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Center of Excellence

SEED Group SET Theory

SETS

Definition of set

A collection well defined and distinct objects such as number, points, shapes ideas

etc is called a set which is denoted by Capital letters of Alphabets i.e. A, B, C… X,

Y, Z. Its symbol is { }.

Notations of Sets

1. Tabular Method

In this method, we define a set merely by listing its elements in closed within

braces { }.

Example: N = {1, 2, 3…}

In this method the element of the set are described by stating their common

characteristic which an object must posses in order to be an element of the

set.

Example: Set of Odd Number (O)

A = {x | x is an odd integer}

In this method the elements of the set have to satisfy some condition

i.e. {x | x satisfy some condition}

Example: N = {x | x N}

If A be the set of rational numbers, then in Set Builder Notation we will write

it as

A = {x | x is a rational number}

4. Venn Diagram

In this method the set is written in figure such as rectangle, square, circle or

any other.

SEED Group SET Theory

U = {1, 2, 3, … ,10} and A = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9}

Figure

A U

1 3 5 2 4

7 9 6 8

10

Kinds of Sets

Universal sets (U)

Universal set is the set, which contains all the available elements.

Equal Sets

Equal set have exactly the same number of same elements.

For example set A = {a,b,c,d} and B = {b,c,a,d} are equal since they have the

same elements. We write A = B, if A and B are equal.

Equivalent Sets

Two sets A and B are said to be equivalent, if they have same number of elements,

it is denoted by A B.

Example: A = {a,b,c} , B = {1,2,3}

Then A B, because order of A is equal to order of B

Disjoint Sets

If two sets do not have an element in common, they are said to be disjoint as AB

=

SEED Group SET Theory

Finite Sets

A set is finite if it contains a limited number of different elements.

Example: A = {1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {a, b, c, d, e, f} etc.

Infinite Sets

A set which is not finite is called infinite set.

Example: A = {1, 3, 5 …}, B = {1, 2, 3 …}, C = {… -3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3 …}

A Null set { } or empty set is the set which contains no element.

Example: A = {x | x > 5 and x < 2} =

Power sets

The all of possible subset of a set A is called the power set of A and it is denoted by

the symbol P(A).

Example: If A = {1,2,3} then,

P(A) = { {1},{2},{3},{1,2},{1,3},{2,3},{1,2,3}}

Note: The number of subsets of power set can be obtained by using 2m where m is

no. of elements in set A.

Subset

If every element of a set A is also an element of a set B, then A is a subset of B and

we write A B.

Example: If A = {1,2,3} and B = {1,2,3,4,5} then A B

Superset

If B is a subset of a set A, then A is called a superset of B, denoted by A B or B

A

Example: If A = {1,2,3} and B = {1,2,3,4,5} then B A

Proper Subset

If A is subset of B and A B then we write A B and say that A is Proper subset of

B.

Example: If A = {1,2,3} and B = {1,2,3,4,5} then A B

SEED Group SET Theory

Improper Subset

If A B and B A, then sets A and B are said to be improper subsets of one

another if

A=B

Example: If A = {1,2,3} and B = {1,2,3} then A B or B A

Set Operation

Complement

The complement of a set A relative to a universal set U is the set if all elements in U

except those in A denoted by A’ and A’ = U – A.

A’ = {x | x U and x A}

Exhaustive Sets

If A and B be subsets of a set U such that, A U B = U

Symmetric Difference

The symmetric difference of sets A and B, denoted by A B, is the set containing

those elements which are either in A or in B but not in both A and B.

Example: If A = {1,2,3,4,6} and B = {1,3,5,7} then A B = {2,4,5,6,7}

Note: A B = A U B – A B

The difference of sets A and B, denoted by A-B or A/B, is the set containing those

elements that are in A but not in B.

A - B = {x | x A and x B}

Intersection of Sets

The intersection of two sets A and B Is the set of element which are common to

both A and B it is denoted by A B.

A B = {x | x A and x B}

SEED Group SET Theory

Union of Sets

The union of two sets A and B is set of elements which are in A or B or both it is

denoted by A B.

A U B = {x | x A or x B}

n (Ф) = 0

n (A U B) = n (A) + n(B) – n(A B)

n (A’) = n(U) – n(A)

The Cartesian production of any set A with other set B is the set all ordered pairs

(a, b) where a A and b B it is denoted by A x B = {(a, b) | a A, b B}.

