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Quark Model

Outline
Outline
Hadrons Hadrons known in 1960
Isospin, Strangeness
Quark Model
3 Flavours u, d, s
Mesons
Pseudoscalar
and vector mesons
Baryons
Decuplet, octet
Hadron Masses
Spin-spin coupling
Heavy Quarks
Charm, bottom,
Heavy quark
Mesons
Top quark

Motivation for Quark Model


Particle “Zoo” proliferates
“ … the finder of a new particle used to be rewarded
by a Nobel prize, but such a discovery ought to be
punished by a $10000 fine” Lamb, 1955

Nuclear and Particle Physics Franz Muheim 1


Isospin
Nucleons
Proton and neutron have almost equal mass
Strong nuclear force is charge independent
Vpp≈ Vpn ≈ Vnn
Isospin
p and n form part of single entity with
isospin ½ analogous to ↑ and ↓ of spin ½
Isospin I is conserved in strong interactions
Addition by rules of angular momentum
Isospin Multiplets
Useful for classification of hadrons, see slide 1
2I+1 states in a isospin muliplet |I, I3 >

Quark Model
Gives natural explanation for Isospin
I 3 = 12 (nu − nd + nd − nu ) ni number of i quarks
Isospin works well
Masses of u and d quark are almost equal
Nuclear and Particle Physics Franz Muheim 2
Isospin Conservation
Conservation Law
Isospin I is conserved in strong interactions
Allows to calculate ratios of cross sections and
branching fractions in strong interactions
Delta(1232) Resonance
Production
Mass 1232 MeV π + p → ∆+ + → π + p
Width 120 MeV π − p → ∆0 → π − p
π − p → ∆0 → π 0 n

Isospin addition
π+ p: 1,1 1
2 , 12 = 3
2 , 32
π−p: 1,−1 1
2 , 12 = 1 3
3 2 ,− 12 − 2 1
3 2 ,− 12
π 0n : 1,0 1
2 ,− 12 = 2 3
3 2 ,− 12 + 1 1
3 2 ,− 12

Matrix element M3 = 3
2 H3 3
2

depends on I, not I3 M1 = 1
2 H1 1
2

( )
M π + p → ∆+ + → π + p = M 3
M (π p → ∆ → π p ) = M + M
− 0 − 1
3 3
2
3 1

Cross sections M (π p → ∆ → π n ) = M − M
− 0 0
3
2
3 3
2
1

σ∝ M σ (π p → ∆ → π p ) ≈ 200 mb ≈ 9x
2
+ ++ +

In agreement with σ (π p → ∆ → all ) ≈ 70 mb ≈ 3x


− 0

I=3/2 Isospin prediction σ (π p → ∆ → π p ) ≈ 23 mb ≈ 1x


− 0 −

Nuclear and Particle Physics Franz Muheim 3


Strangeness
Strange Particles
Discovered in 1947 Rochester and Butler
V, “fork”, and K, “kink”

Production of V(K0, Λ) and K±


π − p → K 0 Λ τ = O (10 −23 s )
via strong interaction,
K 0 → π +π − τ K = 0.89 × 10 −10 s
weak decay 0

Λ → π − p τ Λ = 2.63 × 10 −10 s
Associated Production
Strange particles produced in pairs Pais
Strangeness S
Additive quantum number Gell-Mann Nishijima
Conserved in strong and electromagnetic interactions
Violated in weak decays
Non-zero for Kaons S = 0 : π , p, n, ∆ , ... S = 1: K +, K0
and hyperons S = −1 : K − , K 0 , Λ , Σ , ... S = −2 : Ξ
Naturally explained in quark model S = ns − ns
Nuclear and Particle Physics Franz Muheim 4
Quark Model
33 Quark
Quark Flavours
Flavours u,
u, d,
d, ss
1964 - introduced by Gell-Mann & Zweig

Quark Charge Isospin Strange-


Q [e] |I, I3 > ness S
up (u) +2/3 |½, +½ › 0 Gell-Mann
down (d) -1/3 |½, -½ › 0
strange (s) -1/3 |0,0› -1

Zweig

Charge, Isospin and Strangeness


Additive quark quantum numbers are related
Q = I3 + ½(S + B) not all independent
Gell-Mann Nishijima predates quark model
valid also for hadrons
Baryon number B quarks B = +1/3
anti-quarks B = -1/3
Hypercharge Y = S + B is useful quantum number
Quark model gives natural explanation
Nuclearfor Isospin
and Particle and Strangeness
Physics Franz Muheim 5
Mesons
Bound qq States
Zero net colour charge
Zero net baryon number B = +1/3 +(-1/3) = 0
Angular Momentum L
For lightest mesons
Ground state
L = 0 between quarks
Parity P
Intrinsic quantum number of quarks and leptons
P=+1 for fermions P=-1 for anti-fermions
P (qq ) = Pq Pq (− 1)
L

= (+ 1)(− 1)(− 1) = −1 for L = 0


L

Total Angular Momentum J


r r
J = L+ S include quark spins
S=0 qq spins anti-aligned ↑↓ or ↓↑
Î J P = 0- Pseudo-scalar mesons
S=1 qq spins aligned ↑↑ or ↓↓
Î J P = 1- Vector mesons
Quark flavours
non-zero flavour states
ud , us , du , ds , su , sd
uu , dd , ss zero net flavour states
have identical additive quantum numbers
Physical states are mixtures

