(NH2)2. [RAM: H, 1 ; C, 12 ; N, 14 ;O, 16]

36
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 3

Metal cation
atom [+ve ion]
Ionic Ionic
compound formulae

Nonmetal anion
atom [-ve ion]

Zinc cation Ionic


Zn Zn2+ formulae
Zinc oxide
ZnO
Oxygen anion
o O2-

silver cation Ionic


Silver formulae
chloride

chlorine anion

37
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 3

Charge Name of Cation Formula of Cation


Hydrogen ion H+
Lithium ion Li +
Sodium ion Na +
1+
Potassium ion K+
Silver ion Ag +
Ammonium ion NH4 +
Barium ion Ba 2+
Calcium ion Ca 2+
Magnesium ion Mg 2+
2+ Zinc ion Zn 2+
Copper(II) ion Cu 2+
Iron(II) ion Fe 2+
Lead(II) ion Pb 2+
Aluminium ion Al 3+
3+
Iron(III) ion Fe 3+

Charge Name of Anion Formula of Anion


Hydroxide ion OH -
Chloride ion Cl -
Fluoride ion F-
1-
Bromide ion Br -
Iodide ion I-
Nitrate ion NO3 -
Oxide ion O 2-
2- Sulphate ion SO4 2-
Carbonate ion CO3 2-
3- Phosphate ion PO4 3-

38
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 3

Formula of Formula of
Name of Cation Name of Cation
Cation Cation
Hydrogen ion Hydrogen ion
Lithium ion Magnesium ion
Sodium ion Barium ion
Potassium ion Potassium ion
Silver ion Iron(II) ion
Ammonium ion Ammonium ion
Barium ion Zinc ion
Calcium ion Aluminium ion
Magnesium ion Lithium ion
Zinc ion Iron(III) ion
Copper(II) ion Sodium ion
Iron(II) ion Calcium ion
Lead(II) ion Silver ion
Aluminium ion
Copper(II) ion
Iron(III) ion Lead(II) ion

Formula of Formula of
Name of Anion Name of Anion
Anion Anion
Hydroxide ion Phosphate ion
Chloride ion Bromide ion
Fluoride ion Oxide ion
Bromide ion Carbonate ion
Iodide ion Iodide ion
Nitrate ion Chloride ion
Oxide ion Sulphate ion
Sulphate ion Nitrate ion
Carbonate ion Hydroxide ion
Phosphate ion Fluoride ion

39
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 3

Formula of Formula of
Name of Cation Name of Cation
Cation Cation
Hydrogen ion Hydrogen ion
Lithium ion Lithium ion
Sodium ion Sodium ion
Potassium ion Potassium ion
Silver ion Silver ion
Ammonium ion Ammonium ion
Barium ion Barium ion
Calcium ion Calcium ion
Magnesium ion Magnesium ion
Zinc ion Zinc ion
Copper(II) ion Copper(II) ion
Iron(II) ion Iron(II) ion
Lead(II) ion Aluminium ion
Aluminium ion Iron(III) ion

Iron(III) ion Lead(II) ion

Formula of Formula of
Name of Anion Name of Anion
Anion Anion
Hydroxide ion Hydroxide ion
Chloride ion Chloride ion
Fluoride ion Fluoride ion
Bromide ion Bromide ion
Iodide ion Iodide ion
Nitrate ion Nitrate ion
Oxide ion Oxide ion
Sulphate ion Sulphate ion
Carbonate ion Carbonate ion

Phosphate ion Phosphate ion

40
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 3

Formula of Formula of
Name of Cation Name of Cation
Cation Cation
Hydrogen ion Hydrogen ion
Lithium ion Lithium ion
Sodium ion Sodium ion
Potassium ion Potassium ion
Silver ion Silver ion
Ammonium ion Ammonium ion
Barium ion Barium ion
Calcium ion Calcium ion
Magnesium ion Magnesium ion
Zinc ion Zinc ion
Copper(II) ion Copper(II) ion
Iron(II) ion Iron(II) ion
Lead(II) ion Aluminium ion
Aluminium ion Iron(III) ion

Iron(III) ion Lead(II) ion

Formula of Formula of
Name of Anion Name of Anion
Anion Anion
Hydroxide ion Hydroxide ion
Chloride ion Chloride ion
Fluoride ion Fluoride ion
Bromide ion Bromide ion
Iodide ion Iodide ion
Nitrate ion Nitrate ion
Oxide ion Oxide ion
Sulphate ion Sulphate ion
Carbonate ion Carbonate ion

Phosphate ion Phosphate ion

41
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 3

Example

Construct the chemical formula for each of the following ionic compound.

a)Magnesium hydroxide b) Silver iodide c) Potassium Bromide

d) Zinc nitrate e) Sodium carbonate f) Aluminium oxide

g) Copper(II) iodide h) Iron(II) sulphate i) Magnesium oxide

j)Calcium carbonate l) Ammonium phosphate m) Sodium hydroxide

n) Zinc bromide o) Lead(II) nitrate p) copper(II) sulphate

42
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 3

Example

1. Write the formula of the following substances.

a) Potassium iodide = 1) Nitric acid =


b) Magnesium oxide = 2) Lead(II) iodide =
c) Carbon dioxide = 3) Copper(II) nitrate =
d) Copper(II) oxide = 4) Zinc sulphate =

e) Lead(II) bromide = 5) Iron(II) chloride =


f) Calcium chloride = 6) Iron(III) chloride =
g) Hydrochloric acid = 7) Chlorine gas =
h) Copper(II) sulphate = 8) Potasium nitrate =
i) Hydrogen gas = 9) Silver nitrate =
j) Water = 10) Magnesium bromide =

k) Sulphuric acid = 11) Zinc chloride =

l) Silver chloride = 12) Sodium hydroxide =

m) Potassium nitrate = 13) Ammonia =


n) Calcium carbonate = 14) Iron(II) sulphate =
o) Aluminium oxide = 15) Lead(II) oxide =
p) Oxygen gas = 16) Carbon monoxide =
q) Oleum = 17) Magnesium sulphate =
r) Ammonium sulphate = 18) Ammonium nitrate =
s) Sodium chloride = 19) Potassium hydroxide =

t) Zinc oxide = 20) Lithium oxide =

43
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 3

Example

1. Write the formula of the following substances.

a) Potassium iodide = 1) Nitric acid =


b) Magnesium oxide = 2) Lead(II) iodide =

c) Carbon dioxide = 3) Copper(II) nitrate =

d) Copper(II) oxide = 4) Zinc sulphate =

e) Lead(II) bromide = 5) Iron(II) chloride =


f) Calcium chloride = 6) Iron(III) chloride =
g) Hydrochloric acid = 7) Chlorine gas =
h) Copper(II) sulphate = 8) Potasium nitrate =

i) Hydrogen gas = 9) Silver nitrate =


j) Water = 10) Magnesium bromide =

k) Sulphuric acid = 11) Zinc chloride =


l) Silver chloride = 12) Sodium hydroxide =

m) Potassium nitrate = 13) Ammonia =


n) Calcium carbonate = 14) Iron(II) sulphate =
o) Aluminium oxide = 15) Lead(II) oxide =
p) Oxygen gas = 16) Carbon monoxide =
q) Oleum = 17) Magnesium sulphate =
r) Ammonium sulphate = 18) Ammonium nitrate =
s) Sodium chloride = 19) Potassium hydroxide =

t) Zinc oxide = 20) Lithium oxide =

44
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 3

Example

1. Write the formula of the following substances.

a) Potassium iodide = 1) Nitric acid =


b) Magnesium oxide = 2) Lead(II) iodide =

c) Carbon dioxide = 3) Copper(II) nitrate =

d) Copper(II) oxide = 4) Zinc sulphate =

e) Lead(II) bromide = 5) Iron(II) chloride =


f) Calcium chloride = 6) Iron(III) chloride =
g) Hydrochloric acid = 7) Chlorine gas =
h) Copper(II) sulphate = 8) Potasium nitrate =

i) Hydrogen gas = 9) Silver nitrate =


j) Water = 10) Magnesium bromide =

k) Sulphuric acid = 11) Zinc chloride =


l) Silver chloride = 12) Sodium hydroxide =

m) Potassium nitrate = 13) Ammonia =


n) Calcium carbonate = 14) Iron(II) sulphate =
o) Aluminium oxide = 15) Lead(II) oxide =
p) Oxygen gas = 16) Carbon monoxide =
q) Oleum = 17) Magnesium sulphate =
r) Ammonium sulphate = 18) Ammonium nitrate =
s) Sodium chloride = 19) Potassium hydroxide =

t) Zinc oxide = 20) Lithium oxide =

45
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 3

Example

Name the following ionic compound by using their IUPAC name.

Ionic Ionic
Name Name
Formula Formula
NaCl KI

MgO BaSO4

Cu(NO3)2 CaCO3

Al2O3 FeCl3

ZnCl2 LiOH

CuO FeSO4

AgNO3 NaOH

MgBr2 ZnO

PbSO4 PbI2

NaBr
Na + Br -
Sodium Bromide

Sodium bromide

46
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 3

CHEMICAL EQUATIONS
a) Qualitative Aspect

K(S) + H2O(l) KOH(aq) + H2(g)

Reactant Product

Meaning: Solid Potassium react with water liquid to give


potassium hydroxide solution and hydrogen gas
Note: 1) Able to classify reactant and product.
2) Able to balance the equation.