1. A B and B A A = B

2. if A B then B A

3. A = B and B = C A = C

4. A B and B C A C

5. if A = { } = then P(A) = {A}

6. the number of subset of A i.e. n{P(A)} is 2m where m is number of elements

in A i.e. n(A) = m.

SEED Group SET Theory

1. Idempotent Law

AUA=A AA=A

2. Associative Laws

If A, B and C are any three sets then

(A U B) U C = A U (B U C), (A B) C = A (B C)

3. Distributive Laws

If A, B and C are any three sets then

A (B U C) = (A B) U (A C)

(B U C) A = (B A) U (C A)

A U (B C) = (A U B) (A U C)

4. Identity Law

AU=A AU=A

AUU=U A =

5. Complement Law

A U A’ = U A A’ =

(A’)’ = A U’ = , ’ = U

6. Commutative Law

A U B = B U A, AB=BA

7. De-Morgan’s Law

If A, B and C are any three sets then

(A U B)’ = A’ B’ (A B)’ = A’ U B’

N = {1, 2, 3, …}

i.e. the set of all natural numbers.

W = {0, 1, 2, 3…}

i.e., the set of all non-negative integers.

Or set of whole numbers.

i.e., the set of all integers.

P = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11 …}

i.e. the set of all Positive Prime numbers.

SEED Group SET Theory

O = {±1, ±3, ±5 …}

i.e. the set of all Odd numbers.

i.e. the set of all Even numbers.

i.e., the set of all rational numbers.

i.e., the set of all irrational numbers.

i.e., the set of all real numbers.

Or

R = Q U Q’

Rational Number

Rational Number is a number which can be expressed as a terminating decimal

fraction or a recurring decimal fraction.

Irrational Number

Irrational Number is a number which can be expressed only as a non-recurring,

non-terminating decimal fraction.

Union of the sets of rational numbers (Q) and irrational numbers (Q’) is called the

set of real numbers, denoted by R.

i.e. R = Q U Q’

or R = {x | x Q or x Q’}

The sets Q and Q’ are disjoint sets.

SEED Group SET Theory

1. Closer property

Sum of any two real numbers is also a real number.

i.e. x, y R x+yR

2. Commutative Property

x + y = y + x , x, y R ( is read as “for all”)

3. Associative property

x + (y + z) = (x + y) + z , x, y, z R

4. Additive Identity

There exists a number 0 R such that

x + 0 = 0 + x = x, xR

The element 0 is called the additive identity.

5. Additive Inverse

For every x R, there exists an element x’ R such that

x + x’ = 0 = x’ + x

x’ is called Additive Inverse of x and is denoted by “-x”

1. Closer property

Products of any two real numbers is also a real number.

i.e. x, y R x.y R

2. Commutative Property

x.y = y.x , x, y R

3. Associative property

x (y.z) = (x.y) z , xyR

4. Multiplicative Identity

There exists a number 1 R such that

x . 1 = 1 . x = x,

The number 1 is called the Multiplicative identity.

5. Multiplicative Inverse

For each x R, x 0, there exists an element x* R such that

x . x* = x* . x = 1

x* is called Multiplicative Inverse of x. It is also written as 1/x or x-1 Thus,

x. 1/x = x/x = 1/x .x = 1 or x . x-1 = x-1.x = 1

SEED Group SET Theory

x (y + z) = xy + xz and (y + z) x = yx +zx x, y, z R

Trichotomy Property

For any two real numbers x and y, either x < y or x = y or x > y.

In the set R of real numbers, a relation of equality to be denoted by “=” is

defined. This relation satisfies the following properties:

1. Reflexive Property

x = x, for all x R

2. Symmetric property

x = y y = x, for all x, y R

3. Transitive property

x = y and y = z x = z for all x, y, z R

4. Additive property

x = y x + z = y + z and z + x = z + y, for all x, y, z R

i.e. addition of same no. to each side of an equality does not change the relation.

5. Multiplicative Property

x, y, z R

x = y xz = yz (Right Multiplication)

and zx = zy (Left Multiplication)

i.e. Multiplication by the same no. to each side of an equality does not change the

relation.

x, y, z R

(a) x + z = y +z x = y (Right Cancellation )

(b) z + x = z + y x = y (Left Cancellation)

x, y, z R, z 0

(a) xz = yz x = y (Right Cancellation )

(b) zx = zy x = y (Left Cancellation)

Note: Additive property and Cancellation property w.r.t. Addition are converse of

each other. Similarly, Multiplicative property and Cancellation property w.r.t.

Multiplication are converse of each other.

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