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Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

Personal Reflection

Positive learning environments are as varied as the teachers and students within them.

However, a common factor to all positive learning environments is a teacher who has

formulated a philosophy of teaching and a classroom management model based on personal

experience, sound pedagogy collegiality, theory and reflective practice.

I believe good teaching is about understanding your students and knowing how they learn

best; their individual interests, backgrounds, motivations, learning styles and welfare

concerns. Good teachers prepare meaningful and engaging lessons and provide timely and

relevant feedback. They cater for all students and encourage students to accept responsibility

for their own learning instilling an appreciation for education, encouraging lifelong learners

and learning.

I promote classrooms as places where students belong, can interact with peers and have

choice and voice in an atmosphere of mutual respect. Good teaching practice fosters a

learning space that sets clear, realistic rules, expectations and consequences for students.

Ultimately the classroom should be a positive environment, whereby students are engaged,

accepted and supported by their teacher and peers. Additionally, good communication

between a teacher and student is vital to a positive classroom climate because it allows the

student (s) the opportunity to self-reflect and evaluate their behaviours. Positive verbal and

non-verbal ques are influential in promoting a positive learning climate. Moreover, this

constructs the foundation from which the student/ teacher relationship is built, as

communication is a two-way process that involves multi-channelled messages and feedback.

Reflection is critical to improving teacher practice and ultimately student outcomes.

Constructive feedback from my mentor whilst on professional practice, allowed me to assess

and evaluate the strategies and interventions I had implemented to improve student behaviour
Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

and classroom management. Open and honest reflection after each lesson enabled me to

refine my pedagogy and build on the strengths of previous lessons. Subsequently, this

supported me in refining my teaching practice and my personal and behaviour management

philosophy. Also influential in this process were my understandings of current behaviour

theory particularly: Rudolf Dreikurs Goal-centered Theory (1986), the Psycho-educational

Interventions Theory and the Social Emotional Learning Model.

The learning space I formulated was underpinned and influenced by my teaching philosophy,

from which I similarly crafted my classroom management model.

Dreikurs’ Goal-centered approach requires teachers to seek out need-based reasons for why

their students are motivated to behave and to then discuss other ways for these needs to be

met (Lyons, Ford, & Arthur-Kelly, 2006). I also propose that the psycho-educational

approach to learning, which considers all aspects of the student: thinking, feeling, beliefs and

attitudes, works hand in hand with the goal-centered approach.

When dealing with a challenging student, who may also have very low self-esteem, it is the

role of the teacher to re-engage him/ her by setting goals that are based on a mutual

agreement- behavioural contract. This will highlight to that student that the teacher cares,

supports and understands why the student is misbehaving in that way and will show the

student that the teacher is willing to work with the student towards creating and setting goals

that will combat that behaviour- this requires the use of the psycho-educational principles

such as: supporting student self-esteem via encouragement and the re-emergence of self-

actualisation.

Strategies I used during practicum that combined the two approaches included: consistency in

approach to negotiated classroom rules and consequences which were clearly displayed,

establishment of IBM contracts and plans, giving student choice and voice, building positive
Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

relationships, filling the gap between teacher/student via encouragement and support,

speaking softly in a non-threatening manner and praising students for their achievements

(positive reinforcement/ non-threatening gestures), building rapport with the students via

smiling, laughing and remembering their hobbies and sporting clubs etc. thus limiting barriers

that can negatively affect a positive student/teacher relationship. These approaches to

behavioural management required the understanding that not all students are the same nor do

they behave in the same way.

My primary aim during prac was to motivate students through engagement, and support the

learning process by providing emotional and intellectual support. My intent was to ensure an

opportunity to succeed regardless of academic ability, culture and socio-economic status. I

programmed, the pace of the content taught, whilst still making it fun and engaging. The

learning activities I used were both student and teacher directed, with clear instructions and

scaffolds. The classroom was orderly and organised, Most students felt encouraged to

explore their learning options and use these scaffolds to connect with a range of learning

opportunities however many went off task and I feel I needed to have better non- verbal cues

to redirect their learning, especially in group tasks where the whole group could be easily

influenced. Stronger implementation of group work rules and consequences regarding peer

collaboration and individual based activities would help in the future. I would like to try more

group activities in a collaborative approach to learning which allows for greater

differentiation, student choice and voice, leadership in learning, and team building which

enhances student behaviour.

I implemented formative assessment into my lesson plans as a means of testing the students

learnt and prior knowledge. Summative assessment is also a valuable way to provide data

about student learning achievement and behaviour but should never be used as the only way

of assessing student growth and learning. The use of structured lesson plans that engage
Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

students was extremely beneficial to my teaching and classroom management however I will

aim in future to incorporate a greater ICT component particularly when using models such as

Bloom’s for differentiation. I have had little practical experience in developing assessment

tasks but I want to develop challenging, yet achievable assessments in the future which

remove stress and stress related misbehaviours

I believe that my teaching philosophy is change agile; as new evidence comes to life and I

learn from new experiences, my personal philosophy and teaching practice is bound to shift.

I will endeavour to continue to implement a reflective approach in my professional

development as a teacher and engage in my own professional learning whilst working with

peers and students to create positive classroom environments.


Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

References

Adell, M.A. (2002). Strategies for improving performance in adolescence. Maldrd: Piramide.

Collins, J. W., & O'Brien, N. P. (Eds.). (2003). Greenwood Dictionary of


Education.Westport, CT: Greenwood.

Curry- Bowran, B. (2013). Goal-Centered Theory. Retrieved:


https://prezi.com/ga2mnn8zyfhr/goal-centered-theory/

Dreikurs, R., Grunwald, B. B., & Pepper, F. C. (1982). Maintaining sanity in the

classroom. Classroom management techniques (2nd ed.). New York: Harper &

Row.

Heckman, J. J., J. Stixrud, and S. Urzua (2006, July). The effects of cognitive and non-
cognitive abilities on labour market outcomes and social behaviour. Journal of
Labour Economics 24 (3), 411–482.

Killu, K. (2008). Developing effective behavior intervention plans: Suggestions for school
personnel. Intervention in School and Clinic, 43(3), 140-149

Lyons, G., Ford, M., & Slee, J. (Eds.). (2014). Classroom management: Creating positive
learning environments (4th ed.). South Melbourne, Australia: Cengage Learning.

Mullin, L. (2005). Management and Organisational behaviour. (7th ed). Retrieved:


https://www.scribd.com/doc/212744694/Management-and-Organisational-
Behaviour-

NSW Department of Education and Communities. (2016). Newman’s prompts- Curriculm


Support- Finding out why students make mistakes. Retrieved:
http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/primary/mathematics/numeracy
/newman/

O’Neil. R. E., Horner, R. H., Sprague, J.R., Storey, K., & Newton, J. S. (1996). Functional
Assessment of Problem Behaviors: A Practical Assessment Guide (2nd ed.).

Sewaton, M., Parker, P., Marsh, H., Craven, R., & Yeung, A. (2013). The Reciprocal
Relations between Self-Concept, Motivation and Achievement: Juxtaposing Academic
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Self-Concept and Achievement Goal Orientations for Mathematics Success.


Educational Psychology, v34 n1 p49-72 2014. Retrieved:
http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1029135

Saiduddin, J. (2003). Factors Affecting Achievement at Junior High School on the Pine Ridge
Reservation. Spain: Ohio State University.

Sencibaugh, J. M. (2005). A synthesis of content strategies for teaching students with


learning problems at the secondary level. Retrieved:
http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED494310.pdf

Zirpoli, T. J. (2012). Positive behavioral supports. In Behavior management: Positive


applications for teachers (6th ed., pp. 257-287). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

Developing your philosophy of classroom


management
John De Nobile
School of Education, Macquarie University
With adaptations by Roberto H Parada , School of Education, University of Western Sydney

This resource consists of a series of linked activities chapter-by-chapter to Lyons et al.


Classroom Management: Creating positive learning environments 4E. These activities enable
you to progressively work on and develop your own philosophy, plan and style of classroom
management.

A classroom philosophy, simply put, is a statement of what you believe about how to best
manage a class and how you will go about achieving that vision. This resource will help you
build it bit by bit. Complete the activities linked to each chapter of the text and by the end
of chapter 10 you should be able to bring your work together to form your classroom
philosophy.
Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

(Week 1)Chapter 1: Modelling classroom management


In this chapter you have gained a small insight into the hectic world of teachers starting out,
and have been exposed to the bases of a good classroom management plan through the
Lyford Model. The following activities are designed to get you thinking about your own
model of teaching and classroom management.

1.1 What is a ‘good teacher’? Think about the teachers from your days in primary and
secondary schooling. What qualities did they have that made them ‘good’? Make a list
in the box below.

 A good listener- understanding & kind


 Helpful- provides help wherever possible especially for those students who do not understand
something, even if the rest of the class does.
 Provides good instructions for activities in class/ explicit instructions for assessments
 Has a positive attitude towards teaching/ learning- sets goals and expectations that are
reasonable
 Fair and consistent, supportive, caring, good sense of humour

1.2 Using the Lyford Model as a starting point, what do you think are the key considerations
when a teacher is planning their strategy for classroom management? After making
some rough notes, pick out the most important ones and list them below.