Example 1

For each equation, identify the reactant(s), product(s) and the state of each
of them. Then, balance the equation.

a) H2 (g) + O2 (g) H2O (l)

b) CuO (s) + HCl (aq) CuCl2 (aq) + H2O (l)

c) Cl2 (g) + NaBr (aq) NaCl (aq) + Br2 (l)

d) Mg (s) + HCl (aq) MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g)

47
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 3

Example 2

Write a balanced equation for each of the following reactions.

a) Carbon monoxide gas + oxygen gas Carbon dioxide gas

b) Hydrogen gas + nitrogen gas Ammonia gas

c) Aluminium + iron(III) oxide Aluminium oxide + iron

d) Ammonia gas react with oxygen gas to yield nitrogen monoxide gas and
water.

e) Silver nitrate solution is added to calcium chloride solution. Silver chloride


precipitate and calcium nitrate solution are produced.

f) When solid zinc carbonate is heated, it decomposes into zinc oxide powder
and carbon dioxide gas.

48
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 3

Example 3

1. Construct balanced chemical equations:

a) Magnesium react with oxygen will produce magnesium oxide.

b) Sodium metal react with chlorine gas will produce sodium


chloride.

c) Potassium oxide react with water will produce potassium


hydroxide.

d) Lithium metal react with water will produce lithium hydroxide


and hydrogen gas.

e) Zinc metal react with water will produce zinc oxide and
hydrogen gas.

f) Calcium carbonate react with hydrochloric acid will produce


calcium chloride, water and carbon dioxide.

g) Hydrochloric acid react with sodium hydroxide will produce


sodium chloride and water.

h) Potassium oxide react with nitric acid will produce potassium


nitrate and water.

49
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 3

i) Iron metal react with chlorine gas will produce iron(III) chloride.

j) Magnesium metal react with nitric acid with produce


magnesium nitrate and hydrogen gas.

k) Zinc metal dissolved in copper(II) chloride will produce zinc


chloride and copper metal.

l) Chlorine gas react with potassium bromide will produce


potassium chloride and bromine gas.

m)Copper(II) carbonate when heated will produce copper(II)


oxide and carbon dioxide.

n) Lead(II) nitrate when heated will produce lead(II) oxide,


nitrogen dioxide gas and oxygen gas.

o) Potassium iodide react with lead(II) nitrate will produce lead(II)


iodide and potassium nitrate solution.

p) Sodium hydroxide react ammonium chloride will produce


sodium chloride, water and ammonia gas.

q) Zinc metal react with hydrochloric acid will produce zinc


chloride and hydrogen gas.

r) Magnesium oxide react with sulphuric acid will produce


magnesium sulphate and water.

50
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 3

b) Quantitative Aspect

2H2 (g) + O2 (g) 2H2O(l)


2 molecule 1 molecule 2 molecule
Or Or Or
2 mol 1 mol 2 mol

Note: The coefficient in the reaction tell the exact proportions


of reactant and product in chemical reaction.

Example

1. Copper(II) oxide, CuO reacts with aluminium according to the following


equation.

3CuO (s) + 2Al (s) Al2O3 (s) + 3Cu (s)

Calculate the mass of aluminium required to react completely with 12 g of


copper(II) oxide, CuO. [RAM: O, 16 ; Al, 27 ; Cu, 64]

51
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 3

2. A student heats 20 g of calcium carbonate, CaCO3 strongly. It decomposes


according to the equation below.

CaCO3 (s) CaO (s) + CO2 (g)

a) If the carbon dioxide produced is collected at room conditions, what is its


volume?

b) Calculate the mass of calcium oxide, CaO produced.

[RAM: C, 12 ; O, 16 ; Ca, 40 ; Molar volume = 24 dm3 mol-1]

52
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 3

3. Hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 decomposes according to the following equation.

2H2O2 (l) 2H2O (l) + O2 (g)

Calculate the volume of oxygen gas, O2 measured at STP that can obtained
from the decomposition of 34 g of hydrogen peroxide.
[RAM : H, 1 ; O, 16 ; Molar volume = 22.4 dm3 mol-1]

4. 16 g of copper(II) oxide, CuO is reacted with excess methane, CH4. Using the
equation below, find the mass of copper that is produced.

4CuO (s) + CH4 (g) 4Cu (s) + CO2 (g) + 2H2O (l)

[RAM : H, 1 ; C, 12 ; O, 16 ; Cu, 64]

53
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 4

CHAPTER 4
PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

54
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 4

55
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 4

Historical Development of Periodic Table

Johann Dobereiner John Newlands


Antoine Lavoiser
(1780 – 1849) (1837 – 1898)
(1743 – 1794)
divided element arranged element
first scientist classify
according their in order of
substances.
similar chemical increasing atomic
properties mass

Lothar Meyer Dmitri Mendeleev


(1830 – 1895) (1834 – 1907)
showing that the arranged the elements in
properties of the elements order of increasing atomic
formed a periodic
mass and
pattern against their
grouped them
atomic masses.
according to similar
chemical properties.

Henry J.G. Moseley Concluded that the


(1887 – 1915) proton number should
be the basis for the
Studied the X-ray periodic change of
spectrum of elements. chemical properties
instead of the atomic
He rearranged the
mass.
elements in order of
increasing proton number.
Leading to the modern
Periodic Table.

56
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 4

Arrangement of Element in the Periodic Table

Element in the
Periodic Table are Element with 18 vertical column
arranged in an similar chemical called a group
increasing order of properties are
7 horizontal rows
proton number . placed in the same
called a period
vertical column

GROUP
GROUP GROUP

The number of
valence electron in
an atom decides the
position of the group Valence electron 3
Valence electron 1
of an element. until 8
and 2

Example:
PERIOD An atom of element X has a proton
Equal to the number number of 15. In which group and period
of shell occupied we can find element X in Periodic Table.
with electrons in its
atom

57
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 4

Exercise

1. Element D has a proton number 19. Where is element D located in Periodic


Table?

2. An atom of element E has 10 neutrons. The nucleon number of element E is 19.


In which group and period of element E located in the Periodic Table?

3. An atom of element G has 3 shell occupied with electrons. It is placed in


Group 17 of the Periodic Table. What is the electron arrangement of atom G?

4. An atom Y is located in Group 18 and period 2 of the periodic Table. What is


the electron arrangement and proton number of atom Y?

5. Element R has a proton number of 11. Its atom has 6 neutrons. In which group
and period can you find element R in the Periodic Table?

58
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 4

The advantage of grouping elements in the


Periodic Table

1. Helps us to study the element systematically especially their


physical and chemical properties.

2. Element with a same number valence electron is place in the


same group because they have the same chemical properties.

3. It could be used to predict undiscovered properties.

4. To relate the characteristic of an element with atomic structure

59
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 4

GROUP 18 GROUP 18

consist of helium, Known as


neon, argon, NOBLE GAS
krypton, xenon
Exist as
and radon
monoatomic gas.

Physical Properties of Group 18

colour solubility

GROUP 18
NOBLE GASES
Electric density
conductivity

Melting point
& Boiling point

60
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 4

The Inert Properties of Group 18

All noble gas are inert which means unreactive.

Noble gas are inert because the outermost occupied shell are full.
This electron arrangements are very stable.
Therefore, it cannot donate, receive or sharing their electron to form
a compound.

Helium have 2 valence electron, this electron arrangement is called


duplet electron arrangement whereas other noble gas have eight
valence electron which called octet electron arrangement.

Note: All other element try to achieve noble gas electron arrangement to
become stable.

The Physical Properties of Group 18

The physical properties vary down the group.

Physical properties vary down the group are related to atomic size.

Melting and boiling point of an element increase when going


down the group because the atomic sizes increase, the forces
attraction (Van der Waals forces) becomes stronger. Thus more
heat energy is required to overcome the forces.

The strength of Van der Waals forces propotional to the size of


particles.

61
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 4

Uses of Noble Gas Elements


[ State the element of group 18 ]

Fill light bulb laser for repair retina,


photographic flash lamps

treatment cancer fill airships and weather


balloons

Car bulb, use in bubble chamber

advertising light and


television tubes 62
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 4

Exercise

1. Table below shows the electron arrangements of atoms of elements P, Q,


and R.

Element Electron Arrangement


P 2.8
Q 2.8.18.8
R 2.8.18.32.18.8

a) Arrange the element in ascending order of boiling points. Give reasons for
your answer.

b) Elements P, Q, and R are chemically unreactive. Why?

2) What is the meaning of

a) Duplet electron arrangement

b) Octet electron arrangement

63
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 4

GROUP 1 Consist of elements


such as lithium,
Known as Alkali
Metals. sodium, potassium,
rubidium, caesium
Have valence
electron of 1. and francium.

Physical Properties of Group 1

HARDNESS APPEARANCE

GROUP 1
ALKALI METALS
Electric density
conductivity

Melting point

64
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 4

Melting /
Element Atomic Size Boiling Density Hardness
point

Lithium

Sodium

Potassium

Rubidium

Caesium

Francium

A melting point of a metal indicates the strength of its metallic bonding in its
structure.

Generally, the strength of metallic bonding is directly proportional to the number


of valence electron per atom divided by the radius of a metal.

