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# SEED Group SET Theory

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SEED Group SET Theory

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SETS

Definition of set

A collection well defined and distinct objects such as number, points, shapes ideas
etc is called a set which is denoted by Capital letters of Alphabets i.e. A, B, C… X,
Y, Z. Its symbol is { }.

Notations of Sets

1. Tabular Method
In this method, we define a set merely by listing its elements in closed within
braces { }.
Example: N = {1, 2, 3…}

## 2. The Descriptive Method

In this method the element of the set are described by stating their common
characteristic which an object must posses in order to be an element of the
set.
Example: Set of Odd Number (O)
A = {x | x is an odd integer}

## 3. Set builder Notation

In this method the elements of the set have to satisfy some condition
i.e. {x | x satisfy some condition}
Example: N = {x | x  N}
If A be the set of rational numbers, then in Set Builder Notation we will write
it as
A = {x | x is a rational number}

4. Venn Diagram
In this method the set is written in figure such as rectangle, square, circle or
any other.
SEED Group SET Theory

## Example: Draw a Venn Diagram to represent.

U = {1, 2, 3, … ,10} and A = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9}

Figure

A U

1 3 5 2 4

7 9 6 8

10

Kinds of Sets
Universal sets (U)
Universal set is the set, which contains all the available elements.

Equal Sets
Equal set have exactly the same number of same elements.
For example set A = {a,b,c,d} and B = {b,c,a,d} are equal since they have the
same elements. We write A = B, if A and B are equal.

Equivalent Sets
Two sets A and B are said to be equivalent, if they have same number of elements,
it is denoted by A  B.
Example: A = {a,b,c} , B = {1,2,3}
Then A  B, because order of A is equal to order of B

Disjoint Sets
If two sets do not have an element in common, they are said to be disjoint as AB
=
SEED Group SET Theory

Finite Sets
A set is finite if it contains a limited number of different elements.
Example: A = {1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {a, b, c, d, e, f} etc.

Infinite Sets
A set which is not finite is called infinite set.
Example: A = {1, 3, 5 …}, B = {1, 2, 3 …}, C = {… -3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3 …}

## Null Or Empty Set

A Null set { } or empty set is the set which contains no element.
Example: A = {x | x > 5 and x < 2} = 

Power sets
The all of possible subset of a set A is called the power set of A and it is denoted by
the symbol P(A).
Example: If A = {1,2,3} then,
P(A) = { {1},{2},{3},{1,2},{1,3},{2,3},{1,2,3}}
Note: The number of subsets of power set can be obtained by using 2m where m is
no. of elements in set A.

Subset
If every element of a set A is also an element of a set B, then A is a subset of B and
we write A  B.
Example: If A = {1,2,3} and B = {1,2,3,4,5} then A  B

Superset
If B is a subset of a set A, then A is called a superset of B, denoted by A  B or B 
A
Example: If A = {1,2,3} and B = {1,2,3,4,5} then B  A

Proper Subset
If A is subset of B and A  B then we write A  B and say that A is Proper subset of
B.
Example: If A = {1,2,3} and B = {1,2,3,4,5} then A  B
SEED Group SET Theory

Improper Subset
If A  B and B  A, then sets A and B are said to be improper subsets of one
another if
A=B
Example: If A = {1,2,3} and B = {1,2,3} then A  B or B  A

Set Operation
Complement
The complement of a set A relative to a universal set U is the set if all elements in U
except those in A denoted by A’ and A’ = U – A.
A’ = {x | x  U and x  A}

Exhaustive Sets
If A and B be subsets of a set U such that, A U B = U

Symmetric Difference
The symmetric difference of sets A and B, denoted by A  B, is the set containing
those elements which are either in A or in B but not in both A and B.
Example: If A = {1,2,3,4,6} and B = {1,3,5,7} then A  B = {2,4,5,6,7}
Note: A  B = A U B – A  B

## Difference of Two Sets

The difference of sets A and B, denoted by A-B or A/B, is the set containing those
elements that are in A but not in B.
A - B = {x | x  A and x  B}

Intersection of Sets
The intersection of two sets A and B Is the set of element which are common to
both A and B it is denoted by A  B.
A  B = {x | x  A and x  B}
SEED Group SET Theory

Union of Sets
The union of two sets A and B is set of elements which are in A or B or both it is
denoted by A  B.
A U B = {x | x  A or x  B}

## Number of Elements n (A)

n (Ф) = 0
n (A U B) = n (A) + n(B) – n(A  B)

## n (A  B) = n (A) + n(B) – n(A U B)

n (A’) = n(U) – n(A)

## The Cartesian product of two Sets

The Cartesian production of any set A with other set B is the set all ordered pairs
(a, b) where a  A and b  B it is denoted by A x B = {(a, b) | a  A, b  B}.