 The Model offers a dynamic approach to individual teacher’s relationships, processes and
classroom management practices, in other words, “praxis”.
 The need to create an environment where all children feel they belong and where
teachers thrive.
 Third consideration of the model- that classroom management is an integral part of
everything else that functions in learning environments to promote student engagement
and learning.
 Four positive practices- Classroom organisation- major contributor in effective classroom
management practice

1.3 With your responses to the last two activities as a source of ideas, complete the
sentence in the box below.

I believe good teaching is about understanding your students and knowing how they learn best.
Quality teaching is about knowing your students well; their individual interests, backgrounds,
motivations and learning styles. A good teacher should engage students in the content being
taught by creating a learning environment that is comfortable and safe. Good teachers put
effort into preparing lessons, marking work and giving extra time to children who need it.
Quality teachers encourage students to accept responsibility for their own learning and instil in
them an appreciation for education, by making them lifelong learners.
Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

(Week 2)Chapter 2: Classroom management theory


In this chapter you have been introduced to some theories of behaviour/classroom
management. More are presented in the online companion. Some of these might have
caused you to react in some way, either negatively or positively. Of the ones you developed
a positive feeling about, was there a particular theory that stood out? Was there a theory or
approach that you felt might fit your view of how children should be treated and how
teaching happens? Think about this before responding to the activities.

2.1 In the box below, list the theories that you think are ‘not for you’ under the heading
‘Not me’, and the theories that you think are more favourable under the heading ‘More
like me’.

Not me More like me


 Goal Centered Theory
 Psycho-educational Theory
 Assertive Discipline

2.2 Now take a closer look at the theories you placed in the ‘More like me’ column. Read
the suggested readings provided in this chapter and the online companion. Get to know
the theories more intimately. Use this new knowledge, specifically the key philosophies
behind the theories (or theory), to develop your own statement of belief about the sort
of places classrooms should be. Complete the following sentence and perhaps add
another to accompany it.

I believe classrooms should be places where students feel they belong, can interact with
their peers and are able to voice their opinions, whilst respecting others. I believe
classrooms should provide the tools for student learning- walls that teach & explicit
differentiation of content, as well as fostering a learning space that sets clear rules and
expectations for the students to follow. A classroom should be a positive environment,
whereby students are engaged, accepted and supported by their teacher.
Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

(Week 3)Chapters 3 & 6: Relationships, communication & Professional


reflexivity
Effective communication is a key component of effective classroom management, and
quality teaching depends on it. This chapter describes some very useful skills for dealing
with inappropriate student behaviour in a non-confrontational and positive way. Being
aware of non-verbal cues will lead a teacher to be more sensitive to how their messages are
being received as well as how to send messages and provide feedback more effectively.
Active listening allows teachers and students to interact with minimal interference from
underlying emotional factors. I-messages provide the teacher with a tool to convey to
students how their behaviour is affecting the class in a non-submissive, informative and
positive manner.

Teaching philosophies often describe the way a teacher will interact with their students and
this, in turn, provides a window into the classroom climate that a teacher is trying to
establish. The following activities should help you to identify your preferred way of
communicating with the class generally as well as in dealing with inappropriate behaviour.
After completing them you should have a better idea of how your classroom philosophy will
describe your communication style in the classroom.

3.1 After reading this chapter and doing some of your own follow-up reading, list in the
boxes below which communication methods you are most attracted to, and which ones
you have not tried but would not mind practising to see if they might work for you.

My preferred communication style Things I’d like to try out


 Active listening  Gesture, posture
 Negotiating

3.2 You will need to pre-empt the communication paragraph in your philosophy with a
sentence or two underpinning or justifying it. Using your readings of the chapter, in
particular the Relationships and communication, Interference, Communication process
and Non-verbal communication sections, complete the sentence in the box below. You
might need to add a second or even a third sentence.
I believe that good communication between a teacher and student is vital to a positive
classroom climate because it allows the student (s) the opportunity to self-reflect and evaluate
their behaviours. Ultimately this constructs the foundation from which the student/ teacher
relationship is built, as communication is a two-way process that involves multi-channelled
messages and feedback. The element involved in effective communication requires an in depth
understanding of practical strategies that will aim to enhance the communication process
between teacher and students. This understanding ensures the best classroom management.
Teachers should be aware that the impact of the communication processes- sending messages
for example via: verbal, gestures, non-verbal ques, needs to be modified accordingly depending
on the student and their behaviour in the classroom. This approach to the communication
process will foster cultural sensitivity in the classroom and allow for different ways of acting and
communicating.
Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

3.3 To complete your paragraph on communication you will now need to identify the key
strategies you will use. Take another look at the lists in 3.1 and pick the most suitable of
these to complete the section below.

Therefore, in my teaching practice I will implement the ‘Review cycle’ of the Lyford Model of
classroom management. This component of the model focuses on the need to implement
communication strategies that teach the content effectively whilst considering the socio-cultural and
psychological needs of each individual student. In practice this would be achieved via active listening.
Active listening is a strategy that embodies the skills of reflection, active empathy and responsive
listening. By underpinning this strategy in practice, students can see that the teacher is listening and
cares. This provides a strong relationship- building potential between the teacher and student.

This week you also looked at how personal beliefs can help or hinder in your relationships
and communication with students.

3.3 Briefly outline your understanding of how beliefs can help or hinder your ability to
create positive learning environments:

Teacher’s personal beliefs can affect positive learning environments as they can sometimes
interfere with the delivery of teaching practice. Any negative prior thoughts can affect the
communication process and hinder the relationship a teacher has with their students. The outpour
of negativity i.e.: holding unrealistic, over demanding, absolutist ideas about classroom
management will ultimately disengage the student in their learning experience. Setting unrealistic
expectations can hinder a teacher’s effectiveness and their ability to respond to student behaviours
(Nucci, 2002). However, in a more positive way, I personally believe that if a teacher at the start of
each lesson brings with them: self-awareness, proactive thinking— (indiscipline will happen at some
stage), a caring and welcoming approach to teaching in the classroom, engaging classroom layout
and resources, a high and specific set of expectations that are also achievable and appropriate, a
realistic set of classroom rules, routines and procedures, then, teaching and prevention of student
indiscipline will be limited and rather, successful student learning will transpire as a result of a
positive learning environment.

Chapter 6: Professional reflexivity


The last of the four positive practices is professional reflexivity. Good teachers reflect on
what they do frequently, during lessons as well as afterwards. Examining how well things
worked, or how things didn’t work as well as planned, helps teachers to inform their future
teaching and consequently improve their practice. This chapter discusses at length an action
research model that can be used to encourage professional reflexivity. There are, of course,
other models to consider as indicated in the reference list at the end of the chapter.

Your teaching philosophy should describe how and for what purpose you might engage in a
cycle of professional reflexivity, be it through critical analysis using various perspectives or
an action research model, or both.
Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

6.1 Why should teachers engage in professional reflexivity? By reading this chapter you will
get a clear idea about the benefits of reflection on and in action. Once you have given
this some thought and done some further reading, complete the following sentence.

I believe professional reflexivity is important to teaching because it provides teachers with an


opportunity to reflect and assess one’s own teaching practices, via mentoring and collegial
support. This nurtures professional development of the teacher. The purposes of
reflective practice and peer-to-peer exchange is an essential characteristic of professional
dialogue and can enhance the quality of reflective practice.

An important component of this process is evaluation of teaching programs. Formative


evaluations, which are carried out as a program, help determine what works best; includes
needs assessments; evaluability assessment; structured conceptualisation; and
implementation/fidelity evaluations. This significantly assists in professional reflexivity as it
can be used a tool that drives the action plan. Being a reflective practitioner at any stage of
teacher development involves a constant, critical look at teaching and learning and at the
work of you, the teacher.

6.2 Having thought up a justification for it, how will you go about engaging in reflection
about your practice in your teaching career? Once you have thought this out, think of
some practical and achievable ways you can engage in professional reflexivity and
complete the next sentence.

I will endeavour to implement a reflective approach in my professional development as a teacher.


Reflective activities such as: discussion with colleagues about professional development and
teaching will support a more open consideration of a range of interpretations that can then be
put into my teaching practices. Developing professional knowledge and building on collegial
relationships, will enable me to develop reflexivity in future teaching contexts. Feedback is critical
throughout this process and mentoring in my opinion is highly influential.
Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

(Week 4)Chapter 4: Classroom organisation and Curriculum, assessment and


pedagogy
Classroom management is not just about managing behaviour. At the heart of teaching and
learning are the curriculum taught, the pedagogy used and the assessment designed to
measure how well that curriculum was taught and how well the pedagogy worked. This
chapter takes you through these three areas one at a time.

The next part of your teaching philosophy will be about how you will deliver curriculum and
assess student achievement/growth. After reading this chapter, please reflect on the
following:
 What will you take into consideration when planning your teaching program?
 How will you know what to teach and where to start?
 What are the many ways in which your students could demonstrate achievement other
than tests and quizzes?
 What teaching approaches will you use and what philosophical views will your
pedagogies reflect?