A metallic bond can be defined as the electrostatic force between the


positively charged metallic ions and the ‘sea’ of electrons.

Electropositivity is the measurement of an atom to release an electron and form


positive ion

When going down the group, what happen to the electropositivity of the
element? Why?

65
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 4

Chemical Properties of Group 1 Elements

React vigorously with water to produce alkaline metal hydroxide solution


and hydrogen gas, H2.

2Li (s) + 2H2O 2LiOH (aq) + H2 (g)

Burn in oxygen gas rapidly to produce solid metal oxide

4Li (s) + O2 (g) 2 Li2O (s)

Solid metal oxide dissolve in water to form alkaline metal hydroxide

Li2O (s) + H2O 2LiOH (aq)

Alkaline metal burn in chlorine gas, Cl2 to form white solid metal chloride

2Na (s) + Cl2 2NaCl (aq)

Exercise :

1. Why does Group 1 element have similar chemical properties?

2. Why is paraffin oil used to store metals such as sodium and potassium?

3. Element in Group 1 has similar chemical properties but differ in reactivity.


Why?

66
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 4

To investigate the chemical properties of Lithium, Sodium & Potassium

1) The reaction of alkali metals with water 2) The reaction of alkali metals with O2 gas

[ Draw the diagram ] [ Draw the diagram ]

[ Discussion ]
1. Why are the experiments involving sodium and potassium demonstrated by
your teacher and not carried out by the students?

2. Write the chemical equations for the reactions of lithium, sodium and
potassium with

a) Water, H2O

Lithium :

Sodium :

Potassium :

b) Oxygen gas, O2

Lithium :

Sodium :

Potassium :

67
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 4

3. Write the chemical equations for the reactions between the products from
the combustion of each alkali metal with water.
Lithium :
Sodium :
Potassium :

Exercise

1. A student performs two experiments to study the reaction of alkali metal with
water.

Experiment Metal used Observation

Sodium moves rapidly and randomly on the


1 Sodium
water surface and emits ‘hiss’ sounds.

2 Lithium Lithium moves slowly on the water surface.

a) Write the chemical equation for the reaction between sodium and lithium
with water.
Lithium :
Sodium :

b) Between reactions of Experiment 1 and 2, which is more vigorous? Explain


your answer from the point of electron arrangement.

c) Explain why sodium and lithium show similar chemical properties?

d) Calculate the volume of hydrogen gas produced if 2.3 g of sodium is used.


[RAM: Na, 23 ; molar volume: 24 dm3 mol-1]

68
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 4

GROUP 17 GROUP 17 GROUP 17

consist of fluorine, Known as Elements are


chlorine, bromine, HALOGENS. poisonous.
iodine and
Have valence Exist as diatomic
astatine.
electron of 7. molecules.

Physical
Symbol of Symbol of state at
Element Colour
Atom Molecule room
condition

Fluorine

Chlorine

Bromine

Iodine

Astatine

MELTING & BOILING POINT SMELL


PHYSICAL
PROPERTIES OF
HALOGEN

ELECTRIC CONDUCTIVITY DENSITY

69
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 4

Melting /
Atomic
Element Boiling Density Electronegativity
Size
point

Fluorine

Chlorine

Bromine

Iodine

Astatine

Electronegativity is an ability of atom to receive an electron to become


negative charged ions.

All halogen have seven valence electron. Their atoms always gain one electron
to form an ion with a charge of –1, in order to achieve stable octet electron
arrangement.

Chemical Properties of Group 17 Elements

Halogen react with water to produce two acids


Cl2 + H2O HCl + HOCl

Halogen react with metal to produce metal halides


2Fe (s) + 3Cl2 (g) FeCl3 (s)

Halogen react with sodium hydroxide solution to form sodium


halide and sodium halate (I) and water
I2(s) + 2NaOH (aq) NaI (aq) + NaOI (aq) + H2O (l)

70
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 4

To Investigate the Chemical Properties of Halogens


[Draw the Apparatus]

SECTION A : Reaction with Water


1) Chlorine 2) Bromine 3) Iodine

SECTION B : Reaction with Iron


1) Chlorine 2) Bromine 3) Iodine

SECTION C : Reaction with Sodium Hydroxide


1) Chlorine 2) Bromine 3) Iodine

71
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 4

[Discussion]

1. Name the products formed when chlorine, bromine, and iodine


react with water.

Chlorine :
Bromine :
Iodine :

2. Write the chemical equations for the reaction of chlorine,


bromine and iodine with water.

Chlorine :
Bromine :
Iodine :

3. What is the function of soda lime in SECTION B?

4. Name the products formed when chlorine, bromine, and iodine


react with iron.

Chlorine :
Bromine :
Iodine :

5. Write the chemical equation for the reaction of chlorine,


bromine, and iodine with iron.

Chlorine :
Bromine :
Iodine :

72
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 4

4. Name the products formed when chlorine, bromine, and iodine


react with sodium hydroxide solution.

Chlorine :
Bromine :
Iodine :

5. Write the chemical equation for the reaction of chlorine,


bromine, and iodine with sodium hydroxide solution.

Chlorine :
Bromine :
Iodine :

6. Describe the changes in reactivity of Group 17 elements when


going down the group. Explain your answer.

73
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 4

Exercise

1. Table below shows several halogen elements with their proton numbers.

Halogen Proton Number

X 9

Y 17

Z 35

a) State the group that the halogen elements belong to in the Periodic Table.

b) i) Write the electron arrangement of elements X and Y.

ii) From your answers in (b)(i), deduce the period of elements X and Y.

c) Draw the electron arrangement of element Y.

d) State the changes of properties of halogens down the group from X to Z in


terms of:

i) Atomic radius

ii) Electronegativity

iii) Melting point and boiling point

74
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 4

e) i) Iron glow brightly when reacting with element Y. Write the chemical
reaction to represent this reaction.

ii) Predict the observation for the reaction between iron and element Z.

iii) Between Y and Z, which is more reactive? Explain why.

f) i) Determine the elements X, Y and Z.

ii) State the colour for each elements X, Y, and Z.

iii) Why the physical state of halogen differ when down the group?

75
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 4

Comparison & Similarities between Group 1 and Group 17


Properties Group Down the Group

1
Atomic
Size
17

Melting & 1
Boiling
Point 17

1
Density
17

1
Reactivity
17

76
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 4

Elements in a Period 3
Element Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulphur Chlorine Argon

Symbol

Proton Number
Electron
Arrangemen
t
Metal Properties
Physical State
[RC]
Atomic Radius

Electronegativity
Property of the
oxide

The proton number by one unit.

All atom of the element have shells occupied by electron.

The number of valence electron from 1 to 8.

All element exist as except chlorine and argon.

The atomic radius of element .

The electronegativity of element .

The oxides of element in Period 3 change from basic to acidic properties,


therefore the metallic properties decrease across the period. On the other
hand non-metallic properties of the elements increase.

Note: the atomic radius and electronegativity _


due to the increasing nuclei attraction on the valence electrons.

(nuclei attraction force increase with the increase of proton number)

77
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 4

Transition Elements
Transition elements are elements from Group 3 to Group 12

All the elements are metals, usually solids with shiny surfaces, ductile,
malleable and have tensile strength.

Have high melting and boiling point as well as high density.

Good conductors of heat and electricity.

Three special characteristics of transition element

 Show different oxidation number in their compound.

 Form coloured ions or compound.

 Act as catalysts.

78
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 5

CHAPTER 5
CHEMICAL BONDS

Almost all chemical Atom of other Less stable atom


substances exist as element that have will tend to release,
compounds in nature less than eight accept or share
except inert gases valence electron electron to
and other stable are not stable achieve the stable
element (such as electron
gold and silver). arrangement

All other elements


combine together to
achieve the stability by
Two types of chemical
forming duplet or octet
bonds formed:-
electron arrangement by

i) The transfer of electron i) ionic bonds


ii) covalent bond
ii) Sharing of electron

Ionic Bond

Covalent Bond

79
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 5

Ionic Bond

Formation of Formation of
Ionic bond formed
Cation Anion
when metal atom
transfer electrons to
non-metal atom to
form ionic
compound.

Non-Metal atom
Metal atom from from group 15, 16
group 1,2 and 13 and 17 tend to
tend to released all accept the
their valence electrons.
Example:
electrons.
Draw the formation
of sodium ion.

80
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 5

Exercise

1. Draw the formation of the following cations:


a) Potassium ion

b) Magnesium ion

c) Aluminium ion

81
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 5

2. Draw the formation of the following anions:

a) Chloride ion

b) Oxide ion

c) Nitride ion

82
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 5

Formation of Ionic Compound

1. Metal atom and non-metal atom are not stables.


2. To achieve stability, metal atom will combine with non- metal atom by transfer of
electrons.
3. Metal atoms will donate electrons to form cation.
X X+ + e
4. Non-metal atom will accept electrons to form anion.
Y + e Y-
5. Both ions already achieve stable duplet/octet electron arrangement.
6. The formation of cation & anion will create strong electrostatic force between the ions.
7. Ionic bond will pull cation & anion together in crystal lattice form.
8. The compound formed called as ionic compound.