Nuclear and Particle Physics Franz Muheim 6


Mesons
Pseudoscalar Mesons JP = 0-

Kaons:
K+, K0, anti-K0, K-
Strangeness S

Pions: π+, π0, π-


Etas: η, η’

Isospin I3
Vector Mesons JP = 1-

Kstar:
K*+, K*0, anti-K*0, K*-
Strangeness S

rho: ρ+, ρ0, ρ-


omega/phi: ω, φ

Isospin I3

Nuclear and Particle Physics Franz Muheim 7


Baryon Decuplet
Baryon Wavefunction
Ψ(total) = Ψ(space) Ψ(spin) Ψ(flavour) Ψ(colour)
Space symmetric - L = 0
Flavour symmetric, e.g. uuu, (udu+duu+uud)/√3
Spin symmetric
all 3 quarks aligned → S = 3/2
Colour antisymmetric

Total antisymmetric - obeys Pauli Exclusion Principle

Baryon Decuplet JP = 3/2+


<Mass>
Delta 1232 MeV
uuu
Strangeness S

Sigma* 1385 MeV

Cascade* 1533 MeV

Omega- 1672 MeV

Isospin

Quark model predicted unobserved state Ω- (sss)

Nuclear and Particle Physics Franz Muheim 8


Baryon Octet
Baryon Wavefunction
Ψ(space) symmetric (L = 0) Ψ(colour) antisymmetric
Mixed symmetric Ψ(spin, flavour)
Flavour mixed symmetric: e.g. (ud - du) u/√2
Spin as flavour: e.g. (↑↓ - ↑↓) ↑/√2
Spin-flavour e.g. (u↑d↓ - d↑u↓ - u↓d↑ + d↓u↑) u↑/√6
Symmetrisation by cyclic permutations
Ψ(proton, s=+½) = ( 2u↑u↑d↓ - u↑u↓d↑- u↓u↑d↑
+2d↓u↑u↑ - d↑u↑u↓- d↑u↓u↑
+2u↑d↑u↓ - u↑d↓u↑- u↓d↑u↑) /√18
Baryon Octet JP = ½+
<Mass>
p,n 938.9 MeV
Strangeness S

Sigma 1193 MeV


Lambda 1116 MeV

Cascade 1318 MeV


(Xi)

Isospin

Lightest baryons stable or long-lived


Antibaryons ( p, n , ...) also form Octet and Decuplet

Nuclear and Particle Physics Franz Muheim 9


Discovery of Ω-
Ω- (sss) Hyperon
Hyperon - baryon with at least one s quark
Quark model predicted existence and mass
Missing member of baryon decuplet JP = 3/2+
discovered 1964 at Brookhaven
K- beam onto hydrogen target
Bubble Chamber detector

K − + p → .Ω − + K − + K 0
a Ξ 0 +π +
a Λ0 + π 0
aγ +γ
a e+e−
a e+e−
aπ−p
Nuclear and Particle Physics Franz Muheim 10
Hadron Masses
Quark Masses
u, d & s quark masses light at short distance
q2 > 1 GeV2 mu < md ~ 5 MeV ms ~ 100 MeV
Constituent mass is relevant for quark model
q2 < 1 GeV2 mu = md ~ 300 MeV ms ~ 500 MeV
Meson Masses
m(K) > m(π) due to ms > mu, md
m(ρ) > m(π) same quark content e.g. ρ+, π+: (u-dbar)
Mass difference is due to quark spins
Chromomagnetic Mass Splitting
Spin-spin coupling of quarks S1 = S2 = 1/2
analogous to hyperfine splitting in el. mag. interaction
r r
r r r Sr ⋅ S
∆E ∝ α S
S1 ⋅ S 2 m ( ) =
m (qq ) = m1 +
q q m + +
1 m +2 A A
m S 1 ⋅ S2
1 2

m1mm m2
2
m1 m 2 21
r r
2
(
1 r r2 r2 1
)
S1 ⋅ S 2 = S 2 − S1 − S 2 = ( S ( S + 1) − S1 ( S1 + 1) − S 2 ( S 2 + 1))
2
⎧ 3 1
⎪ 1− 4 = 4 S =1
=⎨
3
⎪ 0− = −
3 Mass [MeV]
S=0

Meson Prediction Experiment
4 4
Meson Masses
π 140 138
mu = md = 310 MeV
K 484 496
ms = 483 MeV
A = (2mu)2 · 160 MeV ρ 780 770
Excellent agreement ω 780 782
What about eta(‘)? K* 896 894
Nuclear and Particle Physics φFranz Muheim 1032 1019
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Heavy Quarks
Charm and bottom quarks
Charmonium (c-cbar) --- see QCD lecture
1977 Discovery of Upsilon States
Interpretation is
Bottomonium (b-bar)
Spectroscopy
Charmonium
and Upsilon
mc ~ 1.1 … 1.4 GeV
mb ~ 4.1 … 4.5 GeV

Heavy-light Mesons and Baryons


Charmed (c-quark) hadrons
J P = 0− D 0 = cu , D + = cd , Ds+ = cs ,
J P = 1− D *0 = cu , D *+ = cd , Ds*+ = cs ,

1
J = P
Λ+c = cud
2
Bottom-quark hadrons
J P = 0− B + = ub , B 0 = db , Bs0 = sb ,
J P = 1− B * + = ub , B *0 = db , Bs*0 = sb ,

1
J =
P
Λ0b = bud
2
Top quark
Decays before forming bound states
mt ~Particle
Nuclear and
174 Physics
GeV discovered in 1995 at Fermilab
Franz Muheim 12