## Some Important Conditions

1. A  B and B  A  A = B
2. if A  B then B  A
3. A = B and B = C  A = C
4. A  B and B  C  A  C
5. if A = { } =  then P(A) = {A}
6. the number of subset of A i.e. n{P(A)} is 2m where m is number of elements
in A i.e. n(A) = m.
SEED Group SET Theory

## Some Important Laws

1. Idempotent Law
AUA=A AA=A
2. Associative Laws
If A, B and C are any three sets then
(A U B) U C = A U (B U C), (A  B)  C = A  (B  C)
3. Distributive Laws
If A, B and C are any three sets then
A  (B U C) = (A  B) U (A  C)
(B U C)  A = (B  A) U (C  A)
A U (B  C) = (A U B)  (A U C)
4. Identity Law
AU=A AU=A
AUU=U A =
5. Complement Law
A U A’ = U A  A’ = 
(A’)’ = A U’ =  , ’ = U
6. Commutative Law
A U B = B U A, AB=BA
7. De-Morgan’s Law
If A, B and C are any three sets then
(A U B)’ = A’  B’ (A  B)’ = A’ U B’

## Notation for Sets of Numbers

N = {1, 2, 3, …}
i.e. the set of all natural numbers.

W = {0, 1, 2, 3…}
i.e., the set of all non-negative integers.
Or set of whole numbers.

## Z = {…., -3 , -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3,…}

i.e., the set of all integers.

P = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11 …}
i.e. the set of all Positive Prime numbers.
SEED Group SET Theory

O = {±1, ±3, ±5 …}
i.e. the set of all Odd numbers.

## E = {0, ±2, ±4, ±6 …}

i.e. the set of all Even numbers.

## Q = {x|x = p/q, p and q  Z, q  0}

i.e., the set of all rational numbers.

## Q’ = I = { x|x  p/q, p and q  Z, q  0}

i.e., the set of all irrational numbers.

## R = { x|x = p/q, x  p/q, p and q  Z, q  0}

i.e., the set of all real numbers.

Or

R = Q U Q’

Rational Number
Rational Number is a number which can be expressed as a terminating decimal
fraction or a recurring decimal fraction.

Irrational Number
Irrational Number is a number which can be expressed only as a non-recurring,
non-terminating decimal fraction.

## Set of Real Numbers

Union of the sets of rational numbers (Q) and irrational numbers (Q’) is called the
set of real numbers, denoted by R.
i.e. R = Q U Q’
or R = {x | x  Q or x  Q’}
The sets Q and Q’ are disjoint sets.

## Properties of Real Numbers

SEED Group SET Theory

1. Closer property
Sum of any two real numbers is also a real number.
i.e. x, y  R  x+yR

2. Commutative Property
x + y = y + x ,  x, y  R ( is read as “for all”)

3. Associative property
x + (y + z) = (x + y) + z ,  x, y, z  R

There exists a number 0  R such that
x + 0 = 0 + x = x, xR
The element 0 is called the additive identity.

For every x  R, there exists an element x’  R such that
x + x’ = 0 = x’ + x
x’ is called Additive Inverse of x and is denoted by “-x”

## Property w.r.t. Multiplication

1. Closer property
Products of any two real numbers is also a real number.
i.e. x, y  R  x.y  R

2. Commutative Property
x.y = y.x ,  x, y  R

3. Associative property
x (y.z) = (x.y) z , xyR

4. Multiplicative Identity
There exists a number 1  R such that
x . 1 = 1 . x = x,
The number 1 is called the Multiplicative identity.

5. Multiplicative Inverse
For each x  R, x  0, there exists an element x*  R such that
x . x* = x* . x = 1
x* is called Multiplicative Inverse of x. It is also written as 1/x or x-1 Thus,
x. 1/x = x/x = 1/x .x = 1 or x . x-1 = x-1.x = 1
SEED Group SET Theory

## Distributive property of Multiplication w.r.t. Addition

x (y + z) = xy + xz and (y + z) x = yx +zx  x, y, z  R

Trichotomy Property
For any two real numbers x and y, either x < y or x = y or x > y.

## Property of Equality of real Numbers

In the set R of real numbers, a relation of equality to be denoted by “=” is
defined. This relation satisfies the following properties:

1. Reflexive Property
x = x, for all x  R
2. Symmetric property
x = y  y = x, for all x, y  R
3. Transitive property
x = y and y = z  x = z for all x, y, z  R
x = y  x + z = y + z and z + x = z + y, for all x, y, z  R
i.e. addition of same no. to each side of an equality does not change the relation.

5. Multiplicative Property
 x, y, z  R
x = y  xz = yz (Right Multiplication)
and zx = zy (Left Multiplication)
i.e. Multiplication by the same no. to each side of an equality does not change the
relation.

## 6. Cancellation Property w.r.t. Addition

 x, y, z  R
(a) x + z = y +z  x = y (Right Cancellation )
(b) z + x = z + y  x = y (Left Cancellation)

## 7. Cancellation Property w.r.t. Multiplication

 x, y, z  R, z  0
(a) xz = yz  x = y (Right Cancellation )
(b) zx = zy  x = y (Left Cancellation)