Example: Formation of Sodium Chloride, NaCl

83
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 5

Exercise

1. Explain the formation of ionic compound below:

a) Lithium fluoride

b) Magnesium oxide

84
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 5

c) Calcium chloride

d) Aluminium oxide

85
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 5

2. Draw the formation of the following ionic compound:

a) Lithium fluoride

b) Magnesium oxide

86
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 5

c) Calcium chloride

d) Aluminium oxide

87
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 5

Ionic Equations

Equation that represent the formation of ionic compounds are


known as ionic equation.

Example:

a) Formation of sodium chloride, NaCl

i) Chemical Equation :

ii) Ionic Equation :

b) Formation of Magnesium oxide, MgO


i) Chemical Equation :

ii) Ionic Equation :

Exercise

1. Write an ionic equation of the following compound


a) Lithium fluoride

b) Magnesium chloride

c) Aluminium oxide

88
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 5

Exercise

1. Atom X and Y each have proton numbers of 3 and 8. What is


the ionic compound formula formed between atoms X and Y?

2. Complete each of the following table:

Proton Electron Ionic Proton Electron Ionic Compound


Atom Atom
Number Arrangement Formula Number Arrangement Formula Formula

A 3 B 9

1 C 11 D 8

2 E 12 F 17

3 G 20 H 9

4 I 19 J 17

5 K 13 L 8

6 M 13 N 17

89
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 5

Covalent Bond

Three types of covalent


Covalent bond is the
bonds:
chemical bond
formed through the single covalent bond
sharing of electron ( sharing one pair of e )
between two or more double covalent bond
non metal atom to ( sharing two pairs of e )
form covalent triple covalent bond
( sharing three pairs of e )
compound.

Single Covalent Bond


Example:
Draw the formation of chlorine gas.

90
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 5

Double Covalent Bond


Example:
Draw the formation of oxygen gas.

Triple Covalent Bond


Example:
Draw the formation of nitrogen gas.

91
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 5

Exercise

1. Draw the formation of the following compound.


a) water

b) Carbon dioxide

92
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 5

c) Ammonia

b) Tetrachloromethane , CCl4.

93
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 5

Determine the Formula of Covalent Compound

Guideline:

1. State the electron configuration of atoms.


- Make sure electron valence for both atoms is either 4, 5, 6, and 7.

2. Determine the number of electrons needed to achieve stability.

3. Write the number of electron needed to achieve stability at the


below right corner of each atom.

4. Cross the number.

Example:

If atom P has 8 protons and atom Q has 9 protons, determine the


formula of the covalent compound formed.

94
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 5

Exercise

1. Atoms K and S each have a proton number of 6 and 8


respectively. What is the formula of the covalent compound
which is formed by K and S?

2. Complete the table below to show the formulae of compounds


which are formed.

Proton Electron Proton Electron Compound


Atom Atom
number config. number config. formula

A 6 2.4 B 9 2.7 AB4

C 6 D 16

E 7 F 1

G 1 H 8

I 6 J 17

K 6 L 8

95
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 5

Comparison between the formation of the ionic


bond and the covalent bond

IONIC BOND COVALENT BOND

Similarity

Differences

Formation

Particles

Force of
Attraction

96
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 5

The following figure compares and contrasts the properties


of ionic compound and covalent compound

IONIC COMPOUND COVALENT COMPOUND

PROPERTIES

Melting &
Boiling point

Electric
Conductivity

Physical State

Solubility

97
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 5

Exercise

1. (a)Table 1.1 shows the proton number of three elements, X, Y, and


Z. The letters used do not represent the actual symbols of the
elements.

Element Proton Number


X 6
Y 12
Z 17
Table 1.1

i) Write the electron arrangement of:

Atom Y :

The ion of Z :

ii) Write the formula of the compound formed between


elements Y and Z.

iii) Element X reacts with element Z to form a covalent


compound with a formula XZ4. State two physical
properties of this compound.

i) Draw the electronic structure of the compound XZ4.

98
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 5

(b) Table 1.2 shows some physical properties of two compounds, U


and V.

Solubility in
Melting pt Boiling pt Solubility in
Compound organic
(oC) (oC) water
solvent
U 800 1 420 Soluble Insoluble

V - 95 86 Insoluble Soluble
Table 1.2

i) State the physical state of the following compound at room


condition.

U:

V:

ii) State the type of compound for U.

iii) Explain why melting point and boiling point of compound U is


higher than V?

99
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 6

CHAPTER 6
ELECTROCHEMISTRY

Electrolytes are Electrolysis is a process


substances that can whereby compounds in
conduct electricity when molten or aqueous state
they are in molten state are broken down into
and aqueous solution. their constituent
This due to the present of elements by passing
free moving ions in the electricity through them.
electrolytes.

Non-electrolytes are Example


substances that can not
2NaCl (l) 2Na (s) + Cl2 (g)
conduct electricity when
they are in all state. This
because non-electrolyte
exist as molecule which
means contain no ions.

Chlorine Gas
Sodium Metal

100
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 6

Electrolytic Cell (molten state)


[ Draw the apparatus of electrolysis molten sodium chloride ]

a) Electrode attach to positive terminal (battery) =

b) Electrode attach to negative terminal (battery) =

c) Anion (negative ion) discharged at electrode =

Anion will electrons.

d) Cation (positive ion) discharged at electrode =

Cation will electrons.

e) Electron flow from to

f) Electrolytic Cell will change the energy to

energy.

101
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 6

Product of Electrolysis

Ion
discharged Observation Half-equation Product
at Cathode
All ion metal
except
Copper ion

Copper ion

Hydrogen
ion
Ion
discharged Observation Half-equation Product
at Anode

Oxide ion

Chloride ion

Bromide ion

Iodide ion

Hydroxide
ion

Gas Test
Hydrogen
gas
Oxygen gas

Chlorine gas

102
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 6

Electrolysis Molten Lead(II) Bromide

P Q

1. State the ion consists in the electrolyte.

2. Which electrode is
a) Cathode =
b) Anode =

3. Which ion will be discharged at


a) Cathode =
b) Anode =

4. State the observation at


a) Cathode =
b) Anode =

5. State the product formed at


a) Cathode =
b) Anode =

6. Write the half equation at


a) Cathode =
b) Anode =

7. Draw the electron flow on the diagram above.

103
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 6

Exercise

1. State the ion present in the following electrolyte. Predict the


products from the electrolysis of some molten compound and
write the ionic equation involved.

a) Magnesium oxide

Ion consist in electrolyte =


Half equation :1) Cathode =
2) Anode =
Product =

b) Copper(II) chloride

Ion consist in electrolyte =


Half equation :1) Cathode =
2) Anode =
Product =

c) Lead(II) iodide

Ion consist in electrolyte =


Half equation :1) Cathode =
2) Anode =
Product =

104
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 6

2. State the meaning of the following terms.

a) Anode b) Cathode c) Electrolysis

3. A molten oxide, R2O3 is electrolysed using carbon electrodes.

a) Draw a labeled diagram to show the set-up of apparatus for


the electrolysis.

b) What ions are present in the electrolyte? Write the formulae for
the ions present in the electrolyte.

c) State the ions move to each of the electrodes during


electrolysis.

105
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 6

d) Write half equation of the reaction at each of the electrodes.

e) Name the substances formed at each of the electrodes.

f) Label the flow of electron in the diagram (a).

106
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 6

107
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 6

Electrolysis of Aqueous Solution

Aqueous solution consists of four types of ions. Two ions from the
compound and two ions from the water.

Example:

Molten sodium chloride Sodium chloride solution

Generally, there are 3 factors that may influence the selective of ions
during electrolysis of an aqueous solution

1. Position of ions in the electrochemical series

2. Concentration of ions in the electrolytes

3. Types of electrodes used in the electrolysis

108
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 6

Position of ions in the electrochemical series (ECS)

The ions that are lower in the ECS will selected to be discharged.
[ Draw the apparatus of electrolysis sodium chloride solution ]

1. State the ion consists in the electrolyte.

2. Which electrode is
a) Cathode =
b) Anode =

3. Which ion will be discharged at


a) Cathode =
b) Anode =

4. State the observation at


a) Cathode =
b) Anode =

5. State the product formed at


a) Cathode =
b) Anode =

6. Write the half equation at


a) Cathode =
b) Anode =

7. Draw the electron flow on the diagram above.

109
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 6

Exercise

1.

Carbon electrode

Copper(II)
sulphate solution

For the electrolysis of copper(II) sulphate solution,

(a) State all the ions that are present in the electrolyte.

(b) State the ions in (a) which discharged to the

i) anode :

ii) cathode :

(c) Write a half equation for the reaction at the

i) anode :

ii) cathode :

(d) The blue colour of copper(II) sulphate solution fades if the


electrolysis is carried for a long period of time. Explain why.