4.1 Using the PIR Cycle as a stimulus, explain how you will go about planning your teaching
program in the box below.

Planning is crucial for effective teaching and learning. When planning lessons and programs, I will
endeavour to implement PIR by considering the following:
Purpose and relevance of the lesson I am teaching and establishing an expectation of success. I
will aim to motivate students through engagement and support the learning process by providing
emotional and intellectual support. I will ensure that the opportunity to succeed is made readily
available to each student, regardless of their academic ability, culture and socio-economic status.
When programming, I will pace the content being taught, whilst still making it fun and enjoyable.
The learning activities I use will be both student and teacher directed, with clear instructions
given to students, so that students can be shown through scaffolding, explicitly what is being
asked of them. Students will then feel encouraged to explore their learning options and use
these scaffolds to connect with a range of learning opportunities to create work and reach
optimum growth both alone and in group scenarios. The activities I use in my classroom, will
involve peer collaboration and individual based activities. When planning a program, I will use a
range of strategies that will cater to all students in my class. The resources I use will reflect the
learning capabilities of the student cohort; as such I will make these resources available to all
students and integrate the use of computer assisted programs to keep students engaged in their
learning.

4.2 Why is assessment important? What types of assessment will you develop and why?
Answer these two questions below.

Assessment is an important part of the learning cycle. It allows teachers to construct lessons and
programs that are appropriate to the needs of each student. Assessment tracks where the learner
is at and what areas of the course work a student may or may not be understanding. For teachers
assessment is a tool that guides instructions and differentiation of content being taught.
Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

Assessment informs teachers of what is already known, levels of knowledge and the strength and
weakness of each student.

In my teaching practice I wish to develop assessments that are challenging, but achievable. I
believe that assessment should test the students’ knowledge and what they have learnt in class,
but also allow a student the opportunity to successfully master a skill/ outcomes.

I believe that formative assessment is a great way to carry out this approach as it can be achieved
in class, without making the students feel pressured or anxious. This also benefits the teacher in
terms of tracking student progress and collecting student data which allows the teacher to reflect
on the lesson being carried out. The primary aim of formative assessment is to assess if the
student is making reasonable progress towards the learning outcomes. Formative assessment is a
great tool to use in practice, as it removes the feelings of stress from the students. In my
experience as a prac teacher, I believe that the majority of students become anxious and stress
levels are heightened during the lead up to an exam or class quiz. In order to remove that added
stress, formative assessment can be implemented easily into the lesson plan whilst testing
student understanding of course work. Summative assessment is also a valuable way to provide
data about student learning and achievement but should not ever be used as the only way of
assessing student growth and learning

4.3 Pedagogy refers to how you will teach the curriculum. Usually, the type of pedagogy
you implement is influenced by a basic belief about how students best learn. After
considering your pedagogical approach and strategies, complete the sentences below.

I believe that student’s learn best through highly effective student engagement strategies.
Student engagement and success rely heavily on the types of teaching that is taught. Tasks
should be achievable so that students can experience success. Making activities fun, whilst
content driven allows the student to enjoy their learning. The classroom setting is an
important component of this process. Learning activities that are meaningful, interesting
and significant, are viewed by the student as relevant and worthwhile.

In my teaching practice I will continue to use structured lesson plans that engage students. I
will aim to implement ICT and chalk/ talk activities that will offer each student with an
opportunity to learn- catering to each student’s needs. Additionally I will encourage
students to work in small groups in a collaborative approach to learning. This approach
allows for greater differentiation, leadership in learning and team building and as such is an
important teaching strategy. I will also differentiate my teaching to cater for all students via
content, instruction and product

During my professional practice experience this year, I was able to construct lesson plans
that were highly engaging. I implemented formative assessment into my lesson plans as a
means of testing the students learnt and prior knowledge. I also implemented post testing
to measure growth around the learning outcomes for the unit. The pre testing allowed me
to assess each students ability and understanding of key concepts in the unit and informed
my teaching practice. I used ‘post-it-notes’ and asked students to write down 2 key points
they had learnt during my lesson. I also asked students to demonstrate their learning by
Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

using their Ipad device. These small tasks were only 5 minute tasks that tested the students
learning, listening and literacy skills, but moreover allowed for me to understand the
students and how they learn best. It provided me with feedback on how I could best deliver
my next lesson and where I needed to differentiate the content I was teaching.

I believe that a pedagogical approach that caters to all student needs is critical for teaching
the curriculum. Pedagogy can develop a deeper understanding of what is informing our
practice and why we work in particular ways. This helps us to make our practice more
visible both to others and ourselves.

Chapter 5: Classroom organisation


As explained in this chapter, there are several dimensions to classroom organisation. Each of
these put together become the manifestation of your classroom culture. Your classroom
culture is, simply put, the way your class operates and incorporates:
 rules and procedures
 organisation of the physical space.

It is now time to think about how your teaching philosophy will describe these two aspects
and explain them in terms of an overarching set of beliefs or approaches. After reading this
chapter, complete the next two activities.

5.1 What values do you hold as important to establishing an orderly, productive and
positive classroom? Answer this question below, then list the key rules/expectations
you think flow naturally from those values and which you want to stress in your class.
Complete the section by explaining how rules and consequences will be established in
your classroom.

The values I uphold in my classroom stem from the idea of Respectful relationships. I believe
that the teacher (I) should respect each student and their needs. I believe that If I show
respect, then in return I should be shown respect by the students. This means that I expect
my students to: respect each other, the teacher and the learning space. Establishment of
this classroom culture in collaborative manner students aware of learning space
expectations in a fair way. I do not believe that students should be made to feel that the
teacher controls the classroom, but rather that they learn to control their own learning by
following these rules. The teacher is there to monitor and guide and facilitate students
engagement in respectful relationships which have been established jointly and the
consequences known and negotiated prior to the commencement of the school year
Reciprocated respect will shape the foundation of a positive student/ teacher relationship
and accordingly, should, make for an orderly and productive classroom.

In terms of behaviour management strategies that can be implemented in the classroom to


further assist in this process, I feel that classroom organisation is crucial. This can be
achieved by using a seating plan that reinforces to the students the standards at which they
have to behave. This creates a level of respect- if the student respects what the teacher is
Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

asking of them (i.e.: to sit in the appropriate seat), then the teacher in turn will show
respect to the student. When clear-cut boundaries are set, there is no room for confusion
about behavioural expectations, therefore it is more likely that students will behave in
accordance with the expected standards.

For each rule, I believe there should be a consequence. However, the rules that are instilled
in the classroom environment should be: purposeful, logical and achievable. For example: as
a teacher I would ask that students show respect to me, by not speaking whilst I am
speaking. If and when they choose to speak, they should raise their hand, rather than yelling
across the room whilst I am talking. If a student or the class was not able to follow this rule, I
would give out a warning. I would not warn the class or an individual student more than 3
times. After the third warning, the consequence would be that the student/ class would find
themselves on detention during their spare time.

5.2 What should your classroom look like to visitors entering it. Why? Think about this then
answer the question and explain how you might organise:
 seating
 classroom space (displays, colours, furniture, etc).

I think that the classroom space should be an environment that reflects the students and
the teacher. In my classroom I will have student work (displays) and examples of class work
pinned on the walls.
This is a good way to show visitors the work the students have been doing throughout the
year and also visually reinforces to students the achievements they have made. I feel that
the classroom should be the ‘student’s space’, thus is should be vibrant, colourful and the
walls should be something in which the students can learn from. Vocabulary signs, posters
and pictures are good examples of things a visitor would find in my classroom.

The furniture in a classroom should be set up in a way that the students feel comfortable,
but also in a way that the teacher, if standing at the front, middle or back of the room has
complete access and vision of each and every student throughout the lesson. This will
support behaviour management. Seating arrangements could be flexible dependant on the
activity and the engagement of students in on task work

(Week 5).Chapter 7: Interventions & Evaluation


Interventions bring the focus of your philosophy back to the behaviour management aspect
of classroom management. The first part of this chapter explains intervention as something
that is done to one or more aspects of the classroom milieu to improve a situation that is
getting out of hand (or has the potential to), usually as a result of inappropriate behaviour
that threatens the stability of the learning environment. The chapter presents approaches
to intervention according to the three theoretical orientations introduced in chapters 1
and 2.
Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

7.1 After reading this chapter ask yourself the following questions and record your answers.

Which approach am I most Why? How would I use this in


comfortable working with? practice?
(You can chose more than 1)
1. Psychoeducational Focuses on a positive Active listener; facilitating
theory- approach learning environment; and encouraging self-
supports self-esteem; centered approach to
underpins the need to strive rebuilding self-esteem and
to achieve their self- setting goals; re-
perceived potential; builds a engagement of the student
positive student/ teacher by becoming a mentor by
relationship. showing the student that
you value and accept the
student’s worldview.
Encourages the student
2. Goal-centered theory- rather than focusing on their Make students aware of
approach flaws; encourage students to their misbehaviour but
be engaged and reinforces redirect them be
the need to behave encouraging them; focus on
appropriately; teaches the positive not the negative
students discipline; is goal behaviour; use alternative
orientated and driven; based methods to achieve mutual
on mutual respect and goals with the student-
encouragement. cooperative behaviour/ ask
the student to make a
choice; giving choices and
logical sequences.