110
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 6

2.
Carbon electrode

Dilute sulphuric
acid

For the electrolysis of dilute sulphuric acid,

a) State all the ions that are present in the electrolyte

b) State the ion in (a) which discharged to

i) anode

ii) cathode

c) Write half equation for the reaction at the

i) anode

ii) cathode

d) Explain why the concentration of dilute sulphuric acid increases


gradually during the electrolysis

3. Base on the answer 1(c) and 2(c), name the process that occur
at the
a) anode

b) cathode

111
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 6

Concentration of ions in the electrolytes

If the concentrations of particular ions are high, the ion is selectively


discharged
[ Draw the apparatus of electrolysis concentrated sodium chloride solution ]

1. State the ion consists in the electrolyte.

2. Which electrode is
a) Cathode =
b) Anode =

3. Which ion will be discharged at


a) Cathode =
b) Anode =

4. State the observation at


a) Cathode =
b) Anode =

5. State the product formed at


a) Cathode =
b) Anode =

6. Write the half equation at


a) Cathode =
b) Anode =

7. Draw the electron flow on the diagram above.

112
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 6

Exercise

1.
Carbon
electrode

Dilute Hydrochloric
acid solution

Experiment A

Carbon
electrode
Concentrated
Hydrochloric acid

Experiment B

Diagram above show the apparatus set up for the experiments of


electrolysis using two different concentration of hydrochloric acid.

a) State all the ions that are present in the electrolyte

i) Experiment A :

ii) Experiment B :

113
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 6

b) State the ion in (a) which discharged to anode and cathode in


i) Experiment A :

Cathode =
Anode =

ii) Experiment B :
Cathode =
Anode =

c) Write half equation for the reaction at the anode and cathode in
i) Experiment A :

Cathode =
Anode =

ii) Experiment B :
Cathode =
Anode =

d) State the observation occur at cathode and anode in


i) Experiment A :

Cathode =
Anode =

ii) Experiment B :
Cathode =
Anode =

e) State the product formed at cathode and anode in


i) Experiment A :

Cathode =
Anode =

ii) Experiment B :
Cathode =
Anode =

114
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 6

Types of electrodes used in the electrolysis

If using the active electrode at anode, ions that are present in the
electrolytes are not discharge. Instead the active electrode will
corrodes and dissolves in the electrolytes.
[ Draw the apparatus of electrolysis silver nitrate solution using silver electrodes ]

1. State the ion consists in the electrolyte.

2. Which electrode is
a) Cathode =
b) Anode =

3. Which ion will be discharged at


a) Cathode =
b) Anode =

4. State the observation at


a) Cathode =
b) Anode =

5. State the product formed at


a) Cathode =
b) Anode =

6. Write the half equation at


a) Cathode =
b) Anode =
7. Draw the electron flow on the diagram above.
115
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 6

Exercise

1.
Carbon
electrode

Copper(II) sulphate
solution

Experiment A

Copper
plate

Copper(II) sulphate
solution

Experiment B

Diagram above show the apparatus set up for the experiments of


electrolysis using two different electrodes immersed in copper(II)
sulphate solution.

a) State all the ions that are present in the electrolyte

i) Experiment A :

ii) Experiment B :

116
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 6

b) State the observation occur at anode and cathode in


i) Experiment A :

Cathode =
Anode =

ii) Experiment B :
Cathode =
Anode =

c) Write half equation for the reaction at the anode and cathode in
i) Experiment A :

Cathode =
Anode =

ii) Experiment B :
Cathode =
Anode =

d) Explain the observation on the colour of copper(II) sulphate


solution in

i) Experiment A :

ii) Experiment B :

117
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 6

Electrolysis in Industry

1) Extraction of Metal
Most common Extraction of aluminium
application: from aluminium oxide.
i) Extraction of metal

ii) Purification of metal

iii) Electroplating

2) Purification of Metal
In purification:
The impure metal is made to be the
anode
The cathode is a thin layer of pure metal
Copper nugget

3) Electroplating
Electroplating is a process to coat
one metal onto another metal.
The purposes of electroplating
onto metal are:-
i) Make it look more attractive
ii) more resistant to corrosion
In electroplating :
 object to be electroplated
as the cathode
 anode is the metal used for plating
 Electrolyte is a solution of the
compound of the electroplating
118
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 6

Extraction of Metal

[ Draw the apparatus of electrolysis for extraction of aluminium from aluminium oxide ]

1) Ion present in electrolyte =

2) Ion discharged

a) Cathode =

b) Anode =

3) Observation

a) Cathode =

b) Anode =

4) Half equation

a) Cathode =

b) Anode =

5)Function of cryolite, Na3AlF6

119
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 6

Purification of Metal

[ Draw the apparatus of electrolysis for purification of impure copper ]

1) Ion present in electrolyte =

2) Ion discharged

a) Cathode =

b) Anode =

3) Observation

a) Cathode =

b) Anode =

4) Half equation

a) Cathode =

b) Anode =

5) Colour changes of electrolyte

120
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 6

Electroplating

[ Draw the apparatus of electrolysis to electroplate key by using copper as electrode ]

1) Ion present in electrolyte =

2) Ion discharged

a) Cathode =

b) Anode =

3) Observation

a) Cathode =

b) Anode =

4) Half equation

a) Cathode =

b) Anode =

5) Colour changes of electrolyte

121
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 6

Voltaic Cells

 A simple voltaic cell can be made by dipping two different


types of metals in an electrolyte

 Electron flow from one metal to another metal through the


connecting wire in the external circuit.

 More electropositive metal will release electron, thus act as


the negative terminal. Less electropositive metal will accept
electron and act as the positive terminal.

 Continuous flow of electron produces an electric current.

Simple zinc-copper Voltaic  Zinc more reactive than


copper
 Zinc will act as terminal
, and
copper will act as
terminal .
 Zinc will release electron
to form Zn 2+.
Half equation:

 Cu 2+ ions from copper(II) sulphate solution receive


electron to form copper metal.
Half equation :
Overall equation:
 The further the distance between the position of two
metals is in ECS the bigger the cell voltage.
122
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 6

Different Types of Voltaic Cells

Two types of voltaic cell:


1) Primary cells: non rechargeable cell
Example: Daniell cell, dry cells, alkaline cell
2) Secondary cells: rechargeable cells
Example: Lead-acid accumulator, Nickel-cadmium

Daniell Cell 1
1. Used salt bridge
Salt bridge contain inert
ions or salt that does not
react with electrolyte.

Example:

Daniell Cell 2
2. Used porous pot
Porous pot has fine pores
that allow ions flow through.

What is the function of salt


bridge and porous pot in
Daniell Cell?

123
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 6

Exercise

1. For the simple voltaic cell that you see at the diagram

Mg Cu

Magnesium sulphate
solution

a) State how electricity was produced.

b) What are the chemical changes that occur at the


magnesium ribbon and the copper plate.

c) Write the half equation for the changes that occur at each
the electrode.

d) What is the direction of electron flow from terminal to


another through the external circuit.

124
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 6

Electrochemical series (ECS)

Tendency of Tendency of
metal to release cation to receive
electrons to electrons to form
form ions metals
increases increases

The electrochemical series (ECS) can be constructed by two


method:

a) The potential difference (voltage difference) between pairs of


metal.

b) The ability of metal to displace another metal from its salt solution.

125
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 6

The potential difference (voltage difference) between


pairs of metal.

 The bigger the voltage value the further apart their position.
 The metal act as negative terminal is placed at higher position
in electrochemical series (ECS).

How to determine the positive/negative terminal?

Example: The voltaic cells are constructed as shown in the figure. The
voltmeter reading of the cell I is 1.1 V while that of cell II is
2.5 V.

Q P R P

Cell 1 Cell 2
Arrange the metals in descending order in the
electrochemical series.

126
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 6

The ability of metal to displace another metal from its salt solution

If the metal P can displace metal Q from Q salt solution, then:


i) Metal P is more electropositive than metal Q
ii) Metal P is placed at a higher position than metal Q in the ECS

Example: Zinc and copper(II) sulphate solution

Observation :

Half-equation :

The Important of ECS

ECS can be used to determine:


 The terminal of voltaic cell
 The standard cell voltage
 The ability of a metal to displace another metal from its
salt solution.

127
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 6

Exercise

1. The diagram shows an electrolytic cell. The left section of the cell
(S) is a source of electricity to drive the right section (T) of the
cell.

X Y Copper
Aluminium Zinc

Aluminium
Sulphate
S T
Zinc Sulphate Copper(II) Sulphate

a) State the change of energy in cell S

b) i) For cell S, state the positive terminal of the cell

ii) Explain your choice for b(i)

c) i) State what has happened at the negative terminal

ii) What process has happened in this electrode

128
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 6

d) Explain why the color of copper(II) sulphate remain unchanged

e) Determine the anode of cell T

f) Write down the half equation for the cathode in cell T

g) What will happened if the aluminium in cell S is replaced by copper

129
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7

CHAPTER 7
ACIDS AND BASES

Arrhenius Theory A base defined as a


chemical substance that
An acid is a chemical can ionises in water to
compound that produce hydroxide, OH-,
produces hydrogen ions, ion.
H+ or hydroxonium ions
It also can neutralise an
H3O+ when dissolve in
acid to produce a salt
water.
and water.

An alkali is defined as Example


a base that dissolve in
water and consist of HCl (g) H2O H+ (aq) + Cl- (aq)
free moving NaOH(s) H2O Na+(aq) + OH-(aq)
hydroxide, OH- ions.

The role of water


In the presence of water an acid will ionise to form hydrogen ion and
alkaline will dissociate into hydroxide ions, OH-.

Therefore, water is essential for the formation of hydrogen ions, H+


that cause acidity and hydroxide ions, OH- that cause alkalinity.

130
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7

BASICITY OF AN ACID
Is the number of hydrogen ion produced per molecule of an acid.

Triprotic Acid
Diprotic Acid
Monoprotic Acid
Acid which produces
1 hydrogen ion when
one molecule of an
acid ionises in water.

Example: a) CH3COOH? (ethanoic acid) =

b) H2SO4? (sulphuric acid ) =

c) HNO3? (Nitric acid) =

d) H3PO4? (Phosphoric acid) =

STRENGTH OF ACID & ALKALI

131
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7

STRONG ACID WEAK ACID

Strong acid will dissociate or ionize


completely in water to produce
hydrogen, H+ ions.

Degree of dissociation is higher.

Thus, higher concentration of


hydrogen ions in aqueous acid
solution.

Therefore, low pH value of the acid


solution.

STRONG ALKALI WEAK ALKALI

132
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ACID & ALKALI


pH Value Conduct Litmus paper
electricity

ACID

Taste Corrosive

Litmus paper
pH Value
ALKALI

Taste
Conduct
Corrosive
electricit
y

133
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ACID & ALKALI

Acids can react with,


i) bases to produce salts and water
eg :
ii) metal to produce salts and hydrogen gas
eg :
iii) metal carbonates to produce salts, carbon dioxide
and water
eg :
iv) alkali to produce salts and water (neutralization)
eg :

Alkali can react with,


i) acid to produce salts and water (neutralization)
eg :
ii) ammonium salt to produce salts, water and ammonia
gas
eg :

134
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7

The concentration of acid and alkali

Concentration are measurement of the quantity of solutes dissolved


in a quantity of solvent.

Moles per dm3


Grams per dm3
( mol dm-3)
( g dm-3)
*known as Molarity

Concentration

Unit Conversion

÷ molar mass
Grams per Moles per dm3
dm3 ( g dm-3) ( mol dm-3)
× molar mass

Example

1. The molarity of a bottle of nitric acid, HNO3 solution is 2.0 mol dm-3.
What is the concentration of the solution in g dm-3?
[RAM: H, 1 ; N, 14 ; O , 16]

135
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7

2. Calculate the molarity of a sodium sulphate, Na2SO4 solution with


a concentration of 28.4 g dm-3. [RAM: O, 16 ; Na, 23 ; S, 32]

Calculating Involving Concentration and Molarity

No of mole = Molarity x Volume ( cm )


3

1000
MV
n=
1000

1. A 250 cm3 nitric acid solution contains 0.4 moles. Calculate the
molarity of the nitric acid.

2. 5.00 g of copper (II) sulphate is dissolved in water to form 500


cm3 solution. Calculate the concentration of copper (II) sulphate
in g dm-3.

136
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7

3. What is the mass of sodium carbonate required to dissolve in


water to prepare 200 cm3 solution contains 50 g dm-3.

4. Calculate the number of moles of ammonia in 150 cm3 of 2 mol


dm-3 aqueous ammonia.

5. Calculate the volume in dm3 of a 0.8 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid


that contains 0.2 mol.

6. 4.0 g sodium carbonate powder, Na2CO3 is dissolved in water


and made up to 250 cm3. What is the molarity of the sodium
carbonate solution. [RAM: C,12;O,16;Na,23]

137
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7

7. Dilute hydrochloric acid used in the school laboratories usually


has a concentration of 2.0mol dm-3. Calculate the mass of
hydrogen chloride that found in 250 cm3 of the hydrochloric
acid? [RAM : H,1; Cl,35.5]

8. The concentration of a potassium hydroxide solution is


84.0 g dm-3. Calculate the number of moles of potassium
hydroxide present in 300 cm3 of the solution. [RAM: K,39,H,1 O,16]

138
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7

9. Calculate the number of moles of hydrogen ions present in


200 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid.

Preparation of Standard Solution

A solution in which its concentration is accurately known is a


standard solution.

Preparation of a solution by dilution method

Adding water to a concentrated solution changes the concentration


of the solution but does not change the amount solutes ( number of
moles)of solution present in solution.

Moles of stock solution = moles of dilute solution

n1 = n2

M1V1 = M2V2

139
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7

Exercise

1. Find the volume of 2.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid, H2SO4 needed to
prepare 100 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid, H2SO4.

2. Calculate the volume of a concentrated solution needed to


prepare each of the following dilute solution:

a) 50 cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution


from 2.0 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution.

b) 100 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 potassium manganate(VII),


KMnO4 solution from 1.0 mol dm-3 potassium
manganate(VII), KMnO4 solution.

140
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7

3. Calculate the volume of 2.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid, H2SO4


needed to prepare 2.5 dm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 of the same acid
solution.

4. Calculate the molarity of potassium hydroxide, KOH, solution if


200 cm3 of 2.0 mol dm-3 potassium hydroxide, KOH, solution is
added to 200 cm3 of water.

5. 60 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide, NaOH, solution is


diluted with 30 cm3 of water. Calculate the molarity of the
solution produced.

141
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7

The pH Values and Molarity

As the molarity of an acid increases, the pH value of the acid


decreases, however the pH value of an alkali increases when the
molarity of the alkali increases.

Neutralisation

Acid-base titration An acid of known


Reaction of an acid concentration is
Titration is a very useful carefully delivered from
and a base that
laboratory technique in burette to completely
produce salt and which one solution is neutralise a known
water. used to analyse another volume of an alkali in a
solution. conical flask.

Acid-base indicator is
used to detect the end The point at which the
of titration. colour of the solution
Eg: methyl orange, change is called the
phenolphthalein and end point.
litmus solution.

Titration using
phenolphthalein

142
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7

NEUTRALISATION
ACID-BASE
TITRATION

143
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7

Example

1. Write a balanced equation for the neutralization of each of the


following:

a) Sulphuric acid, H2SO4 and barium hydroxide, Ba(OH)2


solution.

b) Nitric acid, HNO3 and calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2 solution.

c) Ethanoic acid, CH3COOH and potassium hydroxide, KOH


solution.

Acid-base Indicator

Colour in Colour in neutral Colour in


Indicator
alkalis solution acids

Methyl orange

phenolphthalein

Litmus solution

The end-point of neutralisation also can determined by another two


method:-

i) Measurement of pH values by computer


ii) Measurement of electrical conductivity during titration

144
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7

Numerical Problem involving Neutralisation

Say the balance equation is

aA + bB product

which,

A = acid
a = no of mole of acid
B = base
b = no of mole of base

MAVA = a and MBVB = b

Therefore MAVA a
=
MBVB b

Exercise

1. In an experiment, 25.0 cm3 of a sodium hydroxide solution of


unknown concentration required 26.50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3
sulphuric acid to complete a reaction in titration. Calculate the
molarity of sodium hydroxide.

145
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7

2. What is the volume of 0.5 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid, H2SO4 needed
to neutralize 25.0 cm3 of 0.8 mol dm-3 ammonia, NH3 solution?

3. A sample of copper(II) oxide, CuO was found to completely


neutralize 100 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid, HCl.
Calculate the mass of the sample. [RAM: O, 16 ; Cu, 64]

146
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7

4. The volume of 0.15 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid, H2SO4 required to


completely neutralize 25.0 cm3 of potassium hydroxide, KOH
solution is 30.5 cm3. Calculate the molarity of the potassium
hydroxide, KOH solution.

5. A student dissolved 3.65 g of hydrogen chloride gas, HCl in water


to make 1.0 dm3 of solution. Calculate the volume of a 0.1 mol
dm-3 barium hydroxide, Ba(OH)2 solution required to completely
neutralize 25.0 cm3 of the acid solution. [RAM : H, 1 ; Cl, 35.5]

147
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

CHAPTER 8
SALTS

A salt is an ionic
The salt consists of two
substance produced
parts, cation from base
when the hydrogen
and anion from acid.
ion of the acid is
replaced by metal NaCl
ion or an ammonium
ion. NaOH HCl
(Base) (Acid)

148
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

Table of Salts
Complete the table below.

Sulphate salt Chloride salt Nitrate salt Carbonate salt


Metal ion
(SO42-) (Cl-) (NO3-) (CO32-)

K+ K2SO4 KCl KNO3 K2CO3

Na+

Ca2+

Mg2+

Al3+

Zn2+

Fe2+

Sn2+

Pb2+

Cu2+

Ag+

NH4+

Ba2+

Based on the table above, mark the insoluble salt.