7.2 Did you list more than one approach? If so, how might the two (or more) approaches
work together as a behaviour management strategy (or sequence of strategies in a
plan)?

I think that the psychoeducational approach, which considers all aspects of the student:
thinking, feeling, beliefs and attitudes, works hand in hand with the goal-centered approach,
as the goal centered approach focuses on driving change, by re-directing the students
behaviour through goal centered learning. This means that a challenging student, who may
also have very low self-esteem, needs the teacher to re-engage him/ her by setting goals
that are based on a mutual agreement. This will highlight to that student that the teacher
cares, supports and understands why the student is misbehaving in that way and will show
the student that the teacher is willing to work with the student towards creating and setting
goals that will combat that behaviour- this requires the use of the psychoeducational
principles such as: supporting student self-esteem via encouragement and the re-
emergence of self-actualisation.
Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

Strategies that combine these two approaches include: being consistent in your approach to
managing behaviour with particular students, building on positive relationships- make
students that are disengaged feel a part of their learning, fill the gap between teacher and
student by encouraging and supporting them, don’t yell at students, but rather praise them
for their achievements, build rapport with the students by smiling, laughing and breaking
down those social construct barriers that can limit a positive teacher and take a whole-class
approach, but have individualised aspects to meet all your student’s needs. When it comes
to behaviour management not all students are the same, so make sure to implement
strategies hat work for each individual student, without targeting or singling them out.

7.3 Having thought through the approaches and how you would apply them, it is time to
nail down your intervention strategy. First, write about the approach (or approaches)
you believe will work best and why.

If intervention for behaviour management is needed, I believe that the best approach to
take in order to tackle a difficult situation is to firstly, assess the situation and ask the
question: “why?” why is this student behaving in this way. Secondly, implement strategies
that are applicable for that student after knowing the reasons for their misbehaviour. In my
opinion, a goal centered approach is a great way to apply these strategies. For example: the
frequent and consistent use of encouragement will allow students the opportunity to
choose appropriate behaviour if they believe it will enable them to satisfy their need to
belong. Teachers should plan to encourage each student particularly those that are
misbehaving, in every situation.

7.4 Now write about how you would put the above into practice.

In line with this thinking, I will put this into practice by; creating and fostering mutual respect
and value for each student, identifying and responding to students strengths and abilities,
using substantial encouragement t minimize disencourgament and meet the students primary
social need to belong and be valued by facilitating regular whole class conversation about
rules, challenges and achievement (Lyons, ford, & Arthur-Kelly, 2006).

7.5 Having written an overview of your intervention plan, go back to your earlier
statements, particularly your responses to 1.3, 2.2, 3.3 and 5.1. In light of 7.3 and 7.4 do
you need to modify any of these? If so, make the changes now.

This week we also discussed the importance of considering evaluation for interventions
Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

7.6 Briefly outline below how you would go about documenting and monitoring an
intervention with a student(s) or class for effectiveness.

Taking into consideration the need to have objective measures of effectiveness of an


intervention I will monitor student progress in the following ways;
I will use goal-centered strategies to intervene with more challenging students by;
identifying what motivates their behaviours, collecting data and evidence regarding the
behaviour/behaviours and after the intervention assessing whether that behaviour has
changed for the better or not. This could be achieved via peer observation where a
colleague observes my class for the behaviours I have been workin on improving and
records what is seen. This can then be compared to the original data. recording and taking a
mental note of their mis-behaviour and what factors have contributed towards the
manifestation of that behaviour. I will assist student in pursuing a positive rather than
mistaken goals to meet their need of belonging and by encouraging the discouraged. Early
and prompt intervention of the misbehaviour will mean that I can monitor the student
progress and act in accordance with that. As a teacher, by using these principles I will be
able to measure the success of the strategy I have implemented for the class or individual
student. Ensuring provision of explicit instruction and appropriate expectation of the
classroom setting would also influence how I would document and monitor the progress of
the intervention.

(Week 6) Chapter 8: Stories from the field (Personal Reading)


In this chapter there are 10 stories where teachers and others describe an aspect of their
experience with classroom management in the real world. The online companion website
presents even more. To complete the activity below please read between three and five of
these. They will provide you with a variety of models of practice in classroom management
and might trigger new ideas to include in your philosophy of teaching.

8.1 After reading some of the case studies (E.g., 8 in the text Lisa, 9 Andrew, 10 Wendy and
16, 19, 20 etc online), what would you add about aspects of your classroom
management that have not been mentioned so far in your philosophy? Add these in the
box below in rough draft form. You can refine them later in 10.1.

 Establish a daily timetable of lessons to promote routine and security for students
 Involve parents in establishing an ILP for each student and regularly provide
feedback.
 Work as a team with all stake holders- students, parents, support staff and
interagency to support growth in student outcomes.
 Be approachable and build positive, respectful relationships with your students.
 Assess each student’s ability to access the work and establish if there are any
cognitive or physical issues which are limiting their ability to reach bench marks if so,
seek support in these areas from relevant staff and make adjustments and
Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

accommodations to teaching programs where needed.


 Make sure that all students have access to the curriculum by differentiating the
instruction or content.
 Ensure small successes for each student in their learning to establish a sense of
worth and confidence – promoting leaps of faith in learning.
 Re engage students with their learning via Multiple intelligences activities which
cater to individual learning style.
 Build rapport with students by establishing a caring, inclusive, supportive and
consistent learning environment.
 Encourage students to have a love of learning by modelling a love of your subject
area.
 Be a guide on the side when needed rather than the sage on the stage
 Understand the nexus between curriculum and welfare.
 View the whole student.
 Constantly reflect on your practice, be positive and flexible.
 Reward and celebrate success in a variety of ways eg awards, classroom displays mini
assemblies.
 Create a classroom layout that promotes productive partnerships with the teacher
and students.
 Collaboratively establish classroom rules. These rules should be visible and referred
to when questioning student behaviour which is unacceptable, students should be
aware of the consequences for breaking classroom rules.
 Remember that each day is a new beginning for both the student and teacher
 Seek advice and support from colleagues.
 Establish key learning goals for each lesson and highlight them on the whiteboard.
Have students articulate and rate their learning for the lesson against these goals
 Regularly ask student to rate your teaching practice.
 Provide timely feedback for both behaviour and learning against established criteria.
 Know my students and how they learn. Use base data to assess student ability and
make adjustments and accommodations where necessary.
 Utilise support that is available systemically.
Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

 Provide students with a voice and choice in their learning via differentiated
instruction of content and product.
 Encourage collegial and reciprocal learning through group activities.
 Promote student leadership by assigning responsibilities to students and rewarding
these students on their consistent and mature approach to their task.
 Engage in a learning community to further extend my knowledge around particular
aspects of my teaching which I consider would help me with my teaching practice.

(Week 7) Principles of Behaviour Modification. Zirporli T.J. (2012). Ch10 and


Killu, K. (2008)
This week we looked at fundamental aspects of behaviourism and learning. Ziporli and Killu
provide examples of the application of such theory and research to classroom management
and behaviour change. Important concepts such as reinforcement, functional purpose of
behaviour and behaviour shaping are discussed
7.1 After reading Ziporli and Killu and reflecting on the lecture content what would you add
about aspects of your classroom management that have not been mentioned so far in
your philosophy? Add these in the box below in rough draft form. You can refine them
later in 10.1.

I believe that people behave differently in different environments and that each
environment contains its own set of antecedents and consequences. The development of a
new behaviour by successive reinforcement (positive) can increase the rate, duration or
intensity of specified target behaviour. I also feel that it is the misconception of many
people to think that certain behaviour deserves punishment in order to fix the problematic
behaviour. I believe that successful behavioural management in the classroom requires that
the teacher Informs the misbehaving student of their behaviour by using non-threatening
gestures, this means letting the student know they have your attention. By providing
positive attention to positive behaviours- this could be achieved in practice by using a
personal cue in the classroom that reminds you to give attention to behaviours the student
will feel that like they are achieving success in the classroom.
To add to this idea, by involving students that are misbehaving with their own personal
behavioural contract, will further allow the teacher to positively reinforce appropriate
behaviour. This can be specifically mentioned in an agreement crafted by the teacher and
student, which should also clearly outline the associated consequences for failure to
comply, e.g.: classroom expectations.

Zirpoli (2012) suggests that positive behaviour support (PBS) refers to the use of positive
reinforcement as the principal method of changing behaviour. Implementation of simple
positive reinforcement strategies employed at the classroom level by the teacher can have a
significant influence on the social climate of the classroom environment. By providing
challenging students with social praise for following appropriate behaviour. The
implementation of an effective positive reinforcer such as praise increases the student’s
Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

appropriate behaviour in the future and decreases the frequency of disruptive classroom
behaviour. Zirpoli (2012) also suggests that positive notes home or programs that engage
the student in positive reinforcing behaviours (extra curricula activities), may be necessary
to maintain acceptable behavioural performance of that student.