149
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

SOLUBLE & INSOLUBLE SALTS

SALT SOLUBLE INSOLUBLE

K+ , Na+ , NH4+ All soluble none

Nitrate salts
All nitrate salts none
(NO3- )

Lead (II) chloride,


PbCl2
Chloride salts
All chloride salts Silver chloride, AgCl
(Cl-)
Mercury chloride,
HgCl
Lead (II) sulphate
Sulphate salts
All sulphate salts Calcium sulphate
(SO42-)
Barium sulphate
Sodium carbonate,
Na2CO3
Carbonate Potassium carbonate, All others carbonate
salts (CO32-) K2CO3 salts
Ammonium carbonate,
(NH4)2CO3
Sodium oxide, Na2O
Oxide salts Potassium oxide, K2O
All oxide salts
(O2-) Calcium oxide, CaO
(slightly soluble)

Sodium hydroxide, NaOH


Potassium hydroxide, KOH
Hydroxide salts
Calcium hydroxide, All hydroxide salts
(OH-)
Ca(OH)2
(slightly soluble)

150
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

Preparation and Purification of Soluble Salts

Soluble salt can be prepared by the following ways:

1. Reaction between acid and alkali - preparation for


sodium, potassium and ammonium salts only.
Eg: HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)

[write the step of preparation of the salts on the diagram]

Burette Evaporating dish


NaCl solution
HCl solution

NaOH solution

NaCl crystal salt

NaCl salt crystal

151
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

Preparation and Purification of Soluble Salts

Other soluble salt can be prepared by the following ways:


1. Reaction between acid and metal oxide
Eg: HNO3(aq) + MgO(s) Mg(NO3)2 (aq) + H2O(l)

2. Reaction between acid and metal


Eg: H2SO4(aq) + Zn (s) ZnSO4(aq) + H2 (g)

3. Reaction between acid and metal carbonate


Eg: HCl(aq) + CaCO3(s) CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
[write the step of preparation of the salts on the diagram]

Copper(II) nitrate
Solution + excess
CuO

heat heat

Evaporating Dish
Copper(II) nitrate
solution

Cu(NO3)2 crystal salt

Copper(II) nitrate solution


& crystal salt

152
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

Physical characteristic of
Crystallization
crystals
is a process to crystallize
Fixed geometrical shapes
the soluble salts.
such as a cuboids,
Recrystallization rhombic or prism
process will carried out in Flat surface, straight edges
order to get pure and and sharp angles.
more defined crystal

Same shapes for same


substance but differ in
sizes

Fixes angle between two


neighbouring surfaces.

153
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

Preparation of insoluble salts

An insoluble salt is prepared through precipitation method.

Aqueous solution of two soluble salts are mixed to form


insoluble and soluble salt:
[write the general equation of preparation insoluble salt]

The reaction is called double decomposition.


Two solutions contain ions that make up the insoluble salts.

Eg: Preparation of lead(II) iodide salt by using lead(II)


nitrate solution and potassium iodide solution.
[write the balance chemical equation]

Double Decomposition

154
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

Chemical and Ionic Equation

Chemical and ionic equation can be written for all reaction


That used to prepare salts.

Example: Formation of precipitate Calsium Sulphate, CaSO4.

1. Chemical Equation:

Ca(NO3)2(aq) + Na2SO4(aq) CaSO4(s) + 2NaNO3(aq)

2. Ionic Equation:

Ionic equation shows the ions take part in the reaction.

Exercise

1. Change each of the following word equations to a balanced


chemical equation.

a) Sulphuric acid + zinc zinc sulphate + hydrogen gas.

b) Silver nitrate + potassium iodide silver iodide + potassium


nitrate

c) Nitric acid + chromium(III) hydroxide chromium(III) nitrate


+ water

155
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

2. Complete the following equations.

a) HCl (aq) + NiO (s)

b) HNO3 (aq) + Ca(OH)2 (aq)

c) H2SO4 (aq) + MgCO3 (s)

3. Write an ionic equation for each reaction between the following


pairs of substances.

a) Sulphuric acid, H2SO4 and barium hydroxide, Ba(OH)2 solution

b) Ammonium chloride, NH4Cl solution and silver nitrate, AgNO3


solution.

c) Lead(II) nitrate, Pb(NO3)2 solution and copper(II) sulphate,


CuSO4 solution.

d) Iron(III) oxide, Fe2O3 and hydrochloric acid, HCl.

156
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

Constructing Ionic Equation using the Continuous Variation Method

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Continuous variation method can be used to construct ionic


equation for the formation of insoluble salts.

Fixed volume of a reactant A is react with varying volumes


of a reactant B to determine the mole ratio of reactant A
that react completely with reactant B.

If x mol of reactant A with y mole of reactant B, then, the


empirical formula for insoluble salt is A x B y.

Example:

2Fe3+ (aq) + 3CO32- (aq) Fe2(CO3)3 (s)

157
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

158
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

Example

1. 6.0 cm3 of 0.2 mol dm-3 Xn+ solution reacts completely with 4.0
cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3 Ym- solution to form a salt XmYn. Write the
ionic equation and hence determine the empirical formula of
the salt reaction.

2. 18.0 cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3 solution of Px+ ions reacts completely
with 9.0 cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3 solution of Qy- ions to form a salt
PyQx. Write the ionic equation and hence determine the
empirical formula of the salt in this reaction.

159
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

Solving Problem Involving Calculation of Quantities of Reactants or


Product in Stoichiometric Reactions

Since the quantities of chemicals involved in a reaction are in term


of moles, the quantities of chemicals (volume, mass and number of
particles) must be converted to moles in calculation regarding
quantities of reactant and products.

Exercise

1. Calculate the number of moles of aluminium sulphate


produced by the reaction of 0.2 mole of sulphuric acid with
excess aluminium oxide. [0.067 mol]

2. 2.0 g of sodium hydroxide reacts with excess sulphuric acid.


What is the mass of sodium sulphate produces
[RAM: H,1 ; O,16 ; Na,23 ; S,32] [ 3.55 g]

160
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

3. What the volume of carbon dioxide gas evolved at s.t.p when


2.1 g of magnesium carbonate reacts with excess nitric acid.
[ RAM: C,12;O,16;Mg,24; s.t.p = 22.4 dm3] [ 560 cm3]

4. What is the mass of magnesium required to react with 20 cm3 of


2.0 mol dm3 hydrochloric acid to produce 120 cm3 of hydrogen
at room temperature?
[RAM: Mg,24 ; 1 mol = 24 dm3 at room temp.] [ 0.12 g]

161
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

Qualitative Analysis of Salts


General procedure of qualitative analysis
Observations on the physical Tests for cations and Confirmatory tests for
Action of heat on salts
properties of salts anions cations and anions

Colour & Solubility of the Salt

GREEN PALE GREEN BROWN YELLOW/BROWN


[depend on concentration]
 Iron(II) Sulphate, FeSO4
 Iron(III) Sulphate, Fe2(SO4)3
 Iron(II) Nitrate, Fe(NO3)2
 Iron(III) Nitrate, Fe(NO3)3
 Iron(II) Chloride, FeCl2  Iron(III) Chloride, FeCl
3

REDDISH-BROWN INSOLUBLE GREEN INSOLUBLE


 Iron(III) Oxide, Fe2O3  Copper(II) Carbonate, CuCO3

BLUE BLUE BLACK INSOLUBLE


 Copper(II) Sulphate, CuSO4  Copper(II) Oxide, CuO
 Copper(II) Nitrate, Cu(NO3)2
 Copper(II) Chloride, CuCl2
162
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

Colour & Solubility of the Salt

WHITE COLOURLESS WHITE INSOLUBLE


 Potassium Oxide, K2O  Magnesium Oxide, MgO
 Sodium Oxide, Na2O  Aluminium Oxide, Al2O3
 Calcium Oxide, CaO

WHITE [cold] YELLOW [cold]

INSOLUBLE INSOLUBLE

YELLOW [hot] BROWN [hot]

 Zinc Oxide, ZnO  Lead(II) Oxide, PbO

163
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

Gas test
Oxygen gas hydrogen gas

Wooden splinter

Hydrogen gas, H2
Oxygen gas, O2

Carbon dioxide gas sulphur dioxide gas

Carbon dioxide Sulphur dioxide

HCl acid HCl acid

Sodium Sulphite, Na2SO3

Sodium Carbonate,
Na2CO3

chlorine gas
ammonia gas
Glass rod dipped into
Red litmus paper concentrated HCl acid
White fumes

Chlorine gas, Cl2


Ammonia gas, NH3

164
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

EFFECT OF HEAT ON SALTS

Carbonate salts

Sodium carbonate & potassium carbonate are very stable. They do


not decompose on heating.

Heating
Carbonate Salt Metal Oxide + Carbon dioxide

Heating

Carbonate salts residue


[ white ] [ white ]

Salts Chemical Equation


1. Calcium carbonate

2. Magnesium carbonate

3. Aluminium carbonate

Heating

Carbonate salts residue


[ white ] [ yellow – hot ]
[ white – cold ]

Salts Chemical Equation


1. Zinc carbonate

165
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

Heating
Carbonate Salt Metal Oxide + Carbon dioxide

Heating

Carbonate salts residue


[ brown ] [ brown ]

Salts Chemical Equation


1. Iron(III) carbonate

Heating

Carbonate salts residue


[ green ] [ black ]

Salts Chemical Equation


1. Copper(II) carbonate

Heating

Carbonate salts residue


[ white ] [ brown – hot ]
[ yellow – cold ]

Salts Chemical Equation


1. Lead(II) carbonate

166
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

Heating
Carbonate Salt Metal + Carbon dioxide + Oxygen gas

Heating

Carbonate salts residue


[ white ] [ grey ]

Salts Chemical Equation


1. Mercury(II) carbonate

Heating

Carbonate salts residue


[ white ] [ shiny grey ]

Salts Chemical Equation


1. Silver carbonate

Heating

Carbonate salts residue


[ white ] [ golden yellow ]

Salts Chemical Equation


1. Aurum(III) carbonate

167
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

nitrate salts

Heating
Nitrate Salt Metal Oxide + Oxygen gas + Nitrogen dioxide

Heating

nitrate salts residue


[ white ] [ white ]

Salts Chemical Equation


1. Calcium nitrate

2. Magnesium nitrate

3. Aluminium nitrate

Heating

nitrate salts residue


[ white ] [ yellow – hot ]
[ white – cold ]

Salts Chemical Equation


1. Zinc nitrate

168
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

Heating
Nitrate Salt Metal Oxide + Oxygen gas + Nitrogen dioxide

Heating

nitrate salts residue


[ brown ] [ brown ]

Salts Chemical Equation


1. Iron(III) nitrate

Heating

nitrate salts residue


[ blue ] [ black ]

Salts Chemical Equation


1. Copper(II) nitrate

Heating

nitrate salts residue


[ white ] [ brown – hot ]
[ yellow – cold ]

Salts Chemical Equation


1. Lead(II) nitrate

169
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

Heating
Nitrate Salt Metal + Nitrogen dioxide + Oxygen gas

Heating

nitrate salts residue


[ white ] [ grey ]

Salts Chemical Equation


1. Mercury(II) nitrate

Heating

nitrate salts residue


[ white ] [ shiny grey ]

Salts Chemical Equation


1. Silver nitrate

Nitrate Salt Heating Metal nitrite + Oxygen gas

Heating

nitrate salts residue


[ white ] [ white ]

Salts Chemical Equation


1. Potassium nitrate

2. Sodium nitrate

170
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

TEST FOR ANIONS


Salt needed to be
dissolved into water
first to produce
Unknown aqueous salt solution aqueous salt
solution.