To extend on this notion, Killu (2008) discusses behavioural intervention plan, which aim at
implementing strategies into the classroom to limit behaviour problems that impede on
classroom performance. Classroom behaviour management strategies outlined by Killu
(2008) include: establishing classroom rules and redirection of specifically targeted
behaviours. This can be carried out via functional behaviour assessment, whereby the
teacher can assess the challenging behaviour, which will then lead to the strategies and
individuated intervention plans for the student.
Applying an intervention plan means using rewards, contingent upon the occurrence of
desired behaviour. As a teacher this can best be applied by the principle of positive
reinforcement, where a response is followed by the presentation of a stimulus- i.e.: the
reward, thereby increasing the future probability of tat response not occurring. As an
aspiring teacher, I would include this approach into my teaching practice by continually
aiming to use a reward system for students that are misbehaving. Instead of punishing the
bad behaviour, I would reinforce the positive that will follow if the student complies with
my rules during class.

(Week 8) Social Emotional Learning in Schools. Cohen, J. (2006) & Zins, et al


(2007).
Social and Emotional Learning brings your attention to focus efforts on promoting students’
social and emotional competencies. Many leaders in the field underscore the importance of
skills-based teaching and learning to properly address this important facet of teaching the
whole child.
8.1 After reading Cohen and Zin and reflecting on the lecture content what would you add
about aspects of your classroom management that have not been mentioned so far in
your philosophy? Add these in the box below in rough draft form. You can refine them
later in 10.1.

The Social Emotional Learning Model underpins a number of social and emotional factors
that influence particular behaviour. In the classroom setting, a teacher must consider these
as important contributors for student learning.

In particular, supporting emotion regulation for a student that is misbehaving in class is


critical to this approach. Using behavioural feedback to support anger control for example
can be achieved in practice by using the praise strategy. This can then lead into encouraging
internalisation for that student- i.e.: saying to the student that they should feel good that
they controlled their anger. Modelling this internalisation is another way the student can
learn to behave appropriately- “I know I would”. Proving the student with clear feedback
also gains the student attention and attributes success to ability.
Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

Cohen (2006) argues that the goals of education need to be reframed to prioritize not only
academic, but also social, emotional and ethical l competencies. This implies the need for
teachers to understand that the social- emotional skills knowledge and dispositions provide
the foundation for participant in school and an improved quality of life.

This concurs with my teaching philosophy of shaping students into life-long learners
Promoting a student’s socio-emotional and ethical skills, is laying the foundation for a
positive well-being and happiness. In practice, this can be carried out by; coordinating
pedagogic efforts designed to promote students social- emotional competencies and in turn
an effective learning climate. Within the classroom this is achievable by teaching students to
recognise the importance of valuing human differences and to learn to solve problems in
nonviolent ways.
This approach in practice can be recognised not only in the academic domains specific to
academic achievement/learning but also the social, emotional and ethical domains of
learning. This could involve creating a climate for learning and designing interventions that
foster safe, caring, participatory and responsive schools, homes and communities, creating
long term school- home partnerships, implementing pedagogy by teaching students to
become more socially and emotionally competent and teaching students to become good
evaluators.
Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

(Week 9) Chapter 9: Your theory into practice


Early in the chapter you are asked to write up a statement of your theoretical approach to
classroom management. You should read the rest of the chapter, as it takes you through the
steps of constructing a philosophy of teaching. You already started this process in activities
relating to chapters 1 and 2, but now you have a chance to refine it by altering your
responses in 1.3 and 2.2. This may require changes to sentences or even some considerable
rewriting, but as the authors say, if a job is worth doing, it is worth doing it well.

9.1 Now that you have reviewed your overarching philosophy and settled, more or less, on
your approach to teaching and classroom management, it is time to combine the bits
that you have been working on into your first (draft) teaching philosophy. It is simple
now. All the hard work has been done. Simply cut and paste your responses in the order
suggested below, into the box.

Cut and paste in the following order leaving a line space between each section:
1.3 > 2.2 > 3.2 > 3.3 > 5.1 > 5.2 > 4.1 > 4.2 > 4.3 > 7.1 > 7.3 > 7.4 >8.1> 6.1 > 6.2

My personal reflection/teaching philosophy (Draft 1)

I believe good teaching is about understanding your students and knowing how they learn
best. Quality teaching is about knowing your students well; their individual interests,
backgrounds, motivations and learning styles. A good teacher should engage students in the
content being taught by creating a learning environment that is comfortable and safe. Good
teachers put effort into preparing lessons, marking work and giving extra time to children
who need it. Quality teachers encourage students to accept responsibility for their own
learning and instil in them an appreciation for education, by making them lifelong learners.
I believe classrooms should be places where students feel they belong, can interact with
their peers and are able to voice their opinions, whilst respecting others. I believe
classrooms should provide the tools for student learning- walls that teach & explicit
differentiation of content, as well as fostering a learning space that sets clear rules and
expectations for the students to follow. A classroom should be a positive environment,
whereby students are engaged, accepted and supported by their teacher.

I believe that good communication between a teacher and student is vital to a positive
classroom climate because it allows the student (s) the opportunity to self-reflect and
evaluate their behaviours. Ultimately this constructs the foundation from which the
student/ teacher relationship is built, as communication is a two-way process that involves
multi-channelled messages and feedback. The element involved in effective communication
requires an in depth understanding of practical strategies that will aim to enhance the
communication process between teacher and students. This understanding ensures the best
classroom management. Teachers should be aware that the impact of the communication
processes- sending messages for example via: verbal, gestures, non-verbal ques, needs to be
modified accordingly depending on the student and their behaviour in the classroom. This
approach to the communication process will foster cultural sensitivity in the classroom and
allow for different ways of acting and communicating.
Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

Therefore, in my teaching practice I will implement the ‘Review cycle’ of the Lyford Model of
classroom management. This component of the model focuses on the need to implement
communication strategies that teach the content effectively whilst considering the socio-
cultural and psychological needs of each individual student. In practice this would be
achieved via active listening. Active listening is a strategy that embodies the skills of
reflection, active empathy and responsive listening. By underpinning this strategy in
practice, students can see that the teacher is listening and cares. This provides a strong
relationship- building potential between the teacher and student.

The values I uphold in my classroom stem from the idea of Respectful relationships . I
believe that the teacher (I) should respect each student and their needs. I believe that If I
show respect, then in return I should be shown respect by the students. This means that I
expect my students to: respect each other, the teacher and the learning space.

Establishment of this classroom culture in collaborative manner students aware of learning


space expectations in a fair way. I do not believe that students should be made to feel that
the teacher controls the classroom, but rather that they learn to control their own learning
by following these rules. The teacher is there to monitor and guide and facilitate students
engagement in respectful relationships which have been established jointly and the
consequences known and negotiated prior to the commencement of the school year
Reciprocated respect will shape the foundation of a positive student/ teacher relationship
and accordingly, should, make for an orderly and productive classroom.

In terms of behaviour management strategies that can be implemented in the classroom to


further assist in this process, I feel that classroom organisation is crucial. This can be
achieved by using a seating plan that reinforces to the students the standards at which they
have to behave. This creates a level of respect- if the student respects what the teacher is
asking of them (i.e.: to sit in the appropriate seat), then the teacher in turn will show
respect to the student. When clear-cut boundaries are set, there is no room for confusion
about behavioural expectations, therefore it is more likely that students will behave in
accordance with the expected standards.

For each rule, I believe there should be a consequence. However, the rules that are instilled
in the classroom environment should be: purposeful, logical and achievable. For example: as
a teacher I would ask that students show respect to me, by not speaking whilst I am
speaking. If and when they choose to speak, they should raise their hand, rather than yelling
across the room whilst I am talking. If a student or the class was not able to follow this rule, I
would give out a warning. I would not warn the class or an individual student more than 3
times. After the third warning, the consequence would be that the student/ class would find
themselves on detention during their spare time.

I think that the classroom space should be an environment that reflects the students and
the teacher. In my classroom I will have student work (displays) and examples of class work
pinned on the walls.
Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

This is a good way to show visitors the work the students have been doing throughout the
year and also visually reinforces to students the achievements they have made. I feel that
the classroom should be the ‘student’s space’, thus is should be vibrant, colourful and the
walls should be something in which the students can learn from. Vocabulary signs, posters
and pictures are good examples of things a visitor would find in my classroom.

The furniture in a classroom should be set up in a way that the students feel comfortable,
but also in a way that the teacher, if standing at the front, middle or back of the room has
complete access and vision of each and every student throughout the lesson. This will
support behaviour management. Seating arrangements could be flexible dependant on the
activity and the engagement of students in on task work.