[ state the procedure ] [ state the procedure ] [ state the procedure ] [ state the procedure ]

OBSERVATION OBSERVATION OBSERVATION OBSERVATION


[ label the diagram ] [ label the diagram ] [ label the diagram ] [ label the diagram ]

Ionic Equation Ionic Equation Ionic Equation Ionic Equation

CONCLUSION CONCLUSION CONCLUSION CONCLUSION


[ state the anion ] [ state the anion ] [ state the anion ] [ state the anion ]

171
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

TEST FOR CATIONS


Salt needed to be
dissolved into water
(soluble salts) or in
dilute acid then
Unknown aqueous salt solution filtered (insoluble
salts) first to produce
aqueous salt solution.
Add NaOH drop by drop

No precipitate White precipitate Coloured precipitate

Green

Brown
Add NaOH drop by drop until excess

Dissolve in excess NaOH Insoluble in excess NaOH


Blue

* All coloured ions insoluble in excess NaOH

172
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

TEST FOR CATIONS


Salt needed to be
dissolved into water
(soluble salts) or in
dilute acid then
Unknown aqueous salt solution filtered (insoluble
salts) first to produce
aqueous salt solution.
Add NH3 drop by drop

No precipitate White precipitate Coloured precipitate

Green

Brown
Add NH3 drop by drop until excess

Dissolve in excess NH3 Insoluble in excess NH3


Blue

D issolved in excess NH3

Dark blue solution

* Fe2+ & Fe3+ ions insoluble in excess NH3

173
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

Confirmatory Test for Cation

Cation Procedure Observation

Fe 2+

Fe 3+

Pb 2+

NH4 +

Exercise

1. Identify the aqueous solutions based on the test and observation given.

Type Observation Answer


a. Potassium thiocyanate,
Blood red solution formed.
KSCN, solution is added.
b. Potassium iodide, KI, solution Yellow precipitate is
is added. formed.
c. Ammonia solution, NH3, is Blue precipitate dissolve to
added until excess. form dark blue solution.
d. A little hydrochloric acid is Effervescene occur and
added. lime water turn into chalky.
e. A sulphuric acid, iron(II)
sulphate solution and
Brown ring formed.
concentrated sulphuric acid
is added.
f. Ammonia solution is added White precipitate
until excess. dissolved.

K2CO3 ZnCl2 PbCl2 CuSO4 NaNO3 FeCl3

174
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 9

CHAPTER 9
MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN
INDUSTRY
SULPHURIC ACID

The Uses of
Sulphuric Acid

175
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 9

[ Cause by ]

[ Cause by ]

POLLUTION of
[ Effect ] Formation of Acid Rain
Sulphur DIOXIDE

Burning of Sulphur

[ Explain the formation of acid rain & write the chemical equation ]

Burning of Sulphur Dioxide

[ Explain the formation of acid rain & write the chemical equation ]
176
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 9

Effect of Acid Rain

177
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 9

Industrial Process in the Manufacture of Sulphuric Acid


Contact Process

Burn in
Stage 1
the air [ write the chemical equation ]

Catalyst:
Stage 2
Temp. : [ write the chemical equation ]
Pressure
:

Dissolves in
Stage 3 ( i )
concentrated H2SO4
[ write the chemical equation ]

Dilute with water Stage 3 ( ii )


[ write the chemical equation ]

178
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 9

AMMONIA
[ Label the uses of ammonia ]

The Uses of
ammonia

179
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 9

Properties of
ammonia

Glass rod dipped into


concentrated HCl acid

White fumes

Ammonia gas, NH3

180
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 9

Industrial Process in the Manufacture of Ammonia


Haber Process

1 part 3 parts

Catalyst chamber
Catalyst :
Temperature :
Pressure :

[ Write the balance chemical equation ]

The unreacted
mixture will flowed
back
Condenser

[ state what happen in the condenser ]

[ state the final product ]

181
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 9

Preparation of Ammonium Fertilisers in the laboratory


Ammonia fertilizers can be prepared by using neutralization reaction between acid and
ammonia solution.
Acid + Ammonia Ammonium salts H2SO4 + NH3 (NH4)2SO4

Eg: Preparation of ammonium sulphate salt

Evaporating dish
Burette
(NH4)2SO4 solution
H2 SO4 acid solution

Ammonia solution

(NH4)2SO4 crystal salt

(NH4)2SO4 crystal salt

182
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 9

Alloys

Pure metal is soft and not strong.


Atom of pure metal have similar shape and size.
The particles in pure metal are arranged layer by layer and
easily slide along between each other.

Physical
Properties
Of pure metal

Ductile

[ state the definition of the ductile and draw the particle arrangement ]

malleable

[ state the definition of the malleable and draw the particle arrangement ]

183
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 9

alloys
Alloy is a mixture of two or more elements
which is the major component is pure
metals.
Foreign elements either metal or
non-metal is added into pure metal.
The size of foreign elements either
smaller or bigger.
It will disrupt the orderly arrangement of
pure metal. Thus, the properties of pure
metals improved. [ draw the particle arrangement of alloy ]

Aim of making
alloys

184
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 9

Uses of Alloys & Their Compositions


[ state the components, properties & uses of alloy ]

COPPER-NICKEL
STEEL DURALUMIN

Pure metal : 99% Iron


Foreign element : 1% Carbon

- Strong
- Hard
- Withstands corrosion

- To make bridge, vehicles, BRASS


building & train tracks

STAINLESS STEEL
PEWTER

BRONZE

185
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 9

Synthetic Polymers

Polymers are long chains of molecules made from combination of monomers by


polymerisation process.
Two types of polymer:
i) Natural polymer
ii) Synthetic polymer

Polymer that occurs naturally made by living organisms.

Polymer
Polymer
CELLULOSE
RUBBER Natural
Monomer
Monomer polymers

Polymer
PROTEIN Polymer
Monomer FAT
Polymer Monomer
STARCH
Monomer

Amino acid

Isopren e

186
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 9

Polymer that are man-made polymer produced from


chemical compound through polymerisation.

Two types of polymerisation:


i) Addition polymerisation
ii) Condensation polymerisation
Polymer
POLYPROPENE
Polymer Synthetic Monomer
POLYTHENE polymers
Monomer

Polymer
NYLON Polymer
Monomer POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC)
Monomer

Polymer
PERSPEX
Monomer

187
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 9

Glass & ceramics

Main component of glass is silica & silicon dioxide, SiO2.

glass

Main
characteristics

188
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 9

Type of Glass

FUSED SILICA GLASS SODA-LIME GLASS


Method of Productions Method of Productions

Compositions Compositions

Properties Properties
- Very high melting point - Transparent
- Not easy to change its shape - Low melting point
- Does not easily expand or shrink - Easily shaped
with changes of temperature - Easily broken
- Transparent to ultraviolet ray - Cannot withstand heat & chemical
reaction

Uses Uses

189
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 9

Type of Glass

BOROSILICATE GLASS LEAD CRYSTAL GLASS


Method of Productions Method of Productions

Compositions Compositions

Properties Properties
- Withstand heat & chemical reaction - Very transparent
- High melting point - Shiny
- Transparent to light & infrared ray - High density
but not to ultraviolet ray
- Expand & shrink a little when
temperature changes

Uses Uses

190
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 9

Made from clay at very high temperature and the main


component is silicate.

ceramics

Common
properties

191
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 9

Uses of
ceramics

192
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 9

Composite Materials

Produced from the combination of two or more different


compound such as alloys, metals, glass, ceramic & polymers.

USES OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS

REINFORCED CONCRETE SUPERCONDUCTOR


Compositions Compositions

Properties Properties

Uses Uses

193
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 9

USES OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS

FIBRE GLASS FIBRE OPTICS


Compositions Compositions

Properties Properties

Uses Uses

“Success is not the key to happiness. Happiness is the key to success.


If you love what you are doing, you will be successful.”
- Albert Schweitzer -
194
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 9

USES OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS

PHOTOCHROMIC GLASS CERAMIC GLASS


Compositions Compositions

Properties Properties

Uses Uses

" There are no secrets to success. It is the result of


preparation, hard work, and learning from failure.”
- Colin Powell -

195