Planning is crucial for effective teaching and learning. When planning lessons and programs,
I will endeavour to implement PIR by considering the following: Purpose and relevance of
the lesson I am teaching and establishing an expectation of success. I will aim to motivate
students through engagement and support the learning process by providing emotional and
intellectual support. I will ensure that the opportunity to succeed is made readily available
to each student, regardless of their academic ability, culture and socio-economic status.
When programming, I will pace the content being taught, whilst still making it fun and
enjoyable. The learning activities I use will be both student and teacher directed, with clear
instructions given to students, so that students can be shown through scaffolding, explicitly
what is being asked of them. Students will then feel encouraged to explore their learning
options and use these scaffolds to connect with a range of learning opportunities to create
work and reach optimum growth both alone and in group scenarios.

The activities I use in my classroom, will involve peer collaboration and individual based
activities. When planning a program, I will use a range of strategies that will cater to all
students in my class. The resources I use will reflect the learning capabilities of the student
cohort; as such I will make these resources available to all students and integrate the use of
computer assisted programs.

Assessment is an important part of the learning cycle. It allows teachers to construct lessons
and programs that are appropriate to the needs of each student. Assessment tracks where
the learner is at and what areas of the course work a student may or may not be
understanding. For teachers assessment is a tool that guides instructions and differentiation
of content being taught. Assessment informs teachers of what is already known, levels of
knowledge and the strength and weakness of each student.

In my teaching practice I wish to develop assessments that are challenging, but achievable. I
believe that assessment should test the students’ knowledge and what they have learnt in
class, but also allow a student the opportunity to successfully master a skill/ outcomes.

I believe that formative assessment is a great way to carry out this approach as it can be
achieved in class, without making the students feel pressured or anxious. This also benefits
the teacher in terms of tracking student progress and collecting student data which allows
the teacher to reflect on the lesson being carried out. The primary aim of formative
assessment is to assess if the student is making reasonable progress towards the learning
Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

outcomes. Formative assessment is a great tool to use in practice, as it removes the feelings
of stress from the students. In my experience as a prac teacher, I believe that the majority of
students become anxious and stress levels are heightened during the lead up to an exam or
class quiz. In order to remove that added stress, formative assessment can be implemented
easily into the lesson plan whilst testing student understanding of course work. Summative
assessment is also a valuable way to provide data about student learning and achievement
but should not ever be used as the only way of assessing student growth and learning
programs to keep students engaged in their learning.

I believe that student’s learn best through highly effective student engagement strategies.
Student engagement and success rely heavily on the types of teaching that is taught. Tasks
should be achievable so that students can experience success. Making activities fun, whilst
content driven allows the student to enjoy their learning. The classroom setting is an
important component of this process. Learning activities that are meaningful, interesting
and significant, are viewed by the student as relevant and worthwhile.

In my teaching practice I will continue to use structured lesson plans that engage students. I
will aim to implement ICT and chalk/ talk activities that will offer each student with an
opportunity to learn- catering to each student’s needs. Additionally I will encourage
students to work in small groups in a collaborative approach to learning. This approach
allows for greater differentiation, leadership in learning and team building and as such is an
important teaching strategy. I will also differentiate my teaching to cater for all students via
content, instruction and product.

During my professional practice experience this year, I was able to construct lesson plans
that were highly engaging. I implemented formative assessment into my lesson plans as a
means of testing the students learnt and prior knowledge. I also implemented post testing
to measure growth around the learning outcomes for the unit. The pre testing allowed me
to assess each student’s ability and understanding of key concepts in the unit and informed
my teaching practice. I used ‘post-it-notes’ and asked students to write down 2 key points
they had learnt during my lesson. I also asked students to demonstrate their learning by
using their Ipad device. These small tasks were only 5 minute tasks that tested the students
learning, listening and literacy skills, but moreover allowed for me to understand the
students and how they learn best. It provided me with feedback on how I could best deliver
my next lesson and where I needed to differentiate the content I was teaching.
I believe that a pedagogical approach that caters to all student needs is critical for teaching
the curriculum. Pedagogy can develop a deeper understanding of what is informing our
practice and why we work in particular ways. This helps us to make our practice more visible
both to others and ourselves.

I believe that people behave differently in different environments and that each
environment contains its own set of antecedents and consequences. The development of a
new behaviour by successive reinforcement (positive) can increase the rate, duration or
intensity of specified target behaviour. I also feel that it is the misconception of many
people to think that certain behaviour deserves punishment in order to fix the problematic
behaviour. I believe that successful behavioural management in the classroom requires that
the teacher Informs the misbehaving student of their behaviour by using non-threatening
Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

gestures, this means letting the student know they have your attention. By providing
positive attention to positive behaviours- this could be achieved in practice by using a
personal cue in the classroom that reminds you to give attention to behaviours the student
will feel that like they are achieving success in the classroom.

To add to this idea, by involving students that are misbehaving with their own personal
behavioural contract, will further allow the teacher to positively reinforce appropriate
behaviour. This can be specifically mentioned in an agreement crafted by the teacher and
student, which should also clearly outline the associated consequences for failure to
comply, e.g.: classroom expectations.

Zirpoli (2012) suggests that positive behaviour support (PBS) refers to the use of positive
reinforcement as the principal method of changing behaviour. Implementation of simple
positive reinforcement strategies employed at the classroom level by the teacher can have a
significant influence on the social climate of the classroom environment. By providing
challenging students with social praise for following appropriate behaviour. The
implementation of an effective positive reinforcer such as praise increases the student’s
appropriate behaviour in the future and decreases the frequency of disruptive classroom
behaviour. Zirpoli (2012) also suggests that positive notes home or programs that engage
the student in positive reinforcing behaviours (extra curricula activities), may be necessary
to maintain acceptable behavioural performance of that student.

To extend on this notion, Killu (2008) discusses behavioural intervention plan, which aim at
implementing strategies into the classroom to limit behaviour problems that impede on
classroom performance. Classroom behaviour management strategies outlined by Killu
(2008) include: establishing classroom rules and redirection of specifically targeted
behaviours. This can be carried out via functional behaviour assessment, whereby the
teacher can assess the challenging behaviour, which will then lead to the strategies and
individuated intervention plans for the student.

Applying an intervention plan means using rewards, contingent upon the occurrence of
desired behaviour. As a teacher this can best be applied by the principle of positive
reinforcement, where a response is followed by the presentation of a stimulus- i.e.: the
reward, thereby increasing the future probability of tat response not occurring. As an
aspiring teacher, I would include this approach into my teaching practice by continually
aiming to use a reward system for students that are misbehaving. Instead of punishing the
bad behaviour, I would reinforce the positive that will follow if the student complies with
my rules during class.

If intervention for behaviour management is needed, I believe that the best approach to
take in order to tackle a difficult situation is to firstly, assess the situation and ask the
question: “why?” why is this student behaving in this way. Secondly, implement strategies
that are applicable for that student after knowing the reasons for their misbehaviour. In my
opinion, a goal centered approach is a great way to apply these strategies. For example: the
frequent and consistent use of encouragement will allow students the opportunity to
choose appropriate behaviour if they believe it will enable them to satisfy their need to
belong. Teachers should plan to encourage each student particularly those that are
Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

misbehaving, in every situation.

In line with this thinking, I will put this into practice by; creating and fostering mutual
respect and value for each student, identifying and responding to students strengths and
abilities, using substantial encouragement t minimize disencourgament and meet the
students primary social need to belong and be valued by facilitating regular whole class
conversation about rules, challenges and achievement (Lyons, ford The Social Emotional
Learning Model underpins a number of social and emotional factors that influence particular
behaviour. In the classroom setting, a teacher must consider these as important
contributors for student learning.

In particular, supporting emotion regulation for a student that is misbehaving in class is


critical to this approach. Using behavioural feedback to support anger control for example
can be achieved in practice by using the praise strategy. This can then lead into encouraging
internalisation for that student- i.e.: saying to the student that they should feel good that
they controlled their anger. Modelling this internalisation is another way the student can
learn to behave appropriately- “I know I would”. Proving the student with clear feedback
also gains the student attention and attributes success to ability.

Cohen (2006) argues that the goals of education need to be reframed to prioritize not only
academic, but also social, emotional and ethical l competencies. This implies the need for
teachers to understand that the social- emotional skills knowledge and dispositions provide
the foundation for participant in school and an improved quality of life.

This concurs with my teaching philosophy of shaping students into life-long learners
Promoting a student’s socio-emotional and ethical skills, is laying the foundation for a
positive well-being and happiness. In practice, this can be carried out by; coordinating
pedagogic efforts designed to promote students social- emotional competencies and in turn
an effective learning climate. Within the classroom this is achievable by teaching students to
recognise the importance of valuing human differences and to learn to solve problems in
nonviolent ways.

This approach in practice can be recognised not only in the academic domains specific to
academic achievement/learning but also the social, emotional and ethical domains of
learning. This could involve creating a climate for learning and designing interventions that
foster safe, caring, participatory and responsive schools, homes and communities, creating
long term school- home partnerships, implementing pedagogy by teaching students to
become more socially and emotionally competent and teaching students to become good
evaluators (Lyod & Arthur-Kelly, 2006).

I believe professional reflexivity is important to teaching because it provides teachers with


an opportunity to reflect and assess one’s own teaching practices, via mentoring and
collegial support. This nurtures professional development of the teacher. The purposes of
reflective practice and peer-to-peer exchange is an essential characteristic of professional
dialogue and can enhance the quality of reflective practice.
Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

An important component of this process is evaluation of teaching programs. Formative


evaluations, which are carried out as a program, help determine what works best; includes
needs assessments; evaluability assessment; structured conceptualisation; and
implementation/fidelity evaluations. This significantly assists in professional reflexivity as it
can be used a tool that drives the action plan. Being a reflective practitioner at any stage of
teacher development involves a constant, critical look at teaching and learning and at the
work of you, the teacher.

I will endeavour to implement a reflective approach in my professional development as a


teacher. Reflective activities such as: discussion with colleagues about professional
development and teaching will support a more open consideration of a range of
interpretations that can then be put into my teaching practices. Developing professional
knowledge and building on collegial relationships, will enable me to develop reflexivity in
future teaching contexts. Feedback is critical throughout this process and mentoring in my
opinion is highly influential.
Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

(Week 9) Chapter 10: Contemporary issues (Personal Reading)


This chapter describes some of the current issues and trends that schools and wider school
systems are dealing with. After reading the chapter, you should consider if any of these
movements require ‘presence’ in your teaching philosophy. For example, once you have
visited the AITSL website and examined the national teaching standards, do you feel the
need to address any of these standards in your teaching philosophy? After reading about
time outs, exclusion and expulsion, do you feel your classroom management intervention
approach needs to change or is it OK as it is? These are just two example of areas where
wider issues that teachers might want to address in their philosophy.

Ask yourself these questions after reading your draft philosophy from 9.1:
1 Have I covered everything I want to cover in my philosophy and if not, what do I need to
add? This might be from chapter 10, but don’t forget about things you might have
written in 8.1. Now is the time to consider how they will fit into your draft.
2 Does the philosophy read right to me? If not, then make your changes. Move sections
around if you feel they sit better.
3 Do I need an opening quote/sentence and do I need a conclusion to round things off? If
so, jot down some rough notes.

10.1 After considering questions 1, 2 and 3 above, edit your teaching philosophy. It would
be a good idea to leave the draft you had in 9.1 alone, cut and paste that here and
make the changes here just in case you need to refer back to your original draft.

My personal reflection/teaching philosophy (Draft 2)

I believe good teaching is about understanding your students and knowing how they learn
best. Quality teaching is about knowing your students well; their individual interests,
backgrounds, motivations and learning styles. A good teacher should engage students in the
content being taught by creating a learning environment that is comfortable and safe. Good
teachers put effort into preparing lessons, marking work and giving extra time to children
who need it. Quality teachers encourage students to accept responsibility for their own
learning and instil in them an appreciation for education, by making them lifelong learners.
I believe classrooms should be places where students feel they belong, can interact with
their peers and are able to voice their opinions, whilst respecting others. I believe
classrooms should provide the tools for student learning- walls that teach & explicit
differentiation of content, as well as fostering a learning space that sets clear rules and
expectations for the students to follow. A classroom should be a positive environment,
whereby students are engaged, accepted and supported by their teacher.

I believe that good communication between a teacher and student is vital to a positive
classroom climate because it allows the student (s) the opportunity to self-reflect and
evaluate their behaviours. Ultimately this constructs the foundation from which the
student/ teacher relationship is built, as communication is a two-way process that involves
multi-channelled messages and feedback. The element involved in effective communication
requires an in depth understanding of practical strategies that will aim to enhance the
Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

communication process between teacher and students. This understanding ensures the best
classroom management. Teachers should be aware that the impact of the communication
processes- sending messages for example via: verbal, gestures, non-verbal ques, needs to be
modified accordingly depending on the student and their behaviour in the classroom. This
approach to the communication process will foster cultural sensitivity in the classroom and
allow for different ways of acting and communicating.

Therefore, in my teaching practice I will implement the ‘Review cycle’ of the Lyford Model of
classroom management. This component of the model focuses on the need to implement
communication strategies that teach the content effectively whilst considering the socio-
cultural and psychological needs of each individual student. In practice this would be
achieved via active listening. Active listening is a strategy that embodies the skills of
reflection, active empathy and responsive listening. By underpinning this strategy in
practice, students can see that the teacher is listening and cares. This provides a strong
relationship- building potential between the teacher and student.

The values I uphold in my classroom stem from the idea of Respectful relationships . I
believe that the teacher (I) should respect each student and their needs. I believe that If I
show respect, then in return I should be shown respect by the students. This means that I
expect my students to: respect each other, the teacher and the learning space.

Establishment of this classroom culture in collaborative manner students aware of learning


space expectations in a fair way. I do not believe that students should be made to feel that
the teacher controls the classroom, but rather that they learn to control their own learning
by following these rules. The teacher is there to monitor and guide and facilitate students
engagement in respectful relationships which have been established jointly and the
consequences known and negotiated prior to the commencement of the school year
Reciprocated respect will shape the foundation of a positive student/ teacher relationship
and accordingly, should, make for an orderly and productive classroom.

In terms of behaviour management strategies that can be implemented in the classroom to


further assist in this process, I feel that classroom organisation is crucial. This can be
achieved by using a seating plan that reinforces to the students the standards at which they
have to behave. This creates a level of respect- if the student respects what the teacher is
asking of them (i.e.: to sit in the appropriate seat), then the teacher in turn will show
respect to the student. When clear-cut boundaries are set, there is no room for confusion
about behavioural expectations, therefore it is more likely that students will behave in
accordance with the expected standards.

For each rule, I believe there should be a consequence. However, the rules that are instilled
in the classroom environment should be: purposeful, logical and achievable. For example: as
a teacher I would ask that students show respect to me, by not speaking whilst I am
speaking. If and when they choose to speak, they should raise their hand, rather than yelling
across the room whilst I am talking. If a student or the class was not able to follow this rule, I
would give out a warning. I would not warn the class or an individual student more than 3
times. After the third warning, the consequence would be that the student/ class would find
themselves on detention during their spare time.
Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

I think that the classroom space should be an environment that reflects the students and
the teacher. In my classroom I will have student work (displays) and examples of class work
pinned on the walls.

This is a good way to show visitors the work the students have been doing throughout the
year and also visually reinforces to students the achievements they have made. I feel that
the classroom should be the ‘student’s space’, thus is should be vibrant, colourful and the
walls should be something in which the students can learn from. Vocabulary signs, posters
and pictures are good examples of things a visitor would find in my classroom.

The furniture in a classroom should be set up in a way that the students feel comfortable,
but also in a way that the teacher, if standing at the front, middle or back of the room has
complete access and vision of each and every student throughout the lesson. This will
support behaviour management. Seating arrangements could be flexible dependant on the
activity and the engagement of students in on task work.
Planning is crucial for effective teaching and learning. When planning lessons and programs,
I will endeavour to implement PIR by considering the following: Purpose and relevance of
the lesson I am teaching and establishing an expectation of success. I will aim to motivate
students through engagement and support the learning process by providing emotional and
intellectual support. I will ensure that the opportunity to succeed is made readily available
to each student, regardless of their academic ability, culture and socio-economic status.
When programming, I will pace the content being taught, whilst still making it fun and
enjoyable. The learning activities I use will be both student and teacher directed, with clear
instructions given to students, so that students can be shown through scaffolding, explicitly
what is being asked of them. Students will then feel encouraged to explore their learning
options and use these scaffolds to connect with a range of learning opportunities to create
work and reach optimum growth both alone and in group scenarios.

The activities I use in my classroom, will involve peer collaboration and individual based
activities. When planning a program, I will use a range of strategies that will cater to all
students in my class. The resources I use will reflect the learning capabilities of the student
cohort; as such I will make these resources available to all students and integrate the use of
computer assisted programs.

Assessment is an important part of the learning cycle. It allows teachers to construct lessons
and programs that are appropriate to the needs of each student. Assessment tracks where
the learner is at and what areas of the course work a student may or may not be
understanding. For teachers assessment is a tool that guides instructions and differentiation
of content being taught. Assessment informs teachers of what is already known, levels of
knowledge and the strength and weakness of each student.

In my teaching practice I wish to develop assessments that are challenging, but achievable. I
believe that assessment should test the students’ knowledge and what they have learnt in
class, but also allow a student the opportunity to successfully master a skill/ outcomes.
Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

I believe that formative assessment is a great way to carry out this approach as it can be
achieved in class, without making the students feel pressured or anxious. This also benefits
the teacher in terms of tracking student progress and collecting student data which allows
the teacher to reflect on the lesson being carried out. The primary aim of formative
assessment is to assess if the student is making reasonable progress towards the learning
outcomes. Formative assessment is a great tool to use in practice, as it removes the feelings
of stress from the students. In my experience as a prac teacher, I believe that the majority of
students become anxious and stress levels are heightened during the lead up to an exam or
class quiz. In order to remove that added stress, formative assessment can be implemented
easily into the lesson plan whilst testing student understanding of course work. Summative
assessment is also a valuable way to provide data about student learning and achievement
but should not ever be used as the only way of assessing student growth and learning
programs to keep students engaged in their learning.

I believe that student’s learn best through highly effective student engagement strategies.
Student engagement and success rely heavily on the types of teaching that is taught. Tasks
should be achievable so that students can experience success. Making activities fun, whilst
content driven allows the student to enjoy their learning. The classroom setting is an
important component of this process. Learning activities that are meaningful, interesting
and significant, are viewed by the student as relevant and worthwhile.

In my teaching practice I will continue to use structured lesson plans that engage students. I
will aim to implement ICT and chalk/ talk activities that will offer each student with an
opportunity to learn- catering to each student’s needs. Additionally I will encourage
students to work in small groups in a collaborative approach to learning. This approach
allows for greater differentiation, leadership in learning and team building and as such is an
important teaching strategy. I will also differentiate my teaching to cater for all students via
content, instruction and product.

During my professional practice experience this year, I was able to construct lesson plans
that were highly engaging. I implemented formative assessment into my lesson plans as a
means of testing the students learnt and prior knowledge. I also implemented post testing
to measure growth around the learning outcomes for the unit. The pre testing allowed me
to assess each student’s ability and understanding of key concepts in the unit and informed
my teaching practice. I used ‘post-it-notes’ and asked students to write down 2 key points
they had learnt during my lesson. I also asked students to demonstrate their learning by
using their Ipad device. These small tasks were only 5 minute tasks that tested the students
learning, listening and literacy skills, but moreover allowed for me to understand the
students and how they learn best. It provided me with feedback on how I could best deliver
my next lesson and where I needed to differentiate the content I was teaching.
I believe that a pedagogical approach that caters to all student needs is critical for teaching
the curriculum. Pedagogy can develop a deeper understanding of what is informing our
practice and why we work in particular ways. This helps us to make our practice more visible
both to others and ourselves.
Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

I believe that people behave differently in different environments and that each
environment contains its own set of antecedents and consequences. The development of a
new behaviour by successive reinforcement (positive) can increase the rate, duration or
intensity of specified target behaviour. I also feel that it is the misconception of many
people to think that certain behaviour deserves punishment in order to fix the problematic
behaviour. I believe that successful behavioural management in the classroom requires that
the teacher Informs the misbehaving student of their behaviour by using non-threatening
gestures, this means letting the student know they have your attention. By providing
positive attention to positive behaviours- this could be achieved in practice by using a
personal cue in the classroom that reminds you to give attention to behaviours the student
will feel that like they are achieving success in the classroom.

To add to this idea, by involving students that are misbehaving with their own personal
behavioural contract, will further allow the teacher to positively reinforce appropriate
behaviour. This can be specifically mentioned in an agreement crafted by the teacher and
student, which should also clearly outline the associated consequences for failure to
comply, e.g.: classroom expectations.

Zirpoli (2012) suggests that positive behaviour support (PBS) refers to the use of positive
reinforcement as the principal method of changing behaviour. Implementation of simple
positive reinforcement strategies employed at the classroom level by the teacher can have a
significant influence on the social climate of the classroom environment. By providing
challenging students with social praise for following appropriate behaviour. The
implementation of an effective positive reinforcer such as praise increases the student’s
appropriate behaviour in the future and decreases the frequency of disruptive classroom
behaviour. Zirpoli (2012) also suggests that positive notes home or programs that engage
the student in positive reinforcing behaviours (extra curricula activities), may be necessary
to maintain acceptable behavioural performance of that student.

To extend on this notion, Killu (2008) discusses behavioural intervention plan, which aim at
implementing strategies into the classroom to limit behaviour problems that impede on
classroom performance. Classroom behaviour management strategies outlined by Killu
(2008) include: establishing classroom rules and redirection of specifically targeted
behaviours. This can be carried out via functional behaviour assessment, whereby the
teacher can assess the challenging behaviour, which will then lead to the strategies and
individuated intervention plans for the student.

Applying an intervention plan means using rewards, contingent upon the occurrence of
desired behaviour. As a teacher this can best be applied by the principle of positive
reinforcement, where a response is followed by the presentation of a stimulus- i.e.: the
reward, thereby increasing the future probability of tat response not occurring. As an
aspiring teacher, I would include this approach into my teaching practice by continually
aiming to use a reward system for students that are misbehaving. Instead of punishing the
bad behaviour, I would reinforce the positive that will follow if the student complies with
my rules during class.
Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

If intervention for behaviour management is needed, I believe that the best approach to
take in order to tackle a difficult situation is to firstly, assess the situation and ask the
question: “why?” why is this student behaving in this way. Secondly, implement strategies
that are applicable for that student after knowing the reasons for their misbehaviour. In my
opinion, a goal centered approach is a great way to apply these strategies. For example: the
frequent and consistent use of encouragement will allow students the opportunity to
choose appropriate behaviour if they believe it will enable them to satisfy their need to
belong. Teachers should plan to encourage each student particularly those that are
misbehaving, in every situation.

In line with this thinking, I will put this into practice by; creating and fostering mutual
respect and value for each student, identifying and responding to students strengths and
abilities, using substantial encouragement t minimize disencourgament and meet the
students primary social need to belong and be valued by facilitating regular whole class
conversation about rules, challenges and achievement (Lyons, ford The Social Emotional
Learning Model underpins a number of social and emotional factors that influence particular
behaviour. In the classroom setting, a teacher must consider these as important
contributors for student learning.

In particular, supporting emotion regulation for a student that is misbehaving in class is


critical to this approach. Using behavioural feedback to support anger control for example
can be achieved in practice by using the praise strategy. This can then lead into encouraging
internalisation for that student- i.e.: saying to the student that they should feel good that
they controlled their anger. Modelling this internalisation is another way the student can
learn to behave appropriately- “I know I would”. Proving the student with clear feedback
also gains the student attention and attributes success to ability.

Cohen (2006) argues that the goals of education need to be reframed to prioritize not only
academic, but also social, emotional and ethical l competencies. This implies the need for
teachers to understand that the social- emotional skills knowledge and dispositions provide
the foundation for participant in school and an improved quality of life.

This concurs with my teaching philosophy of shaping students into life-long learners
Promoting a student’s socio-emotional and ethical skills, is laying the foundation for a
positive well-being and happiness. In practice, this can be carried out by; coordinating
pedagogic efforts designed to promote students social- emotional competencies and in turn
an effective learning climate. Within the classroom this is achievable by teaching students to
recognise the importance of valuing human differences and to learn to solve problems in
nonviolent ways.

This approach in practice can be recognised not only in the academic domains specific to
academic achievement/learning but also the social, emotional and ethical domains of
learning. This could involve creating a climate for learning and designing interventions that
foster safe, caring, participatory and responsive schools, homes and communities, creating
long term school- home partnerships, implementing pedagogy by teaching students to
become more socially and emotionally competent and teaching students to become good
evaluators (Lyod & Arthur-Kelly, 2006).
Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

I believe professional reflexivity is important to teaching because it provides teachers with


an opportunity to reflect and assess one’s own teaching practices, via mentoring and
collegial support. This nurtures professional development of the teacher. The purposes of
reflective practice and peer-to-peer exchange is an essential characteristic of professional
dialogue and can enhance the quality of reflective practice.

An important component of this process is evaluation of teaching programs. Formative


evaluations, which are carried out as a program, help determine what works best; includes
needs assessments; evaluability assessment; structured conceptualisation; and
implementation/fidelity evaluations. This significantly assists in professional reflexivity as it
can be used a tool that drives the action plan. Being a reflective practitioner at any stage of
teacher development involves a constant, critical look at teaching and learning and at the
work of you, the teacher.

I will endeavour to implement a reflective approach in my professional development as a


teacher. Reflective activities such as: discussion with colleagues about professional
development and teaching will support a more open consideration of a range of
interpretations that can then be put into my teaching practices. Developing professional
knowledge and building on collegial relationships, will enable me to develop reflexivity in
future teaching contexts. Feedback is critical throughout this process and mentoring in my
opinion is highly influential.
Nicolette Byron 17235482 Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments

Ready to roll …
Now that you have made the changes, read it to yourself. How does it read now?
If you are happy with the result, you have your first teaching philosophy. Congratulations!
You have done it! Now it’s time to prepare your final submission. Look at the Unit Learning
Guide and now write your own personal reflection and philosophy Ability to clearly and
coherently reflect on specific learnings in this unit and their implications for their personal
philosophy in relation to the management of student’s challenging behaviour, learning and
wellbeing in a positive learning environment.

Into the future!


However, please be aware that your philosophy may well change as you gain experience in
teaching and are exposed to other ideas from your ongoing professional development, your
interactions with peers and other sources of inspiration. It will be an interesting task for you
to go back to this philosophy you have just completed in 10 years’ time and compare it to
the one you have then. Will it have changed much? How have your approaches evolved?
What kind of teacher have